Tango Interaction popular / scholarly / Piazzolla / / with history of jazz music black origin.

We talk about the tango as a dance, music and poetry ... * The beginnin g: The tango was born in Argentina from Buenos Aires (the name of Our Lady of Bo n Air, patron saint of sailors of Seville) and Montevideo. The result of interbr eeding between European dance (waltz, polka, mazurka), Latin American (Candombe) , Caribbean (calenda) and African influences. He was born in the immigrant commu nity and specifically in brothels. Then itself alongside the salons, theaters, c afes and nightclubs opening up to wealthier classes. Doubtful origins naturally! Western European mixed African minorities. Note milonga rhythm of Robert Schuma n in 1839! Exiles dream around 1900 in South America. Italians (and melodic musi cal sense developed: cf. Bel canto), Slavic (violins), French (waltz), Spanish ( guitar), German (bandoneon) ... At the end of last century, Argentina was inhabited by 1,600,000 people and had thus great need of people. The government promised to immigrant labor, and even the earth. So many dreams and hope for the thousands of Europeans who attempted the adventure in this new Eldorado. People who came all had the same dream: a pi ece of land of their own. But he had become disillusioned, a hundred families Ar gentine had already shared all the earth. Apart from seasonal work at harvest or handling on the docks of the port of Buenos Aires, they did not find much. Here , in the slums of Buenos Aires, the tango was born. Locations: arrabal (= suburb), shallow, dives, conventillos (large type barracks buildings, a sort of neighborhood where all met the immigrants), brothels, pros tíbulos (brothels), sidewalks and suburbs of Buenos Aires, tango River , portègn e (porteño), the carnival parades (comparsa, lubolear, murga). Population: Brewi ng populations (melting pot): Gauchos (herdsman), guapos or compadre (the naught y practice the cult of the word), payador (Itinerant poet who improvises and is accompanied by his guitar). Tango universal language, a mixture of bodies. Scarcity of women: a woman for se ven men! Training in dance between men and women paid to dance. Abundance of tan go theme of brothels, alcohol, neighborhood thugs. The church condemns. Tango em phasizes the contradiction between beauty and difficulty of life. Tango and free dom. The woman is released from the corset and splits her skirts! Liberating ide as of the woman who influence Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires, capital of tango and p sychoanalysis! * 1900-1915: the Old Guard. In the brothels in the suburbs. Payador (poets who i mprovise lyrics in rhyme). Gregorio Villoldo (1868-1919, payador and guitarist) symbol of a generation. Alfredo Gobbi (1877-1938). Gobbi will universalize the tango 1910: export to Europe (Paris in particular) training most common: "Orquestra tipica criolla = flute, guitar, violin, band oneon. introduction of bandoneon in 1908. Listen: El Choclo Tango Angel Gregorio Villodo. This famous tango was written (words and music) by Villoldo in 1905 that recorded in 1910. Recorded here in 1913 by the Orquestra tipica porteña was directed by Eduardo Arolas (bando) with Eduardo Ponzio (violi n) and Leonardo Thompson (black guitarist who will then bass). The habanera rhyt hm is formed by the bass playing the guitar. The introduction of the bandoneon in 1908, the bandoneon (which had first appear ed in 1898 in a tango orchestra) is required. This event is important because, b y replacing the flute flourishes disappeared, and with her playful and flashy st yle, the tango orchestra found its identity plaintive and sentimental. "The band oneon moans, groans, bellowing, crying, claw, roar, threatens, bites and pray it ignores the laugh and knows not afford a moment of joy. "Technically, Oscar R. Zucchi defines it thus: "The accordion is a portable aerophone with buttons, pow ered by bellows, playing with both hands simultaneously, with two crates and har monics within which vibrates through the action of air pressed, a system of meta

