066 01/09/2005 18:39 Page 66 System File extensions The EXE

What hides double-click A look at the extension as used in Windows, can run a process or software er use any program in Windows usually takes very little is enough, in fact, a si mple click on the corresponding icon on your desktop or on a link included in th e Start menu or even the name of a file in a folder of some ' hard drive. In fac t, when we carry out one of these simple steps, we only invoke a file "executabl e" able, ie, performing a variety of procedures necessary to the operating syste m to start the program. These files can be easily distinguished from others beca use its extension is EXE, which is nothing if not an abbreviation of the English word "Executable (executable). ALSO READ ... Win number 78 Magazine, page 120, we talked in depth of file extensions P How is an EXE file? An executable file contains within it a set of instructions that the computer mu st perform. To create software developers make use of a special instrument calle d a "compiler", which processes the instructions written in some programming lan guage and translates them into simpler ones that can be understood and then exec uted by the computer. In fact, when we click on a file. Exe, in most cases we ar e only just starting the main part of the program, while the other files necessa ry for the operation of the software (executables, dynamic libraries, configurat ion files, etc.). are recalled later, when needed, using the references inserted in the executable code itself. THE MOST COMMON EXE FILE NAME INSTALL.EXE, SETUP. EXE Here are some typical examples of names used to identify an executable file. DESCRIPTION Installation files of a program self-extracting compressed file, that is able to extract the contents to disk even if the system was not installed File WinZip o r WinRAR to start a worm or virus that spreads by launching the executable FILECOMPRESSO.EXE Program.exe HAPPY99.EXE A large family Executable files are not only able to launch an application already installed on your system, but can also play a number of other operations. Some of them (the classic ones that have a name like setup.exe or install.exe) carry out the proce dure for installing software, while others allow you to unpack a compressed file directly into a folder on your hard drive, even though we have installed a comp ression program like WinZip or WinRAR famous. Did you know then that the majorit y of existing viruses and worms spread its form of executable files. It is not u

nlikely, in fact, by executing an infected file. Exe which is uncertain origin, perhaps downloaded from the Internet or received as an attachment to any email. The Board is therefore to be wary of executable files of dubious origin and alwa ys rely on a good updated antivirus. Clicking on an executable file (eg miofile.exe) Windows files and invoke system libraries needed for its execution. 66 Win Magazine October 2005 100 27/09/2005 18:38 Page 100 System File extensions The EXE

The sorted file, Windows We analyze the operation of the executable used to automatically start a sequenc e of commands guibile line of text containing the command, is run by computer and then proceed s with the next line, all this until the end of the text. Making a. Bat is quite simple, just a normal text editor like DOS Edit or Windows Notepad. The command s used within a batch file are classics of the DOS command line, plus others tha t are part of the programming language typical of batch files that create and co ntrol structures to make incremental and, therefore, small programs . The most f amous is certainly autoexec.bat batch file that runs automatically at boot DOS o r Windows 95/98 and containing a series of commands for initializing the compute r. In these operating systems the automatic extension procedures BAT stands for "bat-file is used principalch autoexec.bat" (literally,€means "group") and mind to set variables sisteusata to indicate a text file or to start but some progra ms (a bit 'which contains a series of commands that what is entering collegamenc omputer running in the same sequence with your applications in the folder which they were written. Unlike Startup Start Menu EXE file, that when I am creating W indows-XP). If well planned, files are not compiled and then made ready to be ca rried. "Bat prove very execution tools, batch files are processed only powerful because they can be used when they are opened. A-shares to automate routine task s particular module in the system, called "interpreted or to avoid a direct inte raction of the command you" means carried-education system with the user. Precis ely for this reason, many viruses spread as email attachments with the extension BAT. With few lines of code, to give an example of the dangers of these files i s useful for making possiDue batch file automatically cleaning bile create a fil e system. The first file to be executed once, call the setup screen disk cleanup utility through the command "cleanmgr batch that deletes all files in a car / s ageset. The second, however, start the cleaning process itself tella System. and can be run whenever we want. ALSO READ ... Win number 80 Magazine have analyzed the functioning of egeguibili file with a. Exe S

