Work inspired (and increased) to that of Delphine Bordat (professor of music edu cation, Orléans-Tours).

Astor Piazzolla and the Tango The music of Argentina Buenos Aire Preamble

We talk about the tango as dance, music and poetry. The tango was born in Argent ina between Buenos Aires and Montevideo. The result of interbreeding between Eur opean dance (waltz, polka, mazurka), Latin American (condombe), Caribbean (calen da) and African influences. He was born in the immigrant community and specifica lly in brothels. Then itself alongside the salons, theaters, cafes and nightclub s opening up to wealthier classes. May SOM ER INTRO ductio N HISTO IRE OF THE TAN TAN GO GO U DO THE DANCE MU SIQ EU NGO TA CU LTU RE TAN THE GO ALL Astor PI Azzo (1921 - 1992) So urce INTR ODU CTI ON The origins of the Tango, it yd'abord a liturgical dance from Africa called Xang o black (like Calenda Candomblé, Chicha, the Bamboula or Samba). This dance deri ves Xango: god of iron and war in Yoruba mythology (people of West Africa today set in the south-western Nigeria, Benin and Togo). Deported en masse in the wake of colonization based on the slave system before being murdered in Argentina in 1870 imposed the black musical rhythms that would also become the Tango. In the structure of the Tango, it is also a rhythm on the North African Moors who inte rpreted a particularly sensual dance. Transported to Spain by the Arab conqueror s, this dance was considered obscene and was banned in Catholic states. From the 15th century, this musical style was perpetuated by gypsies before accompanying Spanish immigrants in America. This binary rhythmic and syncopated habanera cal led in Cuba is found in the Argentine Tango. It was agreed that the Tango was bo rn in 1898 in Buenos Aires (the name of Our Lady of Bon Air, patron saint of sai lors Seville) and Montevideo. Buenos Aires Buenos Aires 1880: emigrants from all parts arrive with the idea in mind of maki ng a fortune. Most of time, are single men from Italy, Spain, Poland, Germany, j oined by farmers from all over South America. End 1880 Capital Federal has about 3.5 million migrants worldwide. All live on the edge of the city in an area cal led the "Arrabal" and housed in large buildings of the type barracks (the conven tillos). Here are found all the misery behind-the city, thieves, prostitutes. HIST OF RE IO TA NGO

Beginnings The original instrumental and the invention of a musical style

1900-1915 1915-1920 20 Years The 30s The 40s The 50s Beginnings At the end of last century, Argentina was inhabited by 1,600,000 people and had thus great need of people. The government promised to immigrant labor, and even the earth. So many dreams and hope for the thousands of Europeans who attempted the adventure in this new Eldorado. People who came all had the same dream: a pi ece of land of their own. But he had become disillusioned, a hundred families Ar gentine had already shared all the earth. Apart from seasonal work at harvest or handling on the docks of the port of Buenos Aires, they did not find much. Here , in the slums of Buenos Aires, the tango was born in 1898, resulting from the b lending of African and Latin rhythms. Through dance, it allowed people from work ing class backgrounds to externalize and to forget the harsh realities of daily life at that time. The tango is almost always plaintive and wistful. He can be s piteful, satirical, sarcastic, humorous, discontent and despair. It can conceal his anguish under the mask of derision but has little to do with this happy, the euphoria of celebration, the outpouring hilarious. Unlike the African-American music, the tango is more serious chosen, acerbity. He says that saddens the disa ppointments that fate inflicts, he expresses the pain of living, and sings what is lost forever. Therefore Enrique Discépolo defined as "a sad thought that is d anced. Beginnings

At its inception, the Tango was played mostly in the slums of the port of Buenos Aires. It was the sailors who brought back the Tango in Europe, and which propa gated from port to port. Discovered in 1910 in Paris, he became the rage in fash ionable salons, but considered indecent, it is blacklisted by the Archbishop of Paris. In Europe,€Tango has quickly differentiated interpretation Argentine rema ins marked by sadness and Latin sensuality. A dance performed by the rabble guap os (the hoodlums) suburbs.