l strips. The chromatic accordion produces the same note at the opening and clos ing the bellows. The diatonic accordion, with greater opportunities, is that ado pted by the professional tango and it varies depending on whether the phrase is played open or closed, producing assonance or dissonance. The bandoneon is an in strument of German origin. It owes its name to Heinrich Band,€born in 1821 in Rh énanieWesphalie (Germany) who will market it, even if he did not invent. His rea l designer is C. Zimmermann, who presented a concertina made Carlsfeld the indus trial exhibition in Paris in 1849. H. Band mod this invention was never patented . Since 1864, Ernst Louis Arnold (1828-1910) who purchased the business of Zimme rmann (d. 1860) who will become the true master of the bandoneon. His family is a veritable dynasty of factors bandoneon. Ernst Hermann (1859-1946), his eldest son, Paul (1866-1952) and Alfred (1878-1933), two other son, will continue the w ork of the father. The two young brothers are developing the AA, said Doble A, w hich prove to be the best bandoneon history. Astor Piazzolla moreover dedicated to his instrument a composition of a Tristezas Doble A. Horst Alfred (1905-1979) , son of Alfred, and Arno (1893-1970), son of Paul, continued the business until the late 1940s. But the company gradually loses its importance and workshops cl osed in 1971. This company has had few competitors in Germany, Argentina and the United States. But today, the number of artisans capable of producing or repair ing bandonions is very rare. II exists in France: Olivier Manory himself bandone onist talent. Pierre Monette notes that "the phrasing of the bandoneon is able t o present a range of modulations as large as that of the human voice." This auth or sees as the saxophone as an instrument with a sound similar registry. The sax ophone plays elsewhere in the jazz orchestra's role in the bandoneon tango orche stra. In 1910, the orchestra is typical of the tango, the musical style is based . Party of the trio, it develops gradually. From 1914, Firpo gave up in his orch estra, violin, flute which balances the sound of piano, bass. In 1917, the sexte t becomes the usual orchestra. In the 1940s, the orchestra will go up to eleven musicians. Listen: The Bicicleta Angel Gregorio Villodo Tango, performed by Villodo (vocals) and Manuel O. Campoa mor (piano). Recorded in 1909: one of the first tango recorded. We note the rapi d pace of habanera and dry and the influence of Spanish zarzuela music by melody and the use of castanets. * 1915-1920: transition. Roberto Firpo (1884-1819, piano). Music more complex. Canaro Francis (1888-1964) systematize the bass (which sets the tempo) born in 1913 in Buenos Aires the "Orquestra tipica" (in the tavern El Armenonville) w hen Firpo incorporates his instrument to tango musicians around 6 ( piano, 2 vio lins, 2 bass and bandoneon). The arrival of the piano in sedentary tango halls. Firpo great conductor has repurchased, Gerardo Hernan Matos Rodriguez, the cop yright of Cumparsita (The small band) for a pittance. Gerardo Hernan Matos Rodri guez, who was a young Uruguayan pianist has composed this famous classic tango t o the age of 19 years ... Listen: The cumparsita Tango by Gerardo Matos Rodriguez. Made famous tango in Montevideo, it was record ed in 1917 by the tipica Orqestra Alonso-Minotto. Composed of three themes, like most of the guardia vieja tangos, its rhythmic structure hesitates between the habanera and a four-stroke marcato. * The 20s: the Guardia Nueva (= New Guard). Julio De Caro (1899-1819, leader of the New Guard). Osvaldo Nicolas Fresedo (1897-1984, invents new effects: staccat o pianissimo). Renovation of tango: removed all references to brothels, quieter pace. In the chic salons. Complexity of polyphony (counterpoint). Music written. De Caro codified the tango, involving the synthesis between past and present: "I wanted the tango belongs to the best musical category, giving it color and in terpretation appropriate to ennoble it, respecting its originality"

