General principles relating to control of electric motors There are some conditi ons that must be considered when

selecting, designing, installing or servicing t he equipment of the electric motor control. The motor control was a simple probl em when using a common master arrow, which is connected several machines, becaus e the engine had to start and stop only a few times a day. However, individual t ransmission the engine has become almost an integral part of the machine and the controller must be designed to suit your needs. Motor control is a generic term that means many things, from a simple step switch to a complex system with comp onents such as relays, time controls and switches. However, the common function is the same in any case: that is, an operation control electric motor. Therefore , to select and install equipment for a motor control should be considered a lar ge number of different factors so it can function properly with the machine for which designed. Purpose of controlling some of the factors to be considered with respect to the controller, to select and install, can be enumerated as follows: 1) Start: The engine can be started directly connecting through the line. However, the driven machinery can be damaged if that effort st arts with sudden spinning. The boot should be done slowly and gradually, not onl y to protect the machine, but because the surge current during startup line may be too large. The frequency of the engine start also includes the use of the con troller. 2) Shutdown: The drivers allow the operation to stop the engines and al so print a braking action when the machine must be stopped quickly. Fast stop is a feature for emergencies. 3) Reverse rotation: Drivers are needed to automatic ally change the direction of rotation of 1AS machines through the command of an operator in a control station. The investment share of drivers is an ongoing pro cess in many industrial applications. This can be done by station buttons, a dru m switch or inverter module rotation. 4) March: The speed and operating characteristics desired 5) 6) 7) 8) are function and purpose of the controllers direct. They protect the engine, ope rators, machines and materials, while they work. Speed control: Some drivers can maintain precise speeds for purposes of industrial processes, but otherwise nee d to change the engine speed in steps or gradually. Operator Safety: Many safegu ards have given rise to mechanical electrical methods. The electrical control pi lot devices directly affect drivers to protect machine operators from unsafe con ditions. Damage Protection: Part of an automatic function is to protect itself a gainst damage, and horn to materials manufactured or processed. For instance, pr event the jamming of the conveyor. The machines can be operated in reverse, stop , slow or work that is necessary for protection work. Maintenance of the boot de vices: Once installed and adjusted properly mind, motor starters remain the star ting time, voltage, current and reliable truck for the benefit of the driven mac hine and the power system. Fuses, circuit breakers and disconnect switches of ap propriate size to boot, installation best practices are governed by electrical c odes. Difference between an automatic and manual control When a circuit is considered manual is because a person must initiate action for the circuit to operate, most commonly used buttons station in a change machine is designed for the starter circuit alone and the person has the comfort of it w ill work without the need to do anything, automatic control devices can be float switches, thermostats and pressure or capacity of contact should be enough to d rive and shut off the engine total.

Control Diagrams This diagram is called a single line that represents only one p hase current. This diagram is called bifilar that represents two phases of current. This is called three-wire diagram that represents three phases of current. The locking function of a lock is to keep the connection after our press start b utton and pressing our stop button stops the engine and drops the lock and the p ower button. Parts of a control circuit. The basic elements or common in a contr ol circuit are given below. Power wiring. 1) Make-phase motor: NEMA Type: Mm. Se ries 90-4: Nr-3-0116 HP. 0.75 R.P.M. 1736 Volts: 220 V Amps: 1.5/3.0 A Cycles: 6 0Hz Temperature: 40 º C Total weight: 7.80Kg. Three Phase Motor: It is one that requires three phases to operate with a voltage greater than or equal to 220V. T he characteristic of this engine is that when inverting outputs, ie the phases c hanges direction of rotation of the rotor and unlike AC motors consume less curr ent. It has a squirrel cage rotor has short bars that rotate around the stator m agnetically. Protection. 1) Magnetic Starters: Class 8501 Type I P122 12A 660VCA Th2 These starters limit the current in the startup stage to avoid reaching streams that may cause adverse fluctuations in the supply line. These starters have over load protection and short circuit in the three phases and provide temperature co mpensation and also have botonería for starting and stopping, riding in his cabi net. • Thermal • buttons • Contactor Station The contactor is designed to support the load of the engine, ie is connected dir ectly to the line, however the relay contacts are weaker and are not directly co nnected to the lines. Contactors further support current relays (up to 7A). They both vary in size depending on the load to be supplied. 2) Control Relay: 220 - 380 - 500V ac 4-6 - 8A is an interlocking coil normally open contacts lett ing the current and opens normally closed blocking the flow of current. Controls: 1) Relay time: 220 - 380-450 VAC 3-6 - 8A 160Min There are two types of time relays which are t he following: * Time Control Relay ON DELAY: This type of relay is mainly used i n circuits where the response is required, Once the circuit has been energized, the relay is delayed in sending the signal from the time required in the process . * Time Control Relay OFF DELAY: This type of timing relay, its main characteri stic is that it slows the response to the secondary circuits once they have been de-energized control circuit. It consists of a capacitor which is what stores t he energy. 2) Switch-level switch or float: 220 - 380 - 500V ac 2-6 - 8A The e movement up or down, the float ns or closes electrical contacts ight. There are several types of counterbalanced: operation of a float switch is controlled by th that is placed in the water tank. The float ope mechanically by a rod or chain with a counterwe float switches, the capped, float electronivel

