UNIT 13. Decolonization. 1 UNIT 13. Decolonization. I.

THE ROAD TO DECOLONIZATION DEFINITION: It's called the process of decolonization, independence of the count ries that were colonized by the great European empires. MEMORANDUM FOR DECOLONIZ ATION: Crisis of the metropolis Emergence of nationalism in the colonies Consequ ences of World War II bipolar (Cold War) The crisis between the wars. One of the reasons for imperialism was the search for raw materials and markets. The 1929 crisis revealed the change of circumstances: Impoverishment of the economies of the colonies. Reduction of investment in the colonial administration (partial tr ansfer of powers). costs of maintaining the colonies: Improved administration an d enforcement apparatus. Increased participation of the population in the metrop olis. The ideologies of national liberation. Creation in the colonies of nationa l liberation movements. Transformation of colonial society (the origin of the mo vement of emancipation). The local elite bourgeois agrarian way of commercial or administrative. The new bourgeoisie developed the nationalist principles and wa s the source of most of the "fathers of the fatherland." The transformation of t he colonies and Third World are due to: Minority enlightened and educated by the metropolises operating in backward societies. anti-colonial ideologies of a ver y different but blend of tradition and modernity. 2.1. Defending Emancipation in digenous values based on the defense and recovery of their own cultural values. Examples can be. Blackness of L.S. Pan Africanism and Pan-Islamism Senghor. trad itions of Hindu civilization 2.2. The spread of communism. anti-colonial ideas f orged in Europe after the Second International. Indonesia and Indochina (1920 Ho Chi Minh). 2.3. Western influence. No liberation movement ideas based on site-s pecific. All processes of decolonization were based on Western ideas, liberal, s ocial or national. Western were also many of the methods used. 2.4. The role of local elites. Trained in Western values and European centers. The rediscovery of the cultural values of their civilization on his return. Gandhi, Nehru, Senghor , Nkrumah. The consequences of World War II. Decisive by: Weakening of the colon ial powers. Japanese occupation generated anti-Western (Assembly of the great na tions of East Asia, Tokyo, 1943) West was not invincible. School of guerrilla wa rfare against Japan-born West and popular leaders (eg, Ho chi minh). The post-wa r and bipolarity. Transformation of France and Great Britain in second-order pow ers. 1. 2. 3. 4. UNIT 13. Decolonization. 2

U.S. anti-colonialist position (historical and economic reasons) and USSR (ideol ogical). Creation of the UN: Equality between people and the right to self deter mination. Establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement, alternative political bloc (India and China). New point of reference in the Bandung Conference of 1955 in J ava, Indonesia.