De Caro invented a style of interpretation of a new wealth: each instrument ha s a dual role (individual and collective). Tango = succession of solos bandos an d violins, the cb handles the formal basis and piano built bridges and openings. tipica Orchestra expands to about 12 musicians. Listen: The viruta Tango Vicente Greco. Orlando and his band of Baghdad, recorded November 9, 1933. Evidence of a tango very Parisian chic ... There is research point of view of w riting and polyphonic effects. * The 30s: Tango-canción (tango-song =). The tango is singing ("tango rose from the feet to his lips," Discépolo). Carlos Gardel (1890-1935,€recorded 900 discs! ). Sentimentalism. Tube: popularization of music by the disc. In the cafes and c abarets. 1917: first sung tango Mi Noche Triste (My Sad Night): text of Pascal Contursi (1888-1932) and music by Samuel Castriota. 1930: Great Depression (social cri sis) + 1935: death of Gardel total crisis! Musicians Jewish immigrants arriv ed in 1933 brought a culture of "orchestral", less improvised birth arrangers this will prepare the 40s with Troilo ... Listen: Mi Noche Triste Tango S. Castriota and P. Contursi. Performed by Carlos Gardel. Guitars: JM Agui lar, G. D. Barbieri, D. Riverol. Considered the first tango cancion. Sung by Gar del in public in 1917. Recorded in 1930. * The 40s: Turning. Anibal Troilo (1914-1975, back to basics: dance, but does no t reject the song). Music very complex, virtuoso. Themes short. Golden Age of ta ngo. Troilo requires cello and viola. It is nicknamed the "soul of the bandoneon" a nd was the "Gardel musicians. 1946: arrival of Juan Peron (1895-1974) to the p residency: the greatest lyricists (Cátulo Castillo, Homero Manzi, Enrique Santos Discépolo) convert to Peronism. return to music and dance as lyricists are li mited by the censorship (the Argentine military coup in 1943) because the lyrics were deemed "unsuitable" indecent: it bans the slang (lunfardo) and is transfor med the tango lyrics, sometimes it prohibits outright. But the tango was freed o f censorship in 1949 as fully accepted by Peronism (but relapse coincides with t hat of Perón in 1955) ... Listen: The Yumba Osvaldo Pugliese Tango sung here by the orchestra of Armando Pontier and Enrique Francini Elvino Vardaro who was with one of the best violinists in the history of tango. Recorded between 1946 and 1950. Style Yumbes: game mode tango with low marked the first time on cluster + piano on the second time. With the bass in g lissando. The music ends almost on the dominant chord (we only hear a little tonic to the bass in grade pp) ...: a suspension in the movement as in dance (Fi gure corte) Listen: On Anibal Troilo Tango Homero Manzi and composed in 1948. Portrayed by Susana Rinal di accompanied by Juan Carlos Cuacci who also heads the orchestra. * The 50s: the revolution Piazzolla (1921-1994). The tango is the dance off and becomes a genre in itself. tango becomes the "contemporary music of Buenos Aires" It mixes with other c urrents (symphonic, experimental, rock, jazz band ...). Listen: The llamo Silbando Tango Horacio Salgan interpreted in the style canyengue composer and his Orquest

ra tipica. Recorded in 1952. Listen: The Bordona Tango Emilio Balcarce interpreted by the trio Juan Mosalini Gustavo Beytelmann, Patrice Caratini. Recorded in 1982. A very successful modern versions of this st andard revisited by three strong musical personalities. THE TANGO DANCE AN Origins of the Tango, it yd'abord a liturgical dance from Afr ica called Xango black (like Calenda Candomblé, Chicha, the Bamboula or Samba). This dance derives Xango: god of iron and war in Yoruba mythology (people of Wes t Africa today set in the south-western Nigeria, Benin and Togo). Blacks (deport ed en masse in the wake of colonization based on the slave system before being e xterminated in Argentina) imposed in 1870 their musical rhythms for what would a lso become the Tango. In the structure of the Tango, it is also a rhythm on the North African Moors who interpreted a particularly sensual dance. Transported to Spain by the Arab conquerors, this dance was considered obscene and was banned in Catholic states. Tango: Dance of manly strength, sexual desire, but especiall y dance great nostalgia. At the end of the 19th century alone saw the music, the tango has not yet sung text. Obviously, this new dance is totally rejected by p olite society porteña and the bourgeoisie. The dance is characterized by: - a si gnificant harmonization between the dancers - a perpetual improvisation (multipl e figures) - a suspension in the movement (corte: is dancing tango is to suspend the movement of dance in a short time . - important figures: quebrada (involves lowering the body by twisting lateral knee) 3 styles of tangos danced: "tango of the suburb" or canyenge: very "roots", near the origin, while Loved hip movements and provocative.