a) Float Switch: b) Switch package: Consists of a sphere metal contact when the pressure subsides. c) Electronivel: An electronic control census level when full, half empty and protecting the motor for the vacuum pump does not work. 3) switch or pressure switch: 220 - 380-550 VAC 3 - 6 - 8 A pressure switches ar e industrial type designed to meet the wide variety of requirements that are in control of pneumatic or hydraulic machines. These controls are most commonly use d machines - tools, lubrication systems, high pressure pumps and compressors for motor. Manual Controls. 1) Switch drum: Back Class 2601 Type AG-2 Volts Phase C.P. Maximum Out Single-Phase 115 230 1 1 / 2 2 Polyphase 110 220-550 1 1 / 2 2 Forward CD. 115-230 1 / 4 Pressing Back on the drum switch (blue in diagram), the three-phase motor termin al 1 is connected to line 1, Terminal 2 to Terminal 3 line 2 and line 3, at the time of wanting to reverse the rotation of the rotor of this, the drum switch mu st be in Out (black in diagram), and expected to give a time ahead, because if n ot done too much the rotor will be forged and can be damaging, then giving to be spent later stages which will make the rotor turn in another direction (red in diagram), connect the motor terminal 1 Line 2 Line 2 with terminal 1 and termina l 3 by line 3. 2) Station buttons: 220 - 380 - 500V ac 4 - 6 - 8 A The main purpose of the station buttons is: * Starting: The engine can be starte d by connecting it directly through the line, but the driven machinery can be da maged if this effort is started rotating sudden. * Unemployment: The controls al low the operation to stop the engines and also prints a braking action when the machinery is to be stopped quickly. Fast stop is a vital action of emergency con trol. * Reverse rotation: controls are needed to manually change the direction o f rotation of the machines through the command of an operator in a control stati on, the reversal of the rotation is continuous in many processes in various indu strial applications. Indicators 1) Pilot Lights: 110-220 VAC 50/60Hz 1.5W The main function of signal lights is something is happening: * Green: Indicates that the engine is running or fitness. Relaxation. * Red: Indicates that the en gine has stopped or in poor condition. Alarm. * Amber: Indicates caution or that

something is about to happen. 2) Digital Ohmmeter: It is an instrument that measures electrical resistance (R). Its unit of measure ment is the ohm (Ω) There are two types of ohmmeter, the first, which is what comes bundled with the meter and the second analog. These t ypes of devices should work with any voltage and / or amperage but could become damaged, Sino is known that scale, this does not become damaged if not correct, but does not mark the value, then would have to select either the scale to give us the exact value! To measure high resistors are used to measure resistance mul tiples and small sub-multiples are used. Megohms (M Ω) = 1000 000Ω Kilohms (K Ω) = 1000 Ω Hectohms (Ω) = 100 Ω. This tool can be used to verify that terminals h ave continuity. 3) Buzzer: Generally the buzzer as the prevention or red light indicates alarm as well as t he engine is stopped. Terminals: These are the drivers of current and should check with the multimeter on the sca le of Ohms (Ω) to see if they are not pieces of a point. 1. Reversing stations through buttons Material: • • • • • Diagram: a) Control Button 2 Seasons 2 1 Motor Starters magn etic phase terminals 35 a multimeter b) Force Performance: Pressing BA1 current flows from the commonly BP1 and contact M 2 an d closed to energize the coil of M 1 and green light, then closed the lock of M 1, (While the commonly closed M contact one is open), while in the closed power circuit contacts M 1 and spins the motor in the direction of clockwise. Although BA1 release the coil M 1 and the green light will be energized by that lock. An d although never press BA2 energize the coil of M 2 because the normally closed contact of M 1 is open. Pressing BP1 deenergizes M 1 and the green light and the normally open contact w ill open and the normally closed will be closed and the engine stops working. Pressing BA2 current flows from the BP2 and contact M a gated community and does energize the coil of M 2 and the red light, then closed the lock of M 2, (As co mmonly contact M 2 remains closed open), while in the power circuit contacts clo sed M 2 and spins the motor in the opposite direction clockwise (Since line 3 is bypassed to a second starter and line 1 3, reversing the supply phases parallel three-phase motor). Although BA2 release the coil M 2 and the red light will be energized by that lock. And although the press BA1 never energize the coil of M 1 because the normally closed contact of M 2 is ope n. Pressing deenergizes BP2 M 2 and the normally open and normally closed reopen we re closed and the engine stops working. 2. Reverse rotation by a rotation inverter module. Material: • 2 buttons • stati ons drawing an inverter module pilot lights • 1 • 35 • 1 meter terminals Plot:

