SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard Report Scanner Keyboard Students: Browarnik Martín, Santiago Portnoi, Rinemberg Martin

Teacher: Clara Fr eud Date: Wednesday May 30, 2007 Division: 5th "C" Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 1 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard Objectives: To acquire knowledge of keyboard and scanner peripherals and to dump them in a report. Index: "Keyboard:-Introduction (Page 3)-History (Page 3-5)-Fu nctions (page 5-9)-Types of manufacturing a keyboard (page 9 and 10)-Scanner:" S canner (page 11) - How it works (page 11) "Resolution (Page 12)" The colors and bits (Page 13) - What took a picture? (Page 14 and 15)-scanner formats (pages 15 and 16)-connectors: parallel, SCSI or USB? (Page 16-19), TWAIN interface (page 19 and 20)-OCR (Page 20 and 21) -Glossary (page 21) "Sources (Page 22) Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 2 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard Keyboard Introduction: A keyboard is a peripheral input device consists of a set of keys, such as a typewriter that allows you to enter data and commands to a computer o r digital device. When a key is pressed, it sends an encrypted login to the comp uter (coded electrical pulses), which then displays the character of the key pre ssed on the screen. The keys on computer keyboards are usually classified as fol lows: • • • • Alphanumeric keys: letters and numbers. Function keys: F1, F2 .... F12 Number bu ttons: Numbers. Control keys: Alt, Ctrl. , Caps., Etc. History: The current computer keyboard is an improvement on other similar keyboa rd, which was created in 1980 for the first IBM-PC (personal computer, from whic h they derive the current personal computers). That keyboard was different than today: there were only ten function keys, located on the far left and the numeri cal functions and shared editing the same set of keys. Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 3 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard The existing keyboards are much like the old keyboards of typewriters. In this w ay, who already knew how to write in mechanical machines could go to the compute

r easily. The keys are in alphabetical order, and are distributed in rows but th e columns are in a strange inclination, which is that in the old typewriters use d a method of writing based on a "hammer" hitting the road and These hammers cou ld carry out their function properly these should be separated with a slight bow , and that without this tilt these hammers were clashing and the machine malfunc tioned, another problem that arose with the typewriter and had repercussions on the keyboard was, that when you type faster on the machine, collisions could occ ur between the "hammer" that occurred when using the keys closer together, the s olution to this problem was the distribution of keys to place so most commonly u sed letters in positions that allow more widely spaced to their corresponding "h ammers" and to minimize the problem. This distribution is called QWERTY because those are the first six letters of the first row of letter keys. Today we could build much more efficient keyboards, which keys were distributed in rows and columns perfectly perpendicular and / or who have a distribution of points more efficient for the user. For example, today we could put all your mos t frequently used keys so that they are pressed by the index and middle fingers, which are the most flexible ... leaving less use the lyrics by the little finge r. Or you could put most used letters in the natural position of the eight finge rs, so to have those fingers had to make a minimum number of movements. Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 4 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard With this type of approach, in 1932 a professor named August Dvorak proposed red istribution of the letters in the same physical machine, based on scientific stu dies for a more comfortable and fast writing. This keyboard is not known by the first letters but by the name of its inventor (DVORAK), and it seems proven that it is better than QUERTY. In turn, this option was then further optimized to ge nerate the keyboard called DSK (Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, Dvorak or simplified ). Nor should we forget that it is now possible for software-change-keyboard operat ion, according to user preferences. DUTIES: The keyboard is powered by a matrix structure, each key is associated with a numeric code, and the computer software that applies to this numerical code meaning. With this system you can use one k eyboard for different languages, regardless of the characters screen printed on it. Under the keys is a fairly complex circuit board comprising a microprocessor (a "microcontroller") specialized. This card guarantees the essential part of e lectronic treatment. When a key is pressed generates an "activation code" known as " scan code. " Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 5 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard Releasing the key generates another code, called "sleep" or "break code" and sen ds an interrupt to the processor. The BIOS keyboard routine translates the key c ode to the code ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is a standard 7-bit code, ie a total of 128 different codes numbered from 0 to 127 in decimal numbers . The ASCII code was developed by IBM in 8 bits with a set of c

