Cell Membrane Layer 3: Internal - Average protein nature - nature lipid Foreign - chemical nat ure Cell wall

Surrounds the cell, giving: Shape Protection Support to the cell regulates the p assage of nutrients chemical components: peptidoglycan Cytoplasm Lysosomes Mitochondria During cell division: centrosome or centrioles ribosomes Genetic Material Bacterial DNA is a single circular molecule with core individualized beings Prok aryote Locomotion Flagellum - filaments more / less extensive and thickened end, leaving the cell, and largely consists of a protein - Flagellin Allow group them: Monótricas - have a single flagellum hosts - have a flagellum at each pole of th e cell Lofotr Viking Museum - with a group of flagella Perítricas - have flagell a distributed throughout the periphery Grouped into three basic types: Rounded - COCOS chain - streptococci grape bunches - staph Forms rods - BACILLI grouped butt - streptobacillus curved shapes - spirillum Can be classified: Gram-positive Gram-negative acid-resistant Gram-positive Retains the dye lowest percentage of alcohol present in lipids M.celular - low p ermeability are more susceptible to penicillin contains fewer amino acids Gram-negative Yield the greatest percentage of alcohol stain lipids in M.celular-permeable are more susceptible to streptomycin They have filamentous appendages - the pili or fimbriae (ederencia function are independent of the presence or absence of flag ella). Acid-resisting Fusina retain the dye even in the presence of solutes of strong mineral acids, b ut only when the dye is heated until the vapors. ADAPTABILITY The bacteria multiply rapidly. As an example, Escherichia coli, which grows in f eces and urine infections are common in women. This multiplies every 20 minutes. ROLE OF BACTERIAL FLORA BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE NORMAL BODY Set of bacteria that are usual and constant in different organs and tissues is n ot detrimental - It is beneficial BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE NORMAL BODY There are species with presence:-standing-purely accidental Results from contact with the outside

BACTERIAL FLORA passengers will simply be removed:-lysozyme (eyes, mouth, pharynx), gastric juic e (acidity), sweat and sebaceous secretions - natural physical agents (heat, sun light, oxygen from the atmosphere) Completes the elimination of these bacteria BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE NORMAL BODY Varies with: - Age - climate - food Locations abound: - Rectum - blind - colon - jejunum BACTERIAL FLORA Man carries the large intestine more bacterial cells (about 10 trillion) than al l eukaryotic cells of our body combined (only 10% of value) BACTERIAL FLORA Helps man to create an immune system able to fend off infections Develops defenses by stimulating production of antibodies and T lymphocytes Intestinal mucosa - Physiological Functions - Constitution BACTERIAL FLORA The colonization of the human being comes right at the time of delivery At two years the flora is established Monitor until the end of life MEDIA CULTURE Some are expensive and sophisticated are many and varied ain an extensive ratio of amino acids and micro mineral elements e broth, or simple addition of agar or gelatin) After being seeded: Temperature Most pathogenic species: 37 º C Mesophilic For low temperatures around 40 ° C Psichrophilic thermophilic The ATMOSPHERE THAT IS EXPOSED Presence of atmospheric air: Do not support the oxygen of the air: Aerobic Anaerobic Require a certain percentage of carbon dioxide Microarerófilas STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Latent Phase Phase Phase logarithmic Stationary Phase Decline Many of them cont

liquids or solids (based on th

LATENT PHASE Period of "waiting" characteristic of each species. What is its significance? Tr ansformation of the nutrients Usufruct gases in the environment cellular r ejuvenation, a preparation for reproduction. Logarithmic phase The number of cells grows in a geometric progression, but for discrete periods STATIONARY PHASE Suspension of the development of culture, because the number of dying cells (lys is) is only compensated by those who are born. At this stage certain cells in cu lture can be modified either chemically or tinturialmente. STATIONARY PHASE Why? Depletion of the nutrients in the culture medium? consequence of the ac cumulation of principles dissimilation? In fact any living being is difficult to maintain in the midst of their droppings, Removing this same medium, the cells that already exist, a new seed is developed therein deposed following the normal phases. Lack of oxygen (anaerobic loses value) Depletion of certain nutritional principles (experiments with added sug ars are allowed to regenerate old cultures) PHASE declining There are no longer able to regenerate the environment or to reactivate developm ent. Is not due to aging of the culture! (If sown again in the new medium it res tarts) Nowadays these phases are shortened by the process called continuous cult ure, used industrially, where the environment is constantly replenished with nut rients and constantly agitated. REPRODUCTION Generally it is said that this reproduction is made by direct division. In some cases: Issue of gemmules, which, sown in a suitable medium do not reproduce an d are therefore considered abortion issues. are formed in the armpit of the ce ll wall, grow and give rise to a new cell Condensation of nuclear chromatin into small granules or conidia that are subseq uently expelled, creating new cells similar. Production of reproductive spores, each gives rise to a new individual. BACTERIAL DEVELOPMENT SOLID MEDIUM LIQUID MEDIUM