Operation: Pressing BAR, the current flows to the coil of R, who ordered to clos e its normally open contact which is the lock and runs the red light and buzzer are connected in parallel with respect to the coil R , indicating that the motor is rotating in the clockwise direction. Since the power circuit is closed norma lly open contacts R A disadvantage of this circuit is that when I have no electrical protection and press BAF,€interlock does not close the F and therefore does not energize the co il of F for the mechanical protection of the starters, then only the light turns green when I let down the BAF, and obviously there is reverse rotation in the p ower circuit. Since they never close the normally open contacts F Or the reverse could be pressed first BAF F energizing coil that sends signal to open common interlocking F and light green light, indicating that the motor is rotating in the opposite direction clockwise, then the lock would not occur now or R coil energizaría BAR pressure, but nothing more was energizaría red light a nd buzzer but without reversing the rotation and the mechanical protection that prevents the two coils are energized simultaneously. In both cases, the system i s de-energized stop pressing any button. The same electrical circuit protection: Role of electrical protection: Pressing BAF passes current to the coil F which s ends energized and latching signal to normally open, green light indicating that the motor is rotating in the opposite position clockwise and electrical protect ion is activated energizing the relay coil A which sends control to open contact A gated community, this is the one that is connected in series with the power b utton of R, so not wanting to pressure and turns on the red light, the buzzer or the coil of R, because the line is disconnected. Or conversely, could push the BAR, and the current from flowing into the coil R which sends energized and latching signal to normally open, turn the red light a nd buzzer indicating that the motor is rotating in the clockwise and activate ot her electrical protection energizing the relay coil B which sends control to ope n its normally closed contact B which is what is connected in series with the po wer button of F, so wanting to pressure him and the green light does not turn or coil that line F is disconnected. In both cases, the system is de-energized sto p pressing any button. 3. Automatic, manual out and three phase motor Material: Limit Switch • 1 • 1 • 1 Switch Level Switch Magnetic Starter Drum • 1 • 2 • 1 Button Stations Pilot Li ghts Terminals • 35 • 1 • 1-phase motor Multimeter Plot: Operation: When power to the circuit, will be in the off position, then the curr ent passes through the normally closed contact of M and will energize the red li ght. Indicating that the engine is out of service. When you select Automatic When the circuit is energized shall start the engine a nd the green light indicating that the motor is energized, if the level switch a nd limit switch are closed both will miss the power. The engine will stop workin g if level (because the switch will be open) or if the limit switch is open. If any of the two switches is open will prevent the passage of current, however if they were connected in parallel did not matter if you were open, while one will find enough to shut off the flow to pass through there. As to energize the coil sends M to open its normally open contact M and off the red light. Then in the p ower circuit closes its normally open contacts and energizes the motor. When you select manual By energizing the circuit and start pressing a button whe ther or BAL BAR energizes the coil M and the light turns green, indicating that