birch between folders on your computer, it will definitely happen to come across files or COM BAT: belong to the category of the binaries (just like. exe file w e discussed on last issue) and, as such, contain instructions that are executed from our computer. Historically. Bat file and. Com come from the MS-DOS and earl y versions of Windows operating systems in which were widely applied. Over the y ears slowly fell into disuse and the newer Windows systems, like 2000 and XP, co ntinue to support them only to ensure greater compatibility with older software. Simple commands The files with extension. Com, an abbreviation of the English command, are real executables, which are no larger than 64 KB. These programs are structured so as to be loaded and run directly into the computer RAM. The most important of thes e is the command.com file, a module that executes the commands that we put ourse lves in the window of the DOS Command Prompt. This file is its interpretation: i n short, when I type one, it shall analyze the syntax to check its validity and if there are no errors, runs it. AUTOMATIC CONTROLS COMMAND CD PAUSE CLS REM ECHO MKDIR (or MD) rmdir (or RD) OF RENAME (REN O) XCOPY COPY M OVE IF GOTO CALL EXIT Here is a list of main keywords in the text of the batch programs. FUNCTION Inserts a comment line displays a text directly on the monitor screen Clear Need to move to another folder or drive temporarily stop execution of a batch progra m creates a folder Delete a folder Delete a file or files Rename one or more fil es Copy one or more files to another location Copy files and directory structure contained in a directory to another location Move one or more files from one fo lder to another Performs Performs a conditional statement is on a line marked wi th a label spells out a batch file from another batch program ends execution of the current batch file 100 Win Magazine November 2005 100 21/10/2005 11:25 Page 100 System File extensions MSI files

When setup does everything by itself Let us examine an extension of the files created by Microsoft to better manage t he installation of software vviare installing a program has become an operation familiar to anyone who has a cquired a bit 'of familiarity with the computer. Just double click the executabl e package to install the software and you're done. Most of the installation file s are easily identifiable because they generally have much explanatory names, ty pe install.exe (or setup.exe) or even have the same program name, eg DivXCreate. exe. It is not uncommon, however, confronted with distributed programs, especial ly by Microsoft, through msi file. Contrary to what one might think, even if the behavior is similar to video, these files are not self-installing executable,€

but contain a wealth of information necessary to add new functionality and featu res to the program, remove or modify the installation. ALSO READ ... Win number 80 Magazine, page 66, we analyzed the operation of executable files. Exe A Windows Installer MSI files are processed by a particular system service called Windows The installation files of Photo Story 3 (Microsoft image editor) is of type MSI. So if it runs after installation, permtte to remove all the program files or re store them in case of errors. Installer, provided, of course, it's both, combined type, tables of data already present and active within an installation package managed by Windows Installer. system. WHAT KIND OF TABLES CONTAIN this component already intel descriptions o f the features of application components grateful CORE in Windows XP, and change s to be made in the register and distribuiREGISTRY developed the Windows files t o free from FILE included in the installation package Microsoft (We SYSTEM infor mation about tables and columns that are downloaded from the site database www.m icrosoft.com/ bitmap images, links and other elements used PROGRAM INFORMATION p rogram downloads). LOCATOR joint position of the files and applications currentl y verINSTALLATION PROCEDURES Data on procedures performed during the installatio n sion 3.1, software from precedel tooth 3.0 (previously included in Service Pac k 2 for Windows in which the system is already a verXP ), Windows Installer no l onger supports the mission of the older software (esemWindows 95/98/ME: If we ha ve a pious of replacing only some files or ProQuest operating systems, we downlo ad-yielding directly to uninstall and re install version 2.0. When the old versi on of the program). we start an MSI file, the Windows Installer engine reads ins tructions and data packages intelligent in it and shall copy the Precisely becau se of their internal structure, program on your hard drive, create or use an MSI file for packages and add more shortcuts on the desktop or installing programs involves changing the registry keys config-many advantages over a traditional ra tion file. Windows Installer also displayed setup exe. Here they are in detza a dialog within the cutting where we can select the components of the software to install or if the installation is stopped or not to upgrade. were to be successf ul, Windows Installer can restore the original state of the system without leavi ng alcuCosa contains an MSI file? na track. MSI files are the actual database, w hen uninstall a software, that is, all consist of a set of tables are accurataal l'interno its components which are stored neatly disposed mind, the various soft ware components (files, immasenza However condigini delete files, links, etc..) and the instructions and faces from other applications. data required to install or remove them if the program were to stop in various situations that may prese nfunzionare for any reason, tare. In fact, typically, the code of the installati on is capable of repairing single MSI file are also included identifying and rep lacing any procedures to be followed if the application is missing or corrupted files. was never installed on the PC or if SECRETS contained in a file MSI 100 Win Magazine December 2005 120 11/16/2005 14:23 Page 120 System