II. The decolonization of Asia. Three stars: India (British), Indonesia (Netherlands), Indochina (France). 1. Th e British possessions. 1.1. British India. The first step towards the decoloniza tion of Asia, according to the British government. In February 1947 C. Attlee (B ritish Prime Minister) set a date. August 1947 Lord Mountbatten, Gandhi, Nehru a nd Jinnah. India agrees to Independence. 1.1.1. The partition. Creating two stat es for religious reasons and British interest: The Union of India, Indian and ru n by Nehru (900). Pakistan Jinnah-led Muslim (400) Costs of the division: Territ orial conflicts Bengal and Punjab (500,000 dead) 1946-47. Wave of refugees and M uslim population transfers 7.5 and 10 Indians. 1.1.2. Developments after indepen dence. Pakistan: Divided into two 2,000 km apart, frequent military dictatorship s, wars of segregation of Bangla Desh, conflict with India over Kashmir. India, political stability, government Nehru family until 1964, Shastri, Indira, Rajiv. 1.2. Other British colonies in Asia. Impact on Burma, Ceylon, and Malaysia. 194 8 independent Burma. League of World War II fascist Aung San (Myanmar). 1946 Con stitution, 1948 Independence. 1972 1957 SRI LANKA Malayan Union (40% Chinese, 20 % Indians, 40% Malays) only independent Singapore. 1997 Hong Kong handover to Ch ina. 2. The independence of Indonesia.€ 1942 Quick Japanese occupation Surrender of Japan 1945, Republic of Indonesia with Sukarno's Indonesian Nationalist Party 1 945 Recovery of control by the Netherlands with British help 1947-1948 Guerrilla s, military conquest of the archipelago, internationalization of the conflict. 1 949 Republic of Indonesia, Sukarno as President until 1965 (Communist). 1965 to 1991 revolt Suharto (Suppression of the Communist Party). 3. The loss of French territories. The French Fourth Republic (1946) attempted to create a French Unio n with France and its colonies. 3.1. The war in Indochina. Essential experience of the Japanese occupation 1946, Ho Chi Minh, the League for the Independence of Vietnam (Vietminh) Democratic Republic of Vietnam. by French military reoccupat ion Differences between the South (With Chinchina French settlers) and North (an ti-French) Indochina War from 1946 to 1954 (north-south) 1950 with the help of N orth and South China with U.S. aid. 1954 Defeat of Dien Bien Phu. Division of In dochina in Laos, Cambodia and North Vietnam and South. . UNIT 13. Decolonization. 3 III. The decolonization of Africa. Mainly since 1957 (Ghana) and 1962 (Algeria). Not quite. 1. British colonies. Pr ocess uncontroversial except under pressure from European settlers. Elements tha t helped the process of independence C. 1945 Labour Government Attlee. national awareness of Afro-Asian countries. 1955 Bandung Asian decolonization was the imp etus. In less developed African government structures. Low public participation in government. African leaders trained in British universities. 1.1. Western equ atorial Africa. First and most perfect example. COSTA DE ORO 1957 > GHANA with N. Nkrumah. PROCESS: 1950: Governor's Advisory Council becomes National Assembly 1 952: N. Nkrumah became prime minister .. Maintenance within the Commonwealth. Ex ample for other processes in the area. OTHER LIKE: Sierra Leone, Togo, Dahomey a nd Gambia. NIGERIA 1960 Huge ethnic, religious and economic. Biafra War of 19671970. 1.2. East Africa. Scheme applied the same as in the equatorial but more pr oblems by Europeans and Indians. Tanganyika in 1961 J. Nyerere's Tanganyika Afri can National Union party (TANU). TANZANIA 1964 (union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar ). 1963 with J. KENYA Kenyatta. Without conflict and joined the West 1.3. Southe rn Africa. Important problems in the amount of white people who wanted to keep i ts privileged position. 1964 Nyasaland> MALAWI, African party electoral triumph NORTHERN RHODESIA 1964> ZAMBIA, Triumph African party electoral Southern Rhodesi a, Ian Smith's white minority victory. Long racial conflict. Patriotic Front R. MUGABE. ZIMBABWE 1980 multiracial Constitution (Current problems). 2. Belgian co lonies. Belgian colony type: total exclusion of native government Focusing on ed ucation and health Special economic importance of Belgian Congo. Creation of a b ourgeois merchant class and proletarian nationalism after WWII. Decolonization i

n 30 years (as the Belgians). Racial and colonial conflicts. 1959 Civil War and Racial Republic of Congo 1960 CASVUBU And LUMUNBA secession of Katanga (UN inter vention) Mobutu's coup (military dictatorship). 3. The collapse of the French em pire. Fourth Republic establishment of the French Union (failure). Decolonizatio n of Asia accelerated the process. 3.1. The independence agreed. 1956 G. framewo rk law Deferre, colonial autonomy Morocco Mohamed V 1956 UNIT 13. Decolonization. 4 H. 1956 TUNISIA Bourguiba. 1958 Referendum on independence and integration into the "French community" (except Guinea). 1960 Independence EQUATORIAL AFRICA, WES T AFRICA AND MADAGASCAR. 3.2. The case of Algeria. Increased integration in the metropolis and white settlers (ninth Pied noir / native) 1954-1962 undeclared Wa r (500,000 dead) NLF National Liberation Front A. BEN BELLA. . PHASES: 1958 Attem pted military uprising in 1959 De Gaulle Africa recognizes the right to self-det ermination of the Algerian 1962 Evian Accords, Algerian state recognition. 4. Th e end of the Portuguese empire. later Decolonization Salazar resistance to dispe nse essential part of Portugal liberation movements of the 50s: Guinea and Cape Verde African Party for Independence of .. Amilcar Cabral MOZAMBIQUE PAIGC Front for the Liberation of .. FRELIMO. ANGOLA Movement for the Liberation of .. MPLA . 1961€from guerrilla warfare. 1974 Carnation Revolution (end dictatorship of Sala zar). 1974 Republic of Guinea-Bissau 1975 Republic of Cape Verde, Republic of Mo zambique civil war in Angola.

