Viruses in human history Viruses in human history • Viruses exist on the planet for at least 3.

5 billion years ago. • Viral diseas es in humans are much more recent. • Tables similar to smallpox, were found in E gyptian mummies. • In the recording made by Hippocrates (460-377 BC), or smallpo x, or measles were observed. • Results of mumps and possibly influenza were repo rted on the island of Thasos. Viruses in human history • First reports of smallpox and measles in China in the period 37-653 AD • It is speculated that the dessiminação smallpox and measles have contributed to the d ecline of the Roman Empire. • These viruses have been the main cause of destruct ion of the Aztec and Inca empires in South America Viruses in human history • In China in the eleventh century, to inoculate children with statements of pus tules of smallpox. • Marty Worthy Lady Montague in London in 1721, introduced sm allpox pustules under the nail or the skin (similar to the vaccine used today). • In 1776, George Washington set up an inoculation program for its soldiers. • T he English physician Edward Jenner developed a vaccination procedure. 1798 Jenner's smallpox vaccine (Variola) 1892 Award in the category of virus to the agent of the "tobacco mosai c (TMV) 1898 First animal viruses - foot and mouth disease vaccine in 1901 First human virus - yellow fever virus transmission of polio in 1908 the monkey (Poli omyelitis) 1911 First oncogenic virus - Rous sarcoma virus 1915 Discovery 1937 Discovery of bacteriophages of the chemical composition of the TVM (RNA and protein) 1939 Fi rst observation by electron microscope in 1949 use of cell cultures for growing polio virus in 1952 Experience Hershey and Chase - demonstrates DNA infectivity 1957 Discovery 1962 Discovery of interferon icosahedral structure of many viruse s retrotranscriptase Discovery 1970 Discovery of the first oncogene, src, the Ro us sarcoma virus 1976 Discovery of the cellular src gene homologous 1977 Determination of the first complete sequence of a virus Study of adenovirus leads to the discovery of the sewing process (splicing) 1980 Official Statement (WHO) to eradicate smallpox in 1983 Summary 1991 Identification of HIV in vitro , acellular infectious poliovirus The virions have form, structure and dimensions very different There are two basic types of structure: Helical-may happen that the helical caps id is surrounded by a wrapper that the particles form a spherical end Icosahedron-regular solid with 20 equilateral triangular faces and axes of rotat ional symmetry binários.A theoretical best is its location in triangles inscribe d on each face of the icosahedron A B C The development cycle of the virus takes place at five times • Binding (adsorption) of the virus to a susceptible cell, • Penetration; • Mult iplication of the virus and synthesis of new viral components; • Aggregation and maturation of newly formed virus; • Release of new virus by the cell. Binding and penetration of the virus

Multiplication, aggregation, maturation and release of new viruses Coating and penetration of virus Examples of some viruses affecting AIDS AIDS AIDS AIDS • Etiology - The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has become a serious international publ ic health: The most recent sexually transmitted disease. The first cases emerged in 1979 with the appearance of killing any individual having contracted • Transmission - The virus enters through small cracks or injuries caused by sexual activity. C hildren usually acquire the disease through the placenta from mother. The routes of transmission include sexual still contaminated blood transfusion and the use of contaminated needles by drug addicts. • Diagnosis - HIV infection is diagnosed by testing the antibodies. It follows a period of t ime, usually three months but sometimes over a year between infection and develo pment of an antibody sensitive to normal test Line break between two pages of the journal Treatment Because there is no vaccine and cure for AIDS treatment, this can only be contro lled by reducing the transmission of the virus. To do so, should not have been m ore than one sexual partner, not infected and should be used a condom with a spe rmicide containing monoxinol-9, which kills HIV and sperm. Dengue is transmitted by viruses Flaviviridae. The disease has a high likelihood of cure, but can kill. It is regarded in Brazil, an epidemic. Transmission - Mosquito The origin of Aedes aegypti,€insect that transmits the disease to humans, is Afr ican. Dengue: feigned illness Why not have specific symptoms, the disease can be confused with several others, such as leptospirosis, measles, rubella. A doctor can, for laboratory tests to define the disease and treat it correctly. Once infected, the man takes between 2 and 15 days to feel the symptoms of the d isease. There is a period for which the mosquito bite to infect a man. " It runs from the day before the fever until six days after that. Outside this time, the mosquito bites and is not contaminated. After poking the man, only eight days a fter the Aedes can infect other humans. Symptoms 99% of infected individuals have fever, which lasts about seven days. It can be mild or very high depending on the individual and the strength of the virus viru lence. 25% have red spots all over your body, called rashes. As the virus instal ls itself also close to the vessels, it is common these ignite and become eviden t in the skin. 50% have prostration, malaise. 60% have headaches.

50% have pain behind the eye. Measles Measles is a viral disease, infectious and affects more severely populations of low socioeconomic status. Virus Morbillivirus Transmission Exposed individuals can acquire the infection through droplets spread by coughin g or sneezing, by air, the viral particles may remain for a relatively long time in the environment. The transmission is initiated before the onset of the disea se and lasts until the 4th day after onset of the eruption. symptoms • • • • • • The illness that precedes the disease have lasting 3-5 days and are characterized by: high fever, malaise, coryza, conjunctivitis, cough, lack of ap petite. In this period can be observed on the inner cheeks the white spots (Kopl ik) that are characteristic of the disease. symptoms • maculopapular rash (skin paint) • Presence of lymph nodes in the neck and neck , • diarrhea - common in children with low socioeconomic status. Complications • • • • • • Acute otitis media, bacterial pneumonia, laryngitis and laryngotrach eitis; Neurological symptoms-rare; Heart, myocarditis, pericarditis, subacute sc lerosing panencephalitis: a rare complication that affects the central nervous s ystem after seven years of the disease. Prognosis For well-nourished children is good. In malnourished infants and young prognosis is worse. C'est fini END THE END