File extensions

INI files

INI File: Windows starts from here! The launch of the software and the system is controlled by some configuration fi les which contain the main settings ALSO READ ... Win number 78 Magazine we analyzed the meaning of file extensions. the amount of virtual memory used to speed up all operations involving a shift o f data within the system. The Win.ini, also of ancient date, but contains the se ttings related to fonts, wallpapers, device drivers, etc.. Last in order of appe arance, but the System Configuration Utility, bootable by typing msconfig not le ast, the Start menu / Run, offers quick access to content is the file Boot.ini S ystem.ini file, win.ini, and boot.ini. present in the Windows NT/2000/XP,€which contains all relevant information of the variable timed match) the performance of operating systems installed and the system to run as the default on the PC si de. Thanks to it, during (indicated as default) The family of Major INI INI File s are displayed at startup to boot [operating systems], which hosts inforSystem. ini, Win.ini and Boot . ini. The file manager that allows us to choose side-tion about the location of the System.ini systems, inherited from Windows 3.1 was th e operating system files installed operating eseguire.Il. initially used to enab le the set-Boot.ini is organized into two sections: the basic advantages of the operating system. [Boot loader], in which twenty-Configuration Configuration uti lity is adequately defined Gono possi-time visualization of the bile system shar e the swap file and change the startup screen (shown in order to edit a file. In i just open it with any text editor such as Windows Notepad. Alternatively, we c an use the form on the System Configuration Utility, which is accessed using the command msconfig in Start / Run. Under this program, you can view and edit cont ent of. ini file that we described above and check the status of Windows service s. Remember, though, to be very careful when handling. ini file, since inappropr iate changes may comEcco a classic example of a Boot.ini file used for Managing multiple operating systems installed on promise operation of our own PCs. Here i s configured to allow the launch of three different versions of Windows XP opera ting system. installed on two hard drives, the first of which has two partitions : rdisk (0) partition (1) and rdisk (0) partition (2). Q hen turn on or restart the computer, Windows loads the settings stored in specia l files, called "configuration file". These settings are very important for mana ging the operation of the operating system during the entire session. Typically configuration files are located in the C: or C: \ Windows and use the extension INI, short for "init" (initialization). In addition to Windows, some software al so store their boot settings using. Ini files stored within their installation f older or in the system. A. Ini reality is nothing but a plain text file divided into sections, brackets, inside which contains the parameter names followed by a n equals sign and value (eg, timeout = 30). 120 Win Magazine Christmas 2005 113 10/12/2005 10:07

Page 113 DLL files File extensions

System ALSO READ ... Win number 78 Magazine we analyzed the meaning of file extensions. Those crazy crazy bookstores! The proper operation of Windows and applications depends on some files "vital" f or the PC N and Windows operating systems play a particularly important files identified by the extension DLL (Dynamic Link Library). Commonly known as "DLLs" are small pie ces of code that perform specific functions well. Are so important that their ta mpering or cancellation may affect the operation of the system. DLL files are un loaded in the world of the early 90's, strongly desired by the developer, always looking for a convenient way to update their applications. In the past, when we wanted to update software or fix a bug, it was necessary to recompile the entir e application and re-distribute it to users. Using DLL files, however, this is m uch easier just to replace the library that deals with a specific function to ma ke the appropriate updates. tions in the DLL file, when executed, are brought into play all its functions, i ncluding those not used. Conversely, using the DLL library, computer resources a re used only when necessary. Each medal has its reverse: the DLL files are often due to software conflicts, since it can happen that multiple applications insta ll different versions of the same library. The worst thing is when programs deve loped for older versions of Windows, or made by Classic example of an application that crashes because it is a DLL required for its execution. "The DLLs can cause software conflicts" amateur programmers, trying to override the system libraries.€In this case the security mechanism of Windows warns with a dialog box that software is trying to replace a DLL with another older. There is no doubt: click on Yes to keep the v ersion of the DLL file on disk and protect us from any possible error. Advantages and disadvantages of DLL files The use of DLL file not only facilitates the work of programmers, it will also s ave a lot of hardware resources. If software is composed of a single block witho ut divide function corrupt (we can copy from another computer or found on the Internet using a sear ch engine like Google). When we insert a new library in the system folder (C: \ Windows \ System32) is required to register, log entries that update certain con figuration of Windows. To do so the operating system makes available the utility regsvr32.exe. Operation is very simple: just type the DOS command prompt or the Start menu / Run Windows command regsvr32.exe c: \ path \ nomedll.dll. And if the file is not there? If a DLL is changed (deleted or overwritten by another version by mistake), and the same Windows programs may stop working properly or may even become impossibl e to start them. In less serious cases is sufficient to repair the installation of the program, alttre necessaPer situations is to use a DLL file in Windows you must first carry out the stream to replace the liregistrazione. To do this we c