IV. MIDDLE EAST AND THE CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL. 1. The wars. Problems after the First World War: decomposition of the Ottoman Em pire brought numerous changes: Turkey and Persia changed political regime. Iraq and Egypt, supervised independence by the British Palestine, Syria and Jordan un der French or British mandate. Discovery of oil. Possibility of Jewish statehood . social structure organized in tribes or ethnic religious communities 50% Mix 5 0% Turkos Arabic, Armenian, Kurdish, Persian. religious Blend: 95% muslin, with sunmitas and Shiite 1.1. The new states. new bureaucracies and new armies. TURKE Y ATATURK Mustafa Kemal (military device) IRAN Reza Pahlevi in 1926 Egypt Nasser first class of the Egyptian military academy. 1.2. Arab nationalism. Principles of Arab nationalism, religious cohesion (Belief in the religious community the Umma). Conviction of being part of a common ethnicity, with Arabic as a language . Arab nationalism and comes against the Turks and was consolidated in 1918 agai nst British and Zionist front. Request for the creation of a Jewish state (Zioni sm). 2. The creation of the state of Israel. 2.1. Historical background. 1917 Ba lfour Declaration (British support for establishment of the Jewish state in Pale stine) SN Mandate over Palestine to Britain. 1918 Jewish mass immigration create d a Jewish immigration quota Conflicts, problems, illegal immigration. UNIT 13. Decolonization. 5 Jewish HOLOCAUST 1945. 1,200,000 600,000 Jews against Arabs in Palestine. Attack s on British interests to replace British control by the U.S.. 2.2. The partitio n of Palestine. 1947 UN proposed partitioning Palestine. 55% continued to Jews 4 5% in three zones for the international space Palestinian Jerusalem. 1948, May 1 5 State of Israel David Ben Gurion. 1948-1949 FIRST ARAB-ISRAELI WAR (wins Israe l). Israel with 70% of the territory and East Jerusalem West Bank Gaza to Egypt to Jordan. DATA OF ISRAEL: Political Regime Parliamentarians alternating between the Conservatives and Labour. Economic success with the creation of the kibbutz (agricultural cooperatives) 3. The Arab world and the conflicts with Israel. 3.

1. The new Arab states. 1948 Loss and change in Arab states: Jordan (Abdullah / Hussein 1951) pro-Western. EGYPT (King Farouk / Nasser 1952-1970) Leadership of the Arab world. RAU 1958 Brief United Arab Republic (Egypt, Syria and South Yeme n). Increasing intervention of the powers due to strategic importance. 3.2. The Suez Crisis. Replacing 1956 France and England by USA and USSR. nationalization of the Suez Canal by Nasser. WAR ARAB-ISRAELI France, Britain and Israel against Egypt, occupation of Sinai. UN and USA and USSR to France and England forced to withdraw. 3.3. The most recent conflicts. 1967 Arab-Israeli War III or "Six-Day War." 1973 Fourth Arab-Israeli War or Yom Kippur War. " Attempts solution: Isra el's bilateral agreements with Arab countries 1978 Camp David Accords between Is rael and Egypt J. Carter. 3.4. The Palestinian problem. 1964 Liberation Organiza tion PLO Palestine Yasser Arafat. 1970 Expelled from Jordan 1974 Recognized by t he UN. 1978 Camp David Accords 1988 invasion of Lebanon Intifada, Palestinian De claration of Independence 1991 land for peace, the Madrid Accords. Recognition o f the authority Palestine. Autonomy of Jericho and Gaza. Second Intifada since 2 001. 2006 hammas. 3.5. The struggle for the Middle East. Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988 Gulf War 1991-92. 2003 Iraq War.