We saw that the word tango in Argentina were to designate multiple dances. In 18 80, the musical, more music will be the fairy that will allow the invention of t he tango rhythm and songs. Their influences are different, but exist. The original instrumental and the invention of a musical style Many authors report the interpenetration between the musical Andalusian tango an d habanera rhythm. Often habaneras are entitled tangos.

Between 1880 and 1900, although the word tango is needed is the rhythm of the ha banera, which supersedes that of slowly tango Andaluz. As a first tango, it keeps only a few verses. The transformation that occurs whe n, from a local substrate in which the black influence is not negligible, owes m uch to the influence of Italian immigration and its specific experience of dance music. Most of the first musicians do not read music. They play by ear. Consequ ently, there was no written record of the historic change taking place (it's the same with the waltz. The musicians were slow to write and even longer to edit t

heir music). It is known that music is invented, gets most of its structure of three influences: the habanera, milonga and candombé black. According Tanguero Viejo, the first black musicians were: El Negro Casimiro, El Mulato Sinforoso (c larinet), El Pardo (bandoneon). The few words that remain of the first tango sho w they were sung in brothels. But from the early 20th century, singing became a professional artist and willingly included tangos in their repertoire. Villoldo composed music and lyrics of the songs he sang. Among the singers of the time, F lora (Chilean) and Alfredo Gobbi, Dorita Miramar, Linda Thelma, Arturo Mathon an d the famous Pepita Avellaneda (Josefina Calatti).

1900-1915 Old Guard. In the brothels in the suburbs. Payador (poets who improvise lyrics i n rhyme). Gregorio Villoldo (18681919, payador and guitarist) symbol of a genera tion. Alfredo Gobbi (1877-1938).

Gobbi will universalize the tango 1910: export to Europe (Paris in particular) training most common: "Orquestra tipica criolla = flute, guitar, violin, band oneon. introduction of bandoneon in 1908. Listen: El Choclo Tango Angel Gregorio Villodo. This famous tango was written (w ords and music) by Villoldo in 1905 that recorded in 1910. Recorded here in 1913 by the Orquestra tipica porteña was directed by Eduardo Arolas (bando) with Edu ardo Ponzio (violin) and Leonardo Thompson (black guitarist who will then bass). The habanera rhythm is formed by the bass playing the guitar. Listen: The Angel of Tango Bicicleta Villodo Gregorio, played by Villodo (vocals) and Manuel O. C ampoamor (piano). Recorded in 1909: one of the first tango recorded. We note the rapid pace of habanera and dry and the influence of Spanish zarzuela music by m elody and the use of castanets. 1915-1920 transition. Roberto Firpo (1884-1819, piano). Music more complex.

Canaro Francis (1888-1964) systematize the bass (which sets the tempo) born in 1913 in Buenos Aires the "Orquestra tipica" (in the tavern El Armenonville) w hen Firpo incorporates his instrument to tango musicians around 6 ( piano, 2 vio lins, 2 bass and bandoneon). The arrival of the piano in sedentary tango halls. Firpo great conductor has repurchased, Gerardo Hernan Matos Rodriguez, the cop yright of Cumparsita (The small band) for a pittance. Gerardo Hernan Matos Rodri guez, who was a young Uruguayan pianist has composed this famous classic tango t o the age of 19 years ... Listen: The Tango cumparsita Gerardo Matos Rodriguez. Made famous tango in Monte video, it was recorded in 1917 by the tipica Orqestra Alonso-Minotto. Composed o f three themes, like most of the guardia vieja tangos, its rhythmic structure he sitates between the habanera and a four-stroke marcato. The 20s

Guardia Nueva (= New Guard). Julio De Caro (1899-1819, leader of the New Guard). Osvaldo Nicolas Fresedo (1897-1984, invents new effects: staccato pianissimo). Renovation of tango: removed all references to brothels, quieter pace. In the ch ic salons.€Complexity of polyphony (counterpoint). Music written.