an use the menu command regsrv.exe brera missing or Start / Run. MAIN FILE DLLs used by Windows FILE GDI32.DLL KERNEL32.DLL NETAPI.DLL Odbc32.dll SHELL32.DLL USER32.DLL WINMM.DLL CO MDLG.DLL DDRAW.DLL DSOUND.DLL MAPI32.DLL LZ32.DLL Some of the libraries necessary for the proper functioning of the operating syst em. MANAGES The output of memory devices, processes, system resources access and control of network connectivity to databases Opening and Closing Windows, dialog boxes, net work connection, etc.. The menus, cursors, messages, etc.. The multimedia system dialogs The animated graphics in the games sound effects in games E-mail File c ompression Win Magazine January 2006 113 107 09/01/2006 14:20 Page 107 REG files File extensions

System ALSO READ ... Win number 78 Magazine we analyzed the meaning of file extensions. The scalpel of the Windows Registry To avoid compromising the operation of the system, the reg file, favorites by fr eaks should be used with caution ny application or open file referenced during its execution to a single large da tabase continuously updated: the configuration register of Windows. This is wher e all information is saved in a position to operate the system and installed pro grams. To view and edit the contents of this database, you typically use to the Registry System, a small program that can draw from the Start menu / Run, typing regedit. An alternative is the reg file (short for "registry"), ordinary text f ile containing a sequence of values to be included in the registry. Q Registers for all uses Unlike what you might think, the. Reg are widespread. On the Internet there are many sites that make available. Reg file prepared specifically for the optimizat ion of the operating system. Sometimes they are also distributed as a patch or e ven programs to illegally change the settings and software licenses. The. Reg fi le, once opened, will automatically change the registry. To run it just double-c lick on them and confirm the addition of new values to the registry. The The Registry Editor Windows configuration allows a tree view. We can use it (ver y carefully) to modify the registry keys, or to see the changes made by running a. Reg. same result is obtained using the voice Merge cha appears when you click on the

file with the right mouse button. It's always good to act with caution on the re gistry, regardless of it being done manually or through a file. Reg. In itself t his is indeed a very dangerous that in some cases may even lead to blocking of W indows, it is equally true that, if carried out by knowledge of the facts, make improvements to the stability and speed of applicat ion and operating system. REG file into the open Whenever you are faced with a file.reg we downloaded from the Net is good practi ce to give a peek inside the instructions. To do so, apriamolo using the Windows Notepad. See that the syntax is very simple: at the beginning of the text is th e keyword REGEDIT4 and each successive line, square brackets, the full path of t he registry key, the name of the string to add (quotation marks) and value to se t. Once you file, to see if a key was inserted correctly, simply launch the Regi stry Editor and check the string value added or modified. Recall that because th e changes to take effect, you often need to restart your computer. To view the contents of a reg file just open it with Windows Notepad. This examp le adds a string to a registry key: the effect is obtained by turning off advanc ed file search in Windows XP. Win Magazine February 2006 107 111 18/09/2006 9:47 Page 111 CAB files File extensions

System ALSO READ ... Win number 78 Magazine we analyzed the meaning of file extensions. Pack may be a need Inside the Windows installation packages are the CAB files optimized to contain dozens of files L and applications and all Microsoft operating systems are distributed on CD and D VD containing dozens of file cabinet. These are nothing but real records can con tain groups of files in "super compressed". Archives. Cabs are not only present on the installation disks of the programs but are also found within the system f olders in Windows XP. The files that come from the past 80 Years Since Microsoft has felt the need to save space on the media with which to distribute their programs. To streamline the necessary floppy disk operating system MS-DOS was resorted to, in fact, a particular compression method called LZSS. Only 90 Years in the Redmond company, take advantage of the compression LZ X (learn more visit http://xavprods.free.fr/lzx) developed by programmers dell'A miga, managed to leap on giving birth to the file cabinet, or just cab. The work of programmers Amiga was so popular that in 1997, Jonathan Forbes, dell'LZX fat