haracters that became standard and provides additional 128 characters numbered 1 28-257. The keyboard is divided into four main parts, the alphanumeric keypad, t he keypad, function keys and control keys. The alphanumeric keypad is similar to the keyboard of a typewriter has all the letters of the alphabet, the ten decim al digits, and all punctuation and accentuation, besides the space bar. The keyp ad is similar to a calculator, you have ten decimal digits, the most common math ematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) In addi tion to the key "Num Lock" or "Num Lock" that enables or disables the keyboard . The function keys are at the top of the alphanumeric keyboard, ranging from F1 to F12, and are keys that provide shortcuts in using the computer system. For ex ample, pressing F1 will usually select the Help of the program you're using. Som e modern keyboards include another set of keys on the top to the function that c an access the Internet, open email or control the playback of multimedia files. These keys are not universal and depend on each manufacturer, but you can also c onsider the function keys. The control keys are among the alphanumeric keypad an d the keypad, and bordering the alphanumeric keyboard (Shift, Enter, Insert, Tab ...) These keys allow you to control and act with the various programs. In fact , change their function depending on the application being used. • • Intro / Enter: key to end paragraphs or enter data. Cursors: Move the cursor to the desired location (indicated by arrows) Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg 21 Page 6 SSI Work • Scanner and Keyboard • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Backspace: Represented by an arrow in the left direction enables the cursor back to the left simultaneously deleting characters. Shift: Represented by an upward arrow while holding down can change the character case and vice versa. Back: It is represented by an arrow in the left direction and is located on the Enter ke y. Allows you to backspace the cursor to the left erasing the characters. Insert : This key is used to write letters or characters at once to delete the next cha racter in Microsoft Word and other programs the program enters the bottom bar SO B word indicating whether the key is active or not. Tab: It is represented by tw

o arrows in the opposite direction (left - right) serves to align text in word p rocessors. The operating system is used to move the cursor on the different wind ows and options, therefore mouse replacement. Caps Lock or Caps Lock ", pressing this key turns on one of the LEDs (lights) on the keyboard, indicating that act ivated the Caps Lock, which makes the whole text is written in capital letters ( and which Pressing Shift is written in lowercase). Alt: Used in combination with other keys to execute functions of the program (Alt + E is open edition, Alt + A is open file, open View Alt + V) Alt Gr: In addition to serving as Alt key is also used in combination with incorporating key symbols in the bottom right to i nsert into the document (symbols like @, , #,€braces and brackets need to press Alt Gr and the keys that contain those symbols, in this case 2, E and 3) Contro l: Used in combination with other keys to activate various functions of the prog ram. (Control + C is copy, Ctrl + X is cut and Control + V is paste in Windows) Delete: The delete key, as indicated in its name is used to erase. Both fields i n tables, as characters in processors. Escape Escape is a key that is used to ca ncel processes and actions in progress, it also serves to close the dialog boxes or windows. Home: This button puts you at the beginning of a line or document, depending on the program you're using. End: Its function is the opposite of the home key, and puts you in the end. Page Up: Go back a page. Page Down: Scrolls t he page. Page 7 of 21 Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg SSI Work • Scanner and Keyboard • • • • • Print Screen: Also "SysRq" means print screen, its function is to copy what is d isplayed as an image. Is saved in the clipboard and you can paste into any docum ent that allows pasting images. Scroll Lock.: It is used under MS-DOS operating system to stop the scrolling text. Pause: Use in MS-DOS to stop actions in the p rocess so you can read the text of those actions. Context menu: Pressing display s a menu of options, the same as when using the right mouse button. Is represent ed by an arrow that points to a kind of list, similar to the menu screen is disp layed. Windows: There is only on keyboards designed for Windows, is represented by the logo, and serves to open the Start menu. Spacebar: Enter spaces between c haracters. Common keyboard shortcuts: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ALT + F4 Close the active window. F1 Opens the Help window. Ctrl + C Copy select ed item to the clipboard. Ctrl + X Cut the selected item. Paste Ctrl + V, where the cursor is located, which is in the clipboard. Ctrl + G is the same as File Save. Ctrl + S is the same as File - Save. (In English programs) Ctrl + A is th e same as File - Open. Ctrl + O is the same as File - Open. (In English programs ) Ctrl + P Enters the Print menu. Ctrl + N without selecting anything, start a n ew job. Ctrl + Z Undo. Ctrl + Y Redo. Ctrl + A Selects all the items you have on the screen. Ctrl + F Find words. Ctrl + F Search for words. (In English program s) F5 Refresh the contents of a window unit in the Open or Save. F10 Goes to men u mode. SHIFT + F10 Context menu for the selected item. Like Contextual Menu key . CTRL + ESC Displays the Start menu. 21 Page 8 Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg

SSI Work • • • • • Scanner and Keyboard SHIFT + F10 Context menu. ALT + TAB to skip nimbly from one program to another t hat are running. SHIFT while inserting CD Bypasses the automatic execution. Alt + M to be centered on the taskbar Minimizes all windows. Windows + Pause / Inter Access is System Properties. Types of manufacturing a keyboard: There are many techniques for the manufacture of keyboards: mechanical, with elastomer, membrane, capacity, Hall effect, piez oelectric, optical, etc. Mechanics: The pressure of a key move a mobile electric al contact is closed. With Elastomer: A single sheet of elastomer incorporates m olded under each key, a conductive pad. Under the influence of pressure, each of these pills come in contact with a 'plot' the driver located on a printed card (rigid or flexible) below the key. May be involved also non-conductive elastomer coating to ensure additional spring function or just as finishing touches. This is the most common technique today. Membrane: In these models the fundamental p rinciple is to overlay two flexible membranes coated conductor tracks and plots, these membranes are separated by a third insulating film but perforated at the level of contacts. Under the effect of contact pressure facing the plots. Capaci ty: A high frequency signal is applied to two electrodes that form a capacitor. The pressure on a key amending Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and M artin Rinemberg Page 9 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard space between these two electrodes and, consequently, the magnitude of capacity. Piezoelectric: The pressure on a piezoelectric ceramic element generates an ele ctrical impulse.€Hall effect: The pressure on a button magnet about a Hall effec t sensor. Optical: The pressure on a key interrupts a light beam and thus nullif ies the electrical contact. The mechanism of the keys depends on the technique, the structures of the keyboard and the inspiration of the manufacturer. Each key consists of a relatively thick plastic cap pressure recessed into its holder. U nder the hood is a recoil spring or, often, an elastomeric plate that controls t he recoil. In the latter case, any repair to an isolated key is extremely diffic ult or impossible. Scanner A Scanner is defined as an image digitizer. Means to digitize the analog operati on transform something (something physical, real, infinite precision) digital so mething (a finite set of given accuracy and logical units called bits). In Autho rs: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 10 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard Finally, in the present case is to digitize an image (photograph, drawing or tex t) by converting it to a format that can store and / or modify the computer. How it works The process of capturing an image is almost identical for any scanner: the image is illuminated with a light bulb, driving the light reflected by mirr ors into a device called a CCD transforms light into electrical signals, those s ignals are transformed electrical digital format on a CAD (analógicodigital conv erter) and transmitting the resulting bits flow to the computer. The CCD (Charge Coupled Device, charge-coupled device electrically) is the fundamental element of any scanner, regardless of their shape, size or mechanical. It consists of an

electronic device that reacts to light, transmitting more or less power dependi ng on the intensity and color of light it receives. Today, this device is fairly common. The final quality of the scan will depend crucially on the quality of t he CCD, the other elements can do a better job or worse, but if the picture is c aptured accurately, any subsequent operations can not fix the problem. Given the above, we must also take into account the quality of the DAC, as of no use to c apture light with great precision if we lose much of that information to transfo rm the electrical flow bits. For this reason they say that scanners are preferab le prestige brands like Nikon and Kodak to those with the highest theoretical re solution, but with CCDs that capture faithfully the colors or not well used DACs electrical signal, giving results poor, flatter. The resolution The resolution (measured in dpi, dots per inch in Castilian, or d pi dots per inch, in English) can be defined as the number of individual points of an image that is able to capture a scanner. The resolution would be well defi ned or actual optical resolution scanner. So when we speak of a scanner with a r esolution of "300x600 dpi", we mean that in each horizontal line one inch Author s: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 11 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard long (2.54 cm) can capture 300 individual points, whereas in vertical reaches 60 0 points, as in this case, usually the horizontal and vertical resolution do not match, being higher (typically double) the vertical. The optical resolution is given by the CCD and is the most important because it means the physical limits of quality we can get through the scanner. Therefore, it is a typical business method comment only the largest of the two values, desc ribing as "a 600 dpi scanner" to a device 300x600 dpi or 1200 dpi scanner "to a device 600x1.200 dpi mind you, the difference is getting or not the quadruple of points. The interpolated resolution is to overcome the limitations imposed by t he optical resolution (300x600 dpi, for example) using the mathematical estimati on of what might be the point values that add to the image software. For example , if the scanner picks up two points physically contiguous, one white and one bl ack, presumed to have been able to capture the extra point between the two would be a shade of gray. In this way we can reach ridiculously high resolutions, up 9.600x9.600 dpi, although in reality we do not get more real than that provided maximum optical resolution of the device. Obviously this value is the most adver tisers like scanners ... Finally there is the scanning resolution itself, that w e selected to capture a specific image.€Its value will range from a minimum (typ ically about 75 dpi) to the maximum interpolated resolution. In this case the va lue is always the same for horizontal and vertical resolution, because otherwise the image would be distorted dimensions. The colors and color-bit is very important in an image, digital or not. A color photo is much nicer to see one in shades of gray, a right graph coloring is much more interesting than another in black and white, even a text in which the entr ies or the findings are highlighted in color and is less monotonous invites read ing. Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 12 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard

However, scanning the endless nuances that can occur in any other photo is not a simple process. Until recently, scanners capture images only in black and white or, at best, with a very limited number of shades of gray, between 16 and 256. Then came color scanners that could capture, but the process requires three pass es over the image, one for each primary color (red, blue and green). Today almos t all the scanners pick up to 16.7 million different colors in a single pass, an d some go up to 68.719 million colors. To understand how they arrived at these f igures we must explain how overwhelming computers assigned colors to the images. In all computers use what is called a binary system, which is a mathematical sy stem in which the upper unit is not 10 as in the decimal system we're used to, b ut the 2. A bit so anyone can take two values, which can represent colors (black and white, for example), if instead of a bit we have 8 possible values are 2 ^ 8 = 256 colors, if you are 16 bits, 2 raised to 16 = 65,536 colors if they are 2 4 bits, 2 ^ 24 = 16.777216 colors, etc, etc. Therefore, "a 24-bit image color" i s an image in which each item can have up to 16.7 million different colors, the number of colors is considered sufficient for most normal use of an image, so wh ich is often called true color. Almost all current scanners capture images with 24 bits, but the current trend is to scan even more bits, 30 or even 36, so you attract a spectrum of colors is absolutely faithful to the real, but almost alwa ys comes down later this color depth to 24 bits to maintain a reasonable memory size, but the final quality remains very high as it only eliminates redundant da ta color. What takes a picture? Depends on the image (great answer, right?). To know exact ly what will be the size of an image, we use the following formula: Image Size ( KB) = L x A x RH x RV x bits / 8192 Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 13 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard Where L and A are the image dimensions in inches (one inch = 2.54 cm) and RH and RV horizontal and vertical resolutions respectively. Let's take a quick example : an image DIN-A4 (about 11.7 x8, 3 inch) scanned at 300 dpi (300x300) with 24 b it color (true color) took 25 490 KB! (25 MB) The figure is impressive, but ther e are many methods to reduce the size of images, both when handling them in memo ry as the storing on the hard disk. The first method is to scan at lower resolut ion, the quality is lower, but the resulting file size too. If the image is goin g to be destined for a computer screen, 75 dpi will almost always sufficient, re ducing the size of the image prior to 1593 KB only slightly more than 1.5 MB. As a second method we reduce the depth of color. If the previous picture is a draw ing in ink, with scanning at 1 bit (black and white) may be sufficient. This wou ld reduce the size to 1062 KB only, almost exactly 1 MB. Finally we can close the image in compressed format. In this case the image size remains unchanged in memory (25 MB), but the disk size may be less than one-fif th without loss of quality, or even less if the compression is accomplished by r emoving redundant information. As an example of image file formats have compress ion of JPEG (or JPG), GIF, TIFF, BMP classic against which lacks any compression . The most important thing is that we can combine the above factors to achieve t ruly optimized results, so by scanning the image of the sample at 75 dpi, with a bit of color and saved in GIF,€the result can occupy only 66 KB in memory and l ess than 15 KB on disk. Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg

14 of 21 Page SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard Note that in many cases using 256 gray scales (8 bits) to represent faithfully t he original black and white with well defined edges or small font sizes. Physica lly scanner formats there are several types of scanners, each with its advantage s and disadvantages: Desk or drawings of the models are prized for their good pr ice / performance, but also more cumbersome peripherals to locate due to large s ize, a DIN-A4 scanners can take almost flat 50x35 cm, more than many printers, w ith the addition that almost all the space above it should be kept empty to open the lid. However, models are more versatile, allowing scan photos, flyers, news papers, books bound and even transparencies, slides or negatives with the approp riate adapters. The resolutions are usually high, 300x600 dpi or higher, and the price pretty tight. The maximum scan size is the most common DIN-A4, although t here are models for A3 or larger (although already prohibitively expensive). Fro m hand scanners are "portable" with all the good and bad that implies this. Unti l a few years ago were the only models with prices affordable for the average us er, because the desktop was extremely expensive, this situation has changed so m uch that today's handheld scanners are almost obsolete. Their extinction is due to the limitations of size as the original to be scanned (usually can be as long as you want, but just over 10 cm wide maximum) and low speed as well as the lac k of color cheaper models. What's more, most of them lack the motor to draw the blade, but it is the user who must pass the scanner over the surface to scan (ab stain those with bad pulse). All this is very cumbersome, but it is effective to quickly scan photos of bound books, newspaper articles, bills and all sorts of little images without the hindrance which is a flatbed scanner. Roll: a relative ly modern appearance models are based on a system very similar to fax machines, a rubber roller motor pulls the sheet, by passing it through a crack where there is the image capture element. Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 15 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard This system implies that the original loose-leaf, which limits their use to not being able to scan bound books without first performing a copy (or start pages), except in unique models such as the Logitech FreeScan for separating the read h ead and use it like a handheld scanner. In favor are the fact it takes up very l ittle space, there are even models that are integrated into the top of the keybo ard; against their resolution have rarely exceeds 400x800 points, although this is more than enough for the type of work sheets loose the target audience. Speci al models: apart from the hybrids and hand roll, there are other scanners for sp ecific applications, for example, only scan for photos, negatives or slides, rea l devices with resolutions of the order of 3.000x3.000 dpi often are more simila r to a CD-ROM (with tray and all) than a classical scanner, or the pen-scanner, utensils to shape and size of pen or highlighter that scans the text above which we sometimes even translate it into another language instantly, or printer-scan ner, similar to photocopiers or more individuals such as Canon, where the reader of the scanner is installed as an ink cartridge. Connectors: Parallel, SCSI or USB? This is one of the great questions to ask any future purchaser of a scanner . How you connect a peripheral to your computer is always important, because it can affect the performance of the device, its ease of use or installation and ul timately price. Parallel port is the most common connection method for home scan

ners, considered as those middle-high resolution (up 600x1.200 dpi, but commonly 300x600 or 400x800 dpi) that the speed does not need to be very high while the price is a very important factor. The parallel port, sometimes called LPT1, is u sing most of the printers, as is usually the user has already connected to your computer, the scanner will have two connectors, one input and one output€so that it is connected through the computer and printer. As a first problem with this type of connection you arbitrate that use the parallel port is something Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 16 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard almost impossible, so in general we can not print and scan at a time (although f or a home user this should not be too much problem.) However, we must remember t hat to obtain a reasonable speed, the port must be set to ECP or EPP modes (depe nding on the particular scanner), which is usually selected in the BIOS. The pro blem occurs when we connect the computer is quite old and can not configure the port rather than the old standard, 10 times slower (as with the 486 and below), or when we have conflicts with other devices that have connected to parallel por t, such as Zip drives or some modern printers. In these cases it may be worth bu ying a new controller to replace the current port or to add a second port (to be LPT2), these devices controller cards, also called I / O, are cheap but sometim es difficult be found by now integrated into the motherboard. SCSI connector und oubtedly, is the career choice. A SCSI scanner is always more expensive than the equivalent parallel connector, and even more expensive than many higher resolut ion models but use a different connector. Because of this premium is not current ly manufactured in CSI scanners under 300x600 dpi resolution, and the most commo n figures 600x1.200 reach about dpi or higher. The utility of the SCSI connectio n is in two sections: speed microprocessor and a few requirements. The first is easy to understand: the SCSI interface can be transmitted from 5-80 MB / s, depe nding on the particular SCSI standard, while the parallel port barely exceeds 1 MB / s (and that in the case "advanced" ECP or EPP). If, as we saw earlier an A4 image can occupy 25 MB or more, it is clear that a SCSI scanner is the option t o scan large images with a certain resolution and color quality. The other quali ty of SCSI also affects the speed, but in another way. It is not just that you c an transmit 10 or 20 MB / s, but also the transfer is done without the microproc essor do just work, that allows scanned images to go while we perform other task s, streamlining a lot of work. In a parallel scanner is very normal scanning whi le performing the Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 17 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard down your computer's performance while not worth trying to do anything until you 've finished. But not everything will be advantages in this life, SCSI scanners (and in general all SCSI devices) are a burden: its high price, justified by inc reased benefits that they pose and the need to include a SCSI controller card , since very few computers come with a built in (as they all have parallel port). To save a bit, many times the card is a reduced performance model, capable of co ntrolling only the scanner and not the 7 or 15 devices that can handle the regul ar cards. USB port This is the latest scanners, so much so that a little over a