De Caro codified tango, involving the synthesis between past and present: "I w anted the Tango belongs to the best musical category, giving it color and interp retation appropriate to ennoble it, respecting its originality" De Caro invent ed a style of interpretation of a new wealth: each instrument has a dual role (i ndividual and collective). Tango = succession of solos bandos and violins, the c b handles the formal basis and piano built bridges and openings. tipica Orches tra expands to about 12 musicians. Listen: The Tango viruta Vicente Greco. Orlando and his band of Baghdad, recorde d November 9, 1933. Evidence of a tango very Parisian chic ... There is research point of view of writing and polyphonic effects. The 30s Tango-cancion (= tango-song). The tango is singing ("tango rose from the feet to his lips," Discépolo). Carlos Gardel (1890-1935, recorded 900 discs!). Sentimen talism. Tube: popularization of music by the disc. In the cafes and cabarets.

1917: first sung tango Mi Noche Triste (My Sad Night): text of Pascal Contursi (1888-1932) and music by Samuel Castriota. 1930: Great Depression (social cri sis) + 1935: death of Gardel total crisis! Listen: Mi Noche Triste Tango S. Castriota and P. Contursi. Performed by Carlos Gardel. Guitars: JM Aguilar, G. D. Barbieri, D. Riverol. Considered the first ta ngo cancion. Sung by Gardel in public in 1917. Recorded in 1930. The 40s Turn. Anibal Troilo (1914-1975, back to basics: dance, but does not reject the s ong). Music very complex, virtuoso. Themes short. Golden Age of tango.

Troilo requires cello and viola. It is nicknamed the "soul of the bandoneon" a nd was the "Gardel musicians. 1946: arrival of Juan Peron (1895-1974) to the p residency: the greatest lyricists (Cátulo Castillo, Homero Manzi, Enrique Santos Discépolo) convert to Peronism. return to music and dance as lyricists are li mited by the censorship (the Argentine military coup in 1943) because the lyrics were deemed "unsuitable" indecent: it bans the slang (lunfardo) and is transfor med the tango lyrics, sometimes it prohibits outright. But the tango was freed o f censorship in 1949 as fully accepted by Peronism (but relapse coincides with t hat of Perón in 1955) ... Listen: On Tango Homero Manzi and Anibal Troilo, composed in 1948. Portrayed by Susana Rinaldi accompanied by Juan Carlos Cuacci who also heads the orchestra. Listen: The Tango Osvaldo Pugliese Yumba interpreted here by the orchestra of Ar

mando Pontier and Enrique Francini Elvino Vardaro who was with one of the best v iolinists in the history of tango. Recorded between 1946 and 1950. Style Yumbes: game mode tango with low marked the first time on cluster + piano on the second time. With the bass in glissando. The music ends almost on the dominant chord ( we only hear a little tonic to the bass in grade pp) ...: a suspension in the mo vement as in dance (Figure corte) The 50s revolution Piazzolla (1921-1994). The tango is the dance off and becomes a genre in itself.

tango becomes the "contemporary music of Buenos Aires" It mixes with other c urrents (symphonic, experimental, rock, jazz band ...). Listen: The Tango llamo Silbando Horacio Salgan interpreted in the style canyeng ue composer and his Orquestra tipica. Recorded in 1952. Listen: The Tango Emilio Balcarce Bordona interpreted by the trio Mosalini Juan Gustavo Beytelmann, Patr ice Caratini. Recorded in 1982. A very successful modern versions of this standa rd revisited by three strong musical personalities. THE TANG O, A DANCE Tango: Dance of manly strength, sexual desire, but especially dance great nostal gia. At the end of the 19th century alone saw the music, the tango has not yet s ung text. Obviously, this new dance is totally rejected by polite society porteñ a and the bourgeoisie. The dance is characterized by: a significant harmonization between the dancers perpetual improvisation (multipl e figures) suspension in motion. "tango of the suburb" or canyenge: very "root s", near the origin, while Loved hip movements and provocative. "tango eleganc e and compás" or elegencia: the most complex, danced in the salons. "fantasy t ango" or Fantasia: has created the tango show, the stage€projectors ... Imaginat ion and complex figures subject to the rules of improvisation. Tango demonstrati on requires great virtuosity of the dancers ...