her was asTo extract a file from an archive. Cab using the command prompt windows, you use the Expand tool. That process may be useful to restore damaged system files or drivers. summary from Microsoft to improve the compression algorithm of the cabinet. In W indows XP is in C: \ WINDOWS \ Driver Cache \ i386 and contains all the device d river, type the prompt cd C: \ WINDOWS \ Driver Cache \ i386 to position ourselv es in the folder. Then using the expand command / d driver.cab, we slide to the list of video files. To extract such as hard disk: The file msgame.sys, simply u se the expand command driver.cab / f: mgame.sys C: \. The option / f: is used to specify the file to extract. For a complete list of options can be used with Ex pand, however, simply type EXPAND /?. Wizards of the console In Windows XP thanks to the functionality, integrity compression / decompression of archives, the file contents. Cab can be explored without having to unzip the m. However, it should not ever take advantage of the graphical interface too, si nce you may need to extract a file from an archive. Cab without access to it (wh en, for example, in the event of a crash, you must restore a corrupted file) . T o learn how to manipulate. Cab from the command line, we can use the Command Pro mpt in Windows XP (to start just go to Start / Run, type cmd and click OK). The command that we learn about fiddling with the CAB to expand (in earlier versions of Windows is used instead of extract, see the Windows CAB box 98). If we wante d to, for example, view the contents of driver.cab The CAB IN WINDOWS 98 In Windows 98 command that allows you to manipulate files. CAB Extract, whose sy ntax is extract [/ y] [/ a] [/ d s] [/ l location] cabinet_file. To find, for example, a file inside a. Cab and extract it to a folder you must type the comma nd prompt, extract / a <CABINET> name> file cercato> / l of <Directory destinazi one>. To determine which file instead. Cab file contains a file without removing it, just use the / d, typing extract / a / d <cabinet> <file name searched. OPTIONS EXPAND Here are all of the keywords used with this command to manipulate CAB files. OPTION -R-D-F /? USED FOR ... Rename the files that are unpacked View the list of files within the archive, sp ecify the file name to appear on the screen to extract a list of all the command options Win Magazine March 2006 111 111 06/03/2006 10:24 Page 111 NFO files, INF and LOG System COMPLETE File extensions

SOFTWARE Let's look at extensions used for program installation and control of Internet c onnections ARE ON THE CD DVD A family of file "well informed" It common opinion that the only text files used are those with. txt. In fact there are at least three extensions also notes, NFO, INF, LOG, used to indicate text f iles that contain information or a series of operations that the computer has to make during installation of programs. Let's see how they work. FireLogXp is under System Tips subheading ... The use of the files. Nfo has spread to the Internet becoming an extension mainl y used in the community of crackers who like to enter into compressed files inst ructions on how to apply a patch or how to enter a serial record for a software trial. Generally files. Nfo can be opened using the file viewer is included in W inZip WinRar alternatively be any good text editor. It is also very common to fi nd in them some drawings using the ASCII code. configuration used to install programs on Windows. There. Inf file very complex, such as those for installing device drivers or software, but to get a taste of the syntax used for creating these files, we just analyze the most common, ie au torun.inf. The latter is used to automatically start a CD or DVD, once inserted. An example at hand is the autorun. Inf on the CD / DVD Win Magazine: [autorun] open = icon = Win_Magazine.exe win.ico square brackets is inserted into the func tion to call, then with open = indicates the executable to launch and icon = ico n to bring up the CD / DVD use. Pfirewall.log are stored within the file information collected by the Windows Fi rewall when we are connected to the Internet. Its contents can be viewed in deta il with special software like FireLogXp. Knowledge is power The last category to consider is that of. Log file used by Windows and applicati ons to keep track of any errors during installation or execution and exploited b y system administrators to check the history of Internet connections. We take, f or example, the file generated by Pfirewall.log Windows firewall, located by def ault in C: \ Windows. The location and connection settings can be changed drawn from Start / Settings / Control Panel / Windows Firewall / Advanced / Security L ogging. Like all log files in Pfirewall.log information are placed one after the other, making it difficult to decipher the content using the Windows Notepad. I t may be useful to use free software FireLogXP (present in the System section of the CD / DVD Win Magazine) that displays all ports and IP addresses requested b y worms in search of infected machines. Installation control Unlike the speech for documents inf. In practice file ALSO READ ... Win number 78 Magazine we analyzed the meaning of file extensions. An example of an autorun.inf file. Inside it lists the operations that the PC mu st perform after the user has inserted a CD or DVD into the player.