€ "tango elegance and compás" or elegencia: the m ost complex, danced in the salons. "fantasy tango" or Fantasia: has created th e tango show, the stage, the spotlight ... Imagination and complex figures subje ct to the rules of improvisation. Tango demonstration requires great virtuosity of the dancers ... TANGO MUSIC If the tango is a dance first, then it is music. Rhythm is the unify ing disparate elements that make up the tango. From the point of view of rhythm, the tango is linked to the contra Cuba, the Cuban habanera and the tango. The l atter, together with the habanera, has spread across Latin America in the years 1850-1860. In Brazil, as well as in the Rio de la Plata, the name was given to t he Tango Habanera itself during the latter part of the 19th century. The tango b egan as Brasiliero anything other than a local adaptation of the Cuban habanera. Several popular genres, including maxixe, have a common measure to two quarters with the accompanying drawings similar to those of the European polka. The milo nga, two-stroke and syncopated rhythm, also contributed to the structure of a ta ngo. Until 1915, the tango keeps the measure in two (2 / 4), after which the fou r quarters and four eighths become more frequent. After 1955, new rhythmic compl exities grew. - Rhythm of the Habanera - Change the rhythm of habanera - Basic f ormula of choro samba or Brazilian - Formula tresillo called Cuban: 3 3 2 From a structural standpoint, the first tangos include three parts, but after 1915 tan go in two parts predominates. Delfino is considered the first composer to have e stablished the standard form of tango: two equal measures of 14-20, the second p arty in the dominant or relative minor of the tonic. So 'binary structure': A (I ) B (V or relative) The orchestra Before 1900, the first tango orchestras were c omposed of a guitar, a violin and a flute. The harp could aiso be present. These bands were very mobile. They moved easily from one brothel to another. They cou ld thus play all night. By 1900, when the tango began to win acclaim, or rather when prostitution became a business where you invest more, the piano took place in the orchestra. Institutions of fun, then a cabaret volunteered upright or gra nd. This movement is massive, because it enters in Buenos Aires more than 18 000 pianos from 1901 and 1907. Institutions clave services of a pianist. The poores t had a Organito, piano or organ. Again there are parallels with the history of jazz at its beginning: when the banjo was replaced by the piano in the style of New Orleans. The orchestras are established

For many years, some schools of Buenos Aires have specialized in hosting musicia ns that you just listen to without dancing. This is the case of Hansen. Before 1 892, they played milongas, waltzes and polkas, and then we brought the tango. Ju st before 1900, we began writing the scores of tango and edit them. These early scores reach prints 20-30 000. But there were also pirated editions sold three t imes cheaper. We know that the phonograph was invented in 1877, and that it coul d boost the vote in 1888. The development of the tango is therefore linked to th e development of recording technology. There are many recordings of tangos befor e 1907, but quality very bad. In 1907, Villoldo Gobbi and go to Paris to record. The year 1907 was a turning point since it publishes copies of these tangos Ber lin Candem (United States) and Sao Paulo (Brazil) ... Three types With a musical point of view, three types of Tango may be distinguished: the tango, milonga, t ango and tango-romanza cancion. • • • The tango-milonga is strictly instrumental and has a very strong rhythmic character. The classic example is the tango Bued o (1928) by Julio De Caro. The tango-romanza, whether instrumental or vocal, is more lyrical and melodic, and contains a strong romantic text. One of the best k nown is Flora negras (1928) by Francisco De Caro. Tango-cancion, as its name sug gests, is always vocal with instrumental accompaniment. It has a strong sentimen tal character. This type of tango corresponds, in the 1930s, a sociological evol ution, the tango became a popular genre of large city that is no longer simply a ssociated with the slums of the suburbs. The tango lyrics, songs,€however, expre ss the life in terms highly pessimistic, fatalistic and often