the engine is running, then the coil M sends to close its normally open contact of M and will lock the circuit and opens the normally closed contact of M off th e red light. While in the power circuit is closed normally open contacts of M an d the motor is energized. In both cases, either manually or automatically by pressing GLP-energizes the co il which sends M to open its normally open contact (is unlocked) and close the n ormally closed contact of M again lighting the red light indicating that the eng ine is out of service. 4. Start with time of 2 engines through relays time. Material: • 1 • 2 Control Relay Stations Pilot Lights buttons • 1 • 2 • 1 Buzzer Magnetic Starters • 2 Relays time (10 and 20 seconds) • 35 terminals • 1 • 2 Motors Multimeter phase diagram: Operation: When the horn energizing circuit lights,€RT1 start counting 10 second s and after those 10 seconds RT1 send to close its normally open contact of RT1 but a motor will not operate until you press any of the two start buttons (eithe r local or remote) Pressing any button starter (either local or remote), the coil A is energized, i ts normally closed contact will open and the buzzer will stop working, the norma lly open contact will close and lock the circuit and turn on the motor 1 and gre en light indicating that this is in use, they also energize RT2 And start to run 20 seconds after 20 seconds RT2 send to close its normally open contact of RT2 powered motor 2 and the red light indicating that the latter is in service. Pressing any button on strike (whether local or remote) will de-energize all the coils back their contacts to their normal position by turning off lights, motor s and lighting the buzzer again. Here the exception is the coil that will RT1 en ergized and normally open contact will be closed. And nothing will happen until the whole system shut off power or press a start button 5. On engines with a time of two relays through time. Material. • 1 • 2 Control Relay Stations Pilot Lights buttons • 1 • 2 • 1 Buzzer Magnetic Starters • 2 Rel ays time (10 and 20 seconds) • 35 terminals • 1 • 2 three-phase motors Multimete r Plot: Operation: When power to the circuit current passes through the normally closed contact of A and ignited at the buzzer indicating that both engines are out of s ervice. By pressing a start button (either local or remote) will energize the coil of A which send to open its normally closed contact and off the buzzer, closing its n ormally open contact and engage the energizing circuit RT1 and RT2, RT1 then acc ount 10 seconds to close its normally open contact and energize the motor 1 and a green light to indicate that it is operating. As RT1, RT2 has 20 seconds to cl ose its normally open contact of RT2 and energize the motor 2 and a red light to indicate that it is operating. Pressing any button on strike (whether local or remote) will de-energize all the coils back their contacts to their normal position extinguished the lights, the engine and setting the buzzer again. 6. Start with automatic and manual off time of 2 engines through time relays. Material: • 1 • 1 drum Switch Limit Switch Level Sw

itch • 1 • 1 • 2 Control Relay Stations Pilot Lights buttons • 1 • 2 • 1 Buzzer Magnetic Starters • 2 Relays time (October 2 seconds) • 35 terminals • 1 • 2 thr ee-phase motors multimeter. Plot: Operation: When power to the circuit, will be in the off position, then the curr ent passes through the normally closed contact of A and will energize the buzzer indicating that both engines are out of service. When you select Automatic: When energized the circuit should turn on the coil wh ich sends A to open its normally closed contact of A and the time the buzzer goe s off, it also sends to close its normally open contact of A and energizing inte rlocking circuit RT1 and RT2, both have 20 seconds to close its normally open co ntacts of RT1 and RT2 respectively while energizing the coils M 1 and M 2 then t he lights green and red also indicating that the two engines are in service. Bot h engines will stop working if level (because the switch will be open) and if th e limit switch is open. If the two switches are opened will prevent the passage of current, however if you open only one, no matter since the current can flow t hrough another switch, and they are connected in parallel. When you select manual: When you press the button momentote local or remote boot , should turn on the coil which sends A to open its normally closed contact of A and turn off the buzzer, it also sends to close its normally open contact A int erlocking circuit and energizing the RT1 and RT2, both have 20 seconds to close its normally open contacts of RT1 and RT2 respectively while energizing the coil s M 1 and M 2 then the lights green and red also indicating that the two motors are in service. Pressing either of the two stop buttons deenergizes motors and l ights€then the contactor coils return to their original position and re-energize s the buzzer indicating that the two meet again off-duty engines. Comments or suggestions for the course. I really liked this course because many things are reviewed in just two weeks, but for greater understanding of the issu es and rapid implementation of activities taught during this course I suggest th e following. • • That the course is taught in groups of 20-25 students. It has more terminals in the electromechanical workshop, as they are very rare and can not fast forward a ctivities.