Win Magazine April 2006 111 078 03/30/2006 16:46 Page 78 System File extensions BAK files

When something goes wrong, the BAK file and restore points are used to reactivat e the operating system ALSO READ ... Win Magazine on previous numbers we talked about the following file extensions: EXE, INI, DLL, REG CAB, INF, LOG, NFO, BAK, COM, BAT and MSI. A file that leverage Windows of trouble A ll'interno folders software installed on PCs often have files with a. bak, short for "backup". These are just backup files of original versions. Almost all prog rams, whether designed by developers cautious, making saving important files to function. Thus, if a problem occurs,€you can always restore the original files using backup copies. A typical case is that the text editor (except Notepad) whi ch by default creates a copy. Bak of document you are making changes. To use a b ackup, simply rename the file. Bak with the correct extension used by the softwa re. In the case of a text document, for example, simply change. Bak. Txt. The sa me procedure applies to all other extensions. Inside the System Volume Information folder are stored restore points created by Windows XP. Start / Programs / Accessories / System Tools / System Restore. This tool allows you to create a backup of system files, called "restore point", used when (eg a fter installing a software or driver) the system does not work well or gives err or messages. Restore points are contained in the System folder VoluII If Windows backup programs are used to save copies of my Information, in the directory bac kup, Windows XP is no exception, principal of all disk partitions as complements ' Recovery disk utility and hidden for security reasons. The system configuratio n, are accessible from inside the directory whose name is the type _restore (xxx x-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx) (where xxxx are letters and numbers), which contain the backup data. To view it, from Windows Explorer click on Tools / Folder Options / V iew : Put a check mark on Show hidden files and folders Display the contents and Sys tem Restore tool lets you create a restore point of system folders while we rais e and return the system to a state previous to the present. the check from Hide protected operating system files. Windows XP Professional wi th NTFS file system must also uncheck Use simple file sharing. We confirm all OK . At this point, to access the contents of System Volume Information folder, cli cchiamoci above with the right mouse button, select Sharing and Security, Securi ty, and then add the user we logged in the system. To avoid inadvertently delete the backup file system, by default in Windows XP S

ystem Volume Information folder is hidden and not accessible to all users of the system. 78 Win Magazine May 2006 107 02/05/2006 17:01 Page 107 SYS Files System Used for some important functions of the system, thanks to. Sys Windows can reco gnize devices installed on your PC Those files that everyone calls "driver" mong the hundreds of files used by Windows an important role is played by those with extension SYS. These files are used to configure the software and hardware devices and some basic mechanisms of the operating system as virtual memory. C: In fact, this is pagefile.sys, said anT large (1 GB). In Windows XP this is a special window for the configuration file: to reach just go to Start / Settings / Control Panel / System, go to the Advanc ed tab, click Settings on the Performance pane, click the Change button and then the Advanced tab . Obviously, this requires caution, because not taking appropr iate settings, the system may hang. when it is necessary to install hardware or software very dated. ALSO READ ... Win number 87 Magazine page. 111, we have examined. Inf files used for installin g device drivers. Intermediaries peripherals The. Sys instead find wider use as "driver" device, that is as small programs de veloped to allow the operating system to interface with a PC's hardware. Along w ith. Inf, these files are essential for a mouse, video card and other hardware d evices to be installed correctly recognized by Windows. The. Sys are located in the folder C: \ Windows \ system32 \ drivers. To determine which files. Sys used by a device, just click on Start / Settings / Control Panel / System, click the Hardware tab, then click on Device Manager, expanded the entry for the device, the Driver tab click on Details drivers. Two old acquaintances In DOS and previous versions of Windows files. Sys were widely used. In Windows 98, for example, config.sys and msdos.sys were crucial stages of initiation and implementation of operating system with Config.sys was in fact possible to defin e the environment variables or specify some specific drivers to load during boot . These two files are also present in Windows XP but I can come into play, The pagefile.sys file is used by Windows XP to activate the mechanism of virtual memory. Your system has a special tool to configure the file size. File extensions