pathologically dra matic. Few of the various examples of best tango-songs Mi noche triste Catriosta Samuel (1915), Adios Muchachos Julio Cesar Sanders (1928), by Enrique Delfino M ilonguita (1920) and Anibal Troilo On (1948). A music minor waltzes Unlike 19th century were mostly in the major, well argued and a joie de vivre, the tango is part of a shift toward the minor giving it its sad side. We know that the waltz musette, Paris, will feature the same trend. T he role of song Initially, the tango is a music conductor. But soon they sing. T he lyrics are very daring (see CULTURE TANGO). Also, it is men who sing. From Th e Morocha, whose lyrics are decent singers have found their place in the tango, the tango, or rather to find its place in the repertoire of singers. So Lola Can dal, 1907. Pepita Avellaneda (real name: Josefina Calatti) remained the most fam ous singer of the early history of the tango. The photos show one's self of a "c ap in hand, a pleated skirt, white socks and act innocent on another, she is dre ssed as a boy with a scarf around his neck, a cigarette in his mouth and a guita r on his knees. " There was also Flora Rodriguez (Chilean wife Gobbi), then Linda Thelma who popularized the tango in Paris (Thelma L. at the Moulin Rouge). But overall, with few exceptions, remained very long tango music of men. Conclu sion: The music is characterized by: - duple (2 / 4, 4 / 4, 4 / 8) - a binary st ructure: AB (B is often the dominant or relative) - the minor TANGO A LA CULTURE tango culture component is related to language, literature and poetry. The firs t influence is that of payador these improvisers, capable of producing a daily p oetry, verse. This cultural tradition is an Argentine tango as the origins of po pular mode of expression. An erotic poetry, literature, or rather a brothel ... The first words of milonga or tango as we know from the later years of the 19th century and often bear traces of the places where they were sung: the brothels. Genitalia, physical prostitutes, sex are mentioned explicitly in terms quills or pornographic. Example: Con que no trompieza that underresourced (= What is it t hat it does not fit). Lunfardo, Slang from Buenos Aires: Lunfardo slang is a lan guage used in 1860 by thieves who wanted to communicate without being understood by the police. Journalists and people appropriated this language that permeated the tango ... Another parallel with the history of jazz and black jazz slang .. . sentimentality Pascal Contursi: 1917: Gardel Mi noche triste interpreter of Pa scal Contursi (1888 -1932, lyricist). Make a break in the history of tango: subu rban poetry gives way to sentimentality (texts written around the idea of chroni c neglect, unrequited love, urban life). Homero Manzi: renovator Manzi (1905-195

1) was the first great poet of tango. In 1940, he was the innovator of the tango , inventing modern texts: he gives in honor of milonga rhythm just forgot for wh ich he finds appropriate words (language stripped and popular). PIAZZOLLA Astor: Biography * He was born in Mar del Plata, Argentina March 11, 1921. * His father bought hi m his first accordion at age 8 years. Soon, he fits into popular tango orchestra s, including that of which he will arrange for Troilo. But he sought to break fr ee from traditional tango and away from the Argentinian master. * He took course s in conducting and harmony with Nadia Boulanger in Paris. It will combine the t raditional language of the tango and aesthetics Symphony Symphony since 1953 in Buenos Aires (scandal at its inception: the police came and arrested the room ru ckus total). * Throughout his life, he shows that music needs no tango dance or speech. He makes music full by applying musical forms and techniques normally de voted to other musical styles: fugue, counterpoint, rhythm, improvisation. * It becomes film music (Tango, the Exile of Gardel, Fernando On Solas family of arti sts Alfredo Arias). * Also, he created the opera-tango (Maria de Buenos Aires). * It mixes with the traditional orchestra electric guitar, bass, drums and the s ound works experimentally.€* He walks away from this rock tone to attract more s pecifically jazz recording with saxophonist Gerry Mulligan. * After a brain hemo rrhage occurred in 1990, after which he remains paralyzed, he died June 4, 1992, leaving about 1,000 works.