In the towel, that is, with respect to continuity, or in colonies isolated from each other. Circular, radiating, irregular in shape vary in size, surface appear ance (smooth, rough, granular, convex, umbilicated Outline: full, rounded, etc . ..) Consistency: dry, sticky or wet

Light, moderate, or heavy to move in waves when you move the tube slowly, or let loose a deposit with the aspect of fine dust. Looks thin veil on the surface of

the liquid, or a ring on the tube wall that will accompany the liquid level FOSTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Throughout the evolution helped u s develop a highly sophisticated immune system due to the constant contact that we have established since the development of this system is directly conditioned to the stimulus received; FOSTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM The immune system of animals, esp ecially the mucosal immune system, formed at the expense of aid gut flora. Flora : Made by: lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, streptococci. FOSTERING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Animal studies indicate that admi nistration of lactobacilli promotes the development of antibodies and activation of lymphocytes. This beneficial flora, therefore, help form the natural defense system but also acquired. GENETIC MATERIAL Genetics is the study of variability and inheritance characteristic of an organi sm; An important aspect is that of genetic recombination in progeny cells may po ssess different combinations of genes that existed in the mother cells; The chan ges may be related to the genotype or phenotype; All organisms have genes, colle ctively called the genome, any gene can mutate; Genes are on chromosomes, chromosomes of bacteria are haploid, whereas in animal s or plants are diploid; Bacteria have only one chromosome per genome, after rep lication there is only one molecule of DNA in each daughter cell; Mutations are alterations in DNA and may affect the morphological, physiological, and even the antigenic character, ie its pathogenesis may be lost or gained and antibiotic r esistance, which is a form of the bacterium to maintain or strengthen its pathog enesis. Metabolism of bacteria Being with one of the most diverse metabolism • Can live in many different ecological conditions At very high temperatures (60 º C__termofílicas) Or at very low temperatures Metabolic classification (according to energy source) On a larger paragraph Bacteria quimioeterotróficas Saprophytes: get food degrading dead organic matter. They secrete enzymes that r elease on the matter, allowed them to further absorption Symbionts: it is a relationship between bacteria and other organismos.Se there i s only one advantage of seres__comensalismo if there advantage mutuo__mutualismo Parasites: live as guests inside or outside of an organism. These parasites can be mandatory, optional or may become saprophytic. Bacteria, parasites contain: Toxinas__substâncias extremely toxic Types: endotoxins and exotoxins Function: r esponsible for the attacks on organisms that parasitize Bacteria, parasites contain: Toxinas__substâncias extremely toxic Types: endotoxins and exotoxins Function: r

esponsible for the attacks on organisms that parasitize Metabolic classification (from According to oxygen) Aerobic Mandatory: use O2 in cellular respiration and can not live without it. Bacterium diphtheria Optional: use O2 when present, but can perform fermentation without it. Escherichia coli Anaerobic Mandatory: can not use the O2 and die while in his presence. Clostridium In adverse situations: Bacteria get resistant forms spore form • Supports critical conditions of temperature and water • Cells with a little water in the cytoplasm • Virtually no metabolic activity • have surrounded with a thick casing In good situations: Divide very rapidly (20min) Why a small number of bacteria can contaminate seriously and soon our body Bacterial Infection In the treatment of bacterial infections: Therapy: antibiotics appropriate • Block / selectively inhibit certain metabolic pathways of bacteria • Alter som e structures of bacterial cells without affecting our 1. Degree of sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics 2. Depends on the bacterial strain Action of some antibiotics on bacteria Actinomycin-D prevents the formation of mRNA Penicillin - inhibits bacterial wal l synthesis Polymyxins - disrupt the eardrum plasma Chloramphenicol and streptomycin - inhibit protein synthesis in ribosomes Directed by: Carla Carla Gaspar Lopes Catarina Vieira Pedro Ferreira Alves Sara END