REPLACE FUNCTION IN THE 56K MODEM ADSL is increasingly common, but an old 56K modem can be useful if we are in a p lace where broadband is not available or to send faxes. Windows XP integrates Mo dem.sys file compatible with most analog modems. If we, for example, a Rockwell External V.90 K56 Voice Modem, simply connect it to COM1, then go to Start / Set tings / Control Panel and double-click Add Hardware. The modem will be detected and Windows XP installation will proceed. Now, let's go to Start / Settings / Co ntrol Panel / System and the Hardware tab, click on Device Manager, if everythin g went the right way, our modem Rockwell will be visible in the list of Windows XP uses the file Modem.sys for the support of most analog modems. devices. that "swap file" when RAM is exhausted, Windows XP uses the swap file on disk to store programs or data system and ensure the continuation of the work session. The size of pagefile.sys files are automatically set by Windows XP but if necess ary we can change them. In order to obtain a performance increase can be conveni ent to move this file to a second hard drive or to restrict the size if the quan tity of RAM installed is very Win Magazine June 2006 107 077 05/31/2006 19:28 Page 77 ICC and ICM files System To view or print images true to the original, many devices use the information s tored within the ICC and ICM files ... Reliable color when viewed in profile! onitor, printers and other devices installed on computers that handle images, re produce colors each in a different way. It happens so that the same photo does n ot appear the same when viewed on two different monitors. To ensure that an imag e is reproduced faithfully regardless of device used, each refers to a "color pr ofile", ie a set of clear guidance on how to combine the basic colors and create the exact shade of each single pixel. Thus, for example, a picture can be scann ed, displayed on the monitor and then printed on a sheet of paper with the highe st possible accuracy. The color profiles are stored in small text files that hav e extension ICC (International Color Consortium) or ICM (Integrated Color Manage ment). Initially the acronym was ICC Site M sclusiva Macintosh computers. Currently on the Windows profile file extension ca n have either ICM or ICC. If your PC has Windows XP, the profile file of each de vice are located in the folder C: \ Windows \ system32 \ spool \ drivers \ color . FILE FORMAT: We talked about ... EXTENSION EXE BAT, COM DLL REG CAB NFO MSI INI, INF, SYS LOG BAK File extensions

All extensions have already been addressed on previous issues of Win Magazine. TYPE Executables Executable Files Executable Files Configuration File Libraries syste m log file archives compressed installation files and control file backup detect ion devices PUBLISHED ON NUMBER 80 - 81 October 2005 - November 2005 82 - 83 December 2005 - Christmas 2005 84 85 January 2006 - February 2006 86 - 87 March 2006 - April 2006 88 - 89 May 200 6 - June 2006 Monitor to measure The default settings for all devices are controlled by the producers using the R GB color scheme (Red, Green and Blue: basic colors from which you can get, combi ned with appropriate nations, all other shades used in the images shown on screen) that ensures a rea sonable uniformity of view. Usually, the drivers of our monitors, for example, a lso contain color profiles designed specifically for that model, so the purest p ossible representation. There are also special utility, such as Adobe Gamma that comes with Adobe Photoshop that allow you to accurately calibrate the monitor a nd create an ICC profile. Without this, just click the right button on the deskt op, select Properties, go to the Settings tab and press the Advanced button to a ccess the video card settings, on the management of color monitor,€Profile and choose the desired color. From video to print As for the printer's speech becomes more complex, because the fidelity of color depends not only on the combination of ink cartridges, but also the type of pape r used and the chosen resolution. To avoid surprises is always advisable to adju st the print settings correctly indicating the desired quality and the card you want to use. Loading the proper color profile can display photos with great accuracy. Select Adobe RGB 1998, for example, set the monitor calibration for optimal viewing wit h Adobe programs. Win Magazine July / August 2006 77 097 19/07/2006 12:53 Page 97 Chk files System A simple check of the hard disk can generate CHK files. Discover what they are a nd how to intervene after an abrupt shutdown If a cluster is corrupt, you lose all data No sudden blackouts or an irregular shutdown of the computer as we surf the Inte rnet or we are dealing with our favorite game can combine more damage than you m File extensions

ight imagine. At best, just turn on your PC and start Windows again to resume fr om where we stopped, but usually you have to put into account the damage to some areas (clusters) of hard disk. The troubles come when they are damaged system f iles, applications or documents. Every time you stopped abruptly, Windows XP aut omatically performs a surface scan the hard drive to find and correct errors gen erated in the file system. Following this, the hard disk chk files are created, or corrupted files that Windows has renamed after attempted repair. U from Tools and click Check Now. To make a thorough scan disk will put a check ma rk on the Automatically fix file system problems and search for bad sectors and attempt recovery. If we are controlling the parFILE FORMAT: We talked about ... All extensions have already been addressed on previous issues Extension EXE BAT, COM DLL INI MSI REG CAB NFO, INF, SYS LOG BAK ICC, ICM TYPE Executables Executable Files Executable Files Configuration File Libraries syste m log file archives compressed installation files and control file backup detect ion device color profiles MAGAZINE PUBLISHED ON WIN ... No 80 (October 2005) No 81 (November 2005) No 82 (December 2005) No 83 (Christma s 2005) No 84 (January 2006) No 85 (February 2006) No 86 (March 2006) No 87 (Apr il 2006) No 88 (May 2006) No 89 (June 2006) No 90 (July / August 2006) ScanDisk Command Integrated Windows ScanDisk, a valuable utility that has responsibility for moni toring the integrity of your hard drive (or a floppy disk). To start this tool b y clicking the right button on the drive to control, select Properties, then bri ng on the boardScandisk is a Windows tool that examines the surface of the hard disk and correc ts damaged files. IF NOT JUST USE THE WINDOWS DOS prompt OPTION / F / I / L: DIMENSIONS / R / X / V To examine the hard drive, we can use the chkdsk command associated with the fol lowing options: WHAT IT IS USED Corrects errors on the disk. NTFS controls in a less accurate index entries. NTF S resize the log file to the value specified in kilobytes. Locates bad sectors a nd recovers readable information. Unmount the volume control it before, increasi ng the accuracy of the operation. On FAT/FAT32 displays the name of all files an alyzed, NTFS any cleanup messages. partition that hosts the operating system, click Start a window will appear aski ng you to schedule the disk check the next time you restart the system and to wh ich we respond Yes The same operation can be accomplished by using the chkdsk fr om the DOS prompt or the Recovery Console The Windows XP. syntax (which also inc ludes a control defragmentation of files only in the presence of FAT file system ) is: chkdsk [drive:] [path and filename] [options] (eg chkdsk C: / F / V) . not been recovered. More often, however, we must put the soul in peace: the. Chk no longer usable. Where the lost data are vital, you can use specific programs