year simply did not exist any scanner on the market with this type of connection . The USB ports are present in most Pentium II, AMD K6-2 or newer, and in some P entium MMX. In general we could say that USB scanners are at a midpoint of money . The transmission rate is around 1.5 MB / s, more than the parallel port but fa r less than the SCSI, the ease of installation is almost insurmountable, since i t is based on the famous Plug and Play (Plug and play) that almost always works, all modern computers have built-in USB and parallel port also left free to prin t or connect other devices. This solution is clearly focused on the home user or clerk, which is seen in its price only slightly above that of the parallel port scanners. Actually the price difference should not exist because one manufactur e a scanner or other costs almost the same, but when we come to a recent technol ogy novelty, certainly over the course of the months will cost the same as those of port parallel, which will probably end up in a few years away.€The TWAIN int erface is a standard that was defined for any scanner could be used by any progr am in a standardized manner and even with the same interface for image acquisiti on. Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 18 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard While a few years ago there was still a relatively large number of devices using other methods of its own, today we can say that normal scanners all use this pr otocol, so that manufacturers only have to worry about providing the appropriate TWAIN driver, usually in versions for Windows 9x, NT 3.x and sometimes Unfortun ately, only relatively expensive brand scanners bring drivers for other operatin g systems like OS / 2 or Linux, and even sometimes even for Windows 3.x NT, the good news is that the standardization of TWAIN does that sometimes we can use sc anner driver other similar characteristics, though not a desirable method. Apart from DLL libraries and other technical issues, the part that the user sees is t he standard TWAIN image acquisition interface. This is a program in which a visu al way we can control all scanning parameters (resolution, number of colors, bri ghtness ...), you can also define the size of the area you want to process. Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 19 of 21 SSI Work Scanner and Keyboard If color fidelity is an important factor, one of the parameters that we are like ly to change in this interface is the gamma control to adjust the color range th at captures the scanner with the one present our monitor or print the printer. T he OCR is one of the most common applications of scanners. OCR stands for Optica l Character Recognition, OCR, or a more simple: how to teach reading to the comp uter. If you think a bit in the scanning process we have described above, we rea lize that when scanning a text not scanned letters, words and phrases, but simpl y the points that Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 20 of 21 SSI Work

Scanner and Keyboard form, a photograph of the text. Obviously, this can be useful for text files, bu t it would be desirable if we could get all these references so interesting but so heavy and incorporate them into our word processor, not as an image, but as e ditable text. What we would ultimately be that the computer could read like us. Well, that makes the OCR: is a program that reads these digital images and searc h sets of points that resemble letters, characters. Depending on the complexity of the program means more or less fonts, and in some cases to interpret handwrit ing, keep the original format (columns, photos from the text ...) or to apply gr ammar rules to increase the accuracy of the process recognition. For the program to perform these tasks with a certain reliability, without confusing "t" with " 1", for example, the image that we provide must satisfy certain properties. Esse ntially must have a high resolution, 300 dpi for texts with clear fonts and 600 dpi in the case of small fonts or poor quality originals such as newspapers. In contrast, we can save on color appearance, almost always sufficient to black and white (1 bit of color), or at most a 256 gray scale (8 bits). For this reason s ome roller scanners (very appropriate for this type of tasks) do not support col or. Glossary Qwerty: The manner of distributing the keys on a Dvorak keyboard to avo id crashes: The manner of distributing the keys of a keyboard to accelerate the time of writing ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange, "Code for Information Interchange Alphanumeric Keypad: Numbers and letters Keypad: Nu mbers Function Keys: Keys Shortcuts control: Monitor and act with the various pr ograms Authors: Martin Browarnik, Santiago Portnoi and Martin Rinemberg Page 21 of 21