3 styles of tangos danced: THE ICU QU E M O TANG Introduction The introduction of the bandoneon orchestra The three types of tang o music in a minor's place singing Conclusion In tr oduction

If the tango is a dance first, then it is music. From the point of view of rhyth m, the tango is linked to the contra Cuba, the Cuban habanera and the tango. The latter, together with the habanera, has spread across Latin America in the year

s 1850-1860. In Brazil, as well as in the Rio de la Plata, the name was given to the Tango Habanera itself during the latter part of the 19th century. The tango began as Brasiliero anything other than a local adaptation of the Cuban habaner a. Several popular genres, including maxixe, have a common measure to two quarte rs with the accompanying drawings similar to those of the European polka. The mi longa, two-stroke and syncopated rhythm, also contributed to the structure of a tango. Until 1915, the tango keeps the measure in two (2 / 4), after which the f our quarters and four eighths become more frequent. After 1955, new rhythmic com plexities grew. From a structural standpoint, the first tangos include three par ts, but after 1915 the tango in two parts predominates. Delfino is considered th e first composer to have established the standard form of tango: two equal measu res of 14-20, the second party in the dominant or relative minor of the tonic. Orchestra Before 1900, the first tango orchestras were composed of a guitar, a violin and a flute. The harp could aiso be present. Ventura Lynch, in his book of 1883, writes that "today means the milonga played the guitar on comb and paper by itinerant musicians, flute, harp and violin. It has also been adapted by the barrel organ players, who settled in habanera ".

These bands were very mobile. They moved easily from one brothel to another. The y could thus play all night. By 1900, when the tango began to win acclaim, or ra ther when prostitution became a business where you invest more, the piano took p lace in the orchestra. Institutions of fun, then a cabaret volunteered upright o r grand. This movement is massive, because it enters in Buenos Aires more than 1 8 000 pianos from 1901 and 1907. Institutions clave services of a pianist. The p oorest had a Organito, piano or organ. The orchestras are established

For many years, some schools of Buenos Aires have specialized in hosting musicia ns that you just listen to without dancing. This is the case of Hansen. Before 1 892, they played milongas, waltzes and polkas, and then we brought the tango. Co ntrary to what the film suggests to us (several reconstructions show that they d anced at Hansen), this property is specialized in the music of tango. They made a sort in orchestras. In 1892, an Italian, Anselmo A. Tarana, took the leadershi p. He gave her the style of the Belle Epoque. He sent an orchestra of Milan. Rob erto Firpo played there in 1907. We had dinner at Hansen comfortably and listen to good music. In fact, the school was surrounded by many places where people da nced. And in these institutions, orchestras were also considered. At the El Tamb o o Tambito, Jose played Guerriero (flute), Julian Urdapilleta (violin) and Luci ano Rios (guitar); to El Veladromo, played Enrique Saborido (violin, but who cou ld also keep the piano), Benito Masset (flute) and the Black Lorenzo (guitar). The orchestras are established Just before 1900, we began writing the scores of tango and edit them. These earl y scores reach prints 20-30 000. But there were also pirated editions sold three

times cheaper. We know that the phonograph was invented in 1877, and that it co uld boost the vote in 1888. The development of the tango is therefore linked to the development of recording technology. There are many recordings of tangos bef ore 1907, but quality very bad. In 1907, Villoldo Gobbi and go to Paris to recor d. They leave El paisano en el tranvia, Minegra, Carino criollo, Los afiladores El baile Da Baldomera, Cancion del bicho feo,€all topics Villoldo. The year 1907 was a turning point since it publishes copies of these tangos Berlin Candem (Un ited States) and Sao Paulo (Brazil) ... The three types From a musical point of view, three types of Tango may be distinguished: the tan go, milonga, tango and tango-romanza-cancion.

The tango-milonga is strictly instrumental and has a very strong rhythmic charac ter. The classic example is the tango Buedo (1928) by Julio De Caro. The tango-r omanza, whether instrumental or vocal, is more lyrical and melodic, and contains a strong romantic text. One of the best known is Flora negras (1928) by Francis co De Caro. Tango-cancion, as its name suggests, is always vocal with instrument al accompaniment. It has a strong sentimental character. This type of tango corr esponds, in the 1930s, a sociological evolution, the tango became a popular genr e of large city that is no longer simply associated with the slums of the suburb s. The tango lyrics, songs, however, express the life in terms highly pessimisti c, fatalistic and often pathologically dramatic. Some of the best examples are t angoschansons Mi noche triste Catriosta Samuel (1915), Adios Muchachos Julio Ces ar Sanders (1928), by Enrique Delfino Milonguita (1920) and Anibal Troilo On (19 48). A music minor Unlike the 19th century waltzes that were most often in the major, well argued a nd a joie de vivre, the tango is part of a shift toward the minor giving it its sad side. We know that the waltz musette, Paris, will feature the same trend. The role of song

Initially, the tango is a music conductor. But soon they sing. The lyrics are ve ry daring (see CULTURE TANGO). Also, it is men who sing. From The Morocha, whose lyrics are decent singers have found their place in the tango, the tango, or ra ther to find its place in the repertoire of singers. So Lola Candal, 1907. Pepit a Avellaneda remained the most famous singer of the early history of the tango. The photos show one's self of a "cap in hand, a pleated skirt, white socks and a ct innocent on another, she is dressed as a boy with a scarf around his neck, a cigarette in his mouth and a guitar on his knees. " There was also Flora Rodrigu ez (Gobbi's wife) and Linda Thelma who popularized the tango in Paris (Thelma L. at the Moulin Rouge). But overall, with few exceptions, remained very long tang o music of men. Conclusion The

music is characterized by: a duple (2 / 4, 4 / 4, 4 / 8) relative) minor keys LA CU Ituri E TANG O A component of tango culture is linked to language, literature and poetry. The f irst influence is that of payador these improvisers, capable of producing a dail y poetry, verse. This cultural tradition is an Argentine tango as the origins of popular mode of expression. An erotic poetry, or rather a literature brothels ... Lunfardo, Slang from Bueno s Aires The sentimentality Pascal Contursi Homero Manzi and the revival An erotic poetry, literature, or rather a brothel ... The first words of milonga or tango as we know from the later years of the 19th century and often bear traces of the places where they were sung: the brothels. Genitalia, physical prostitutes, sex are mentioned explicitly in terms quills or pornographic. Example: Con que no trompieza that underresourced (= What is it that it does not fit). Lunfardo, Slang from Buenos Aires Lunfardo slang is a language used in 1860 by thieves who wanted to communicate w ith each other without being understood by the police. Journalists and people ap propriated this language that permeated the tango ... The sentimentality of Pascal Contursi 1917: Gardel Mi noche triste interpreter Pascal Contursi (1888-1932, lyricist). Make a break in the history of tango: suburban poetry gives way to sentimentalit y (texts written around the idea of chronic neglect, unrequited love, urban life ). Homero Manzi: renovator Manzi (1905-1951) was the first great poet of tango. In 1940, he was the innovat or of the tango, inventing modern texts: he gives in honor of milonga rhythm jus t forgot for which he finds appropriate words (language stripped and popular). a binary structure: AB (B is often the dominant or

Astor PIA ZZOLLA (192,192) in March 1921.€He was born in Mar del Plata, Argentin a 11 His father bought him his first accordion at age 8 years. Soon, he fits into pop ular tango orchestras, including that of which he will arrange for Troilo. But h e sought to break free from traditional tango and away from the Argentinian mast er. He took courses in conducting and harmony with Nadia Boulanger in Paris. It

will combine the traditional language of the tango and aesthetics Symphony Symph ony since 1953 in Buenos Aires (scandal at its inception: the police came and ar rested the room ruckus total). Throughout his life, he shows that the tango musi c does not need to dance or speech. He makes music full by applying musical form s and techniques normally devoted to other musical styles: fugue, counterpoint, rhythm, improvisation. It is film music (Tango, the Exile of Gardel, Fernando On Solas family of artists Alfredo Arias). Also, he created the tango-opera (Maria de Buenos Aires). It mixes with the traditional orchestra electric guitar, bass , drums and the sound works experimentally. It moves away from this rock tone to attract more specifically jazz recording with saxophonist Gerry Mulligan. After a cerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1990, after which it remains paralyzed, he di ed June 4, 1992, leaving about 1,000 works.

The introduction of the bandoneon

In 1908, the bandoneon (which had first appeared in 1898 in a tango orchestra) i s required. This event is important because, by replacing the flute flourishes d isappeared, and with her playful and flashy style, the tango orchestra found its identity plaintive and sentimental. "The bandoneon moans, groans, bellowing, cr ying, claw, roar, threatens, bites and pray it ignores the laugh and knows not a fford a moment of joy. "Technically, Oscar R. Zucchi defines it thus: "The accor dion is a portable aerophone with buttons, powered by bellows, playing with both hands simultaneously, with two crates and harmonics within which vibrates throu gh the action of air pressed, a system of metal strips. The chromatic accordion produces the same note at the opening and closing the bellows. The diatonic acco rdion, with greater opportunities, is that adopted by the professional tango and it varies depending on whether the phrase is played open or closed, producing a ssonance or dissonance. The bandoneon is an instrument of German origin. It is n amed after Heinrich Band, was born in 1821 in RhénanieWesphalie (Germany) who wi ll market it, even if he did not invent it. His real designer is C. Zimmermann, who presented a concertina made Carlsfeld the industrial exhibition in Paris in 1849. H. Band mod this invention was never patented. Since 1864, Ernst Louis Arn old (1828-1910) who purchased the business of Zimmermann (d. 1860) who will beco me the true master of the bandoneon. His family is a veritable dynasty of factor s bandoneon. Ernst Hermann (1859-1946), his eldest son, Paul (1866-1952) and Alf red (1878-1933), two other son, will continue the work of the father. The two yo ung brothers are developing the AA, said Doble A, which prove to be the best ban doneon history. Astor Piazzolla moreover dedicated to his instrument a compositi on of a Tristezas Doble A. Horst Alfred (1905-1979), son of Alfred, and Arno (18 93-1970), son of Paul, continued the business until the late 1940s. But the comp any gradually loses its importance and workshops closed in 1971. This company ha s had few competitors in Germany, Argentina and the United States. But today, th e number of artisans capable of producing or repairing bandonions is very rare.

II exists in France: Olivier Manory himself bandoneonist talent. Pierre Monette notes that "the phrasing of the bandoneon is able to present a range of modulati ons as large as that of the human voice." This author sees as the saxophone as a n instrument with a sound similar registry. The saxophone plays elsewhere in the jazz orchestra's role in the bandoneon tango orchestra. In 1910, the orchestra is typical of the tango, the musical style is based. Party of the trio, it devel ops gradually. From 1914, Firpo gave up in his orchestra, violin, flute which ba lances the sound of piano, bass. In 1917, the sextet becomes the usual orchestra . In the 1940s, the orchestra will go up to eleven musicians. SOURCES HESS Remi, The tango€Paris: PUF, 1996. PLISSON Michel, Tango, from black to whit e, Paris: Actes Sud, 2004.