as UnCHK (www.ericphelps.com / uncheck). To retrieve the contents of a file. Chk , just drag the executable to UnCHK I will see a screen that will ask the locati on to save the recovered file and the method to be used. Choosing hard drive wil l get a more accurate recovery. When the file system is corrupt ScanDisk does not bother to retrieve corrupted data, but maintaining the correct file system integrity. The correct files are stored in C: \ FOUND.000 and renam ed FILE000.chk, FILE00.chk according to the order in which knowUsing a program like UnCHK you can retrieve the contents of a file CHK. Win Magazine September 2006 97 081 08/24/2006 12:31 Page 81 CPL files System Discovering the file. Cpl, the tools built into Windows XP that allow you to con figure and optimize the operating system The panel wonders no instrument that differs from other operating systems is Windows Control Panel . This is a real dashboard within which are contained the most important tools f or administration and operating system configuration. For each icon displayed in the Control Panel corresponds to a file. Cpl located in the C: \ Windows \ Syst em32 or C: \ Windows \ system32 \ dllcache. Each is an applet, that is a subprog ram that allows you to perform specific actions on the system. For example, when ever I double-click the System icon in the Control Panel, in reality we only sta rt the applet sysdm.cpl. U advantages of the Windows XP firewall is sufficient to, mix vigorously from Star t / Run command and control firewall.cpl press the OK button. FILE FORMAT: We talked about ... Extension EXE BAT, COM DLL REG CAB NFO MSI INI, INF, SYS LOG BAK ICC, ICM CHK Extensions have already been addressed on previous issues of the journal TYPE Executables Executable Files Executable Files Configuration File Library System Log files compressed archives MAGAZINE PUBLISHED ON WIN ... No 80 (October 2005) No 81 (November 2005) No 82 (December 2005) No 83 (Christma s 2005) No 84 (January 2006) No 85 (February 2006) No 86 (March 2006) No 87 (Apr il 2006) No 88 (May 2006) No 89 (June 2006) No 90 (July / August 2006) No 91 (Se ptember 2006) File extensions

Hands off panel A quick shortcut A little known feature of Windows that has all the tools of the Control Panel ca n be started by typing the corresponding box from Start / Run. The. Cpl but can not be done alone, but you must use the program control.exe. For example, to acc ess the setThe tools of the yacht installation and control in the Control vanFile backup no t used with caution, because they can comProfili color recognition devices promi se a good file recovery system operation, especially in the hands of inexperienc ed users. Can therefore es-sa operation for Models useful to disable the display of adminis-trative and the Control Panel. Make wedges icons in Control Panel, d ouble-click on mo-specificado Show only applets that are not accessible to anyon e. For you the control panel, we set Atfarlo we can use the tool group Criterion -substantiated, click Enable and click Agpo bootable from Start / Run command wi th Reach. At this point we indicate nogpedit.msc. Once you open the window, I-ex panding files. Cpl (see chart) that desideriadiamo User Configuration, click on the mo are shown in Panel Consimbolo + place next. We perform the same control a nd confirm our choice. To each his own NAME APPLET SERVICE Here is a brief guide to the files. Cpl and their main functions. USED FOR ... ... set specific configurations of the keyboard, modem and screen Accessibility access.cpl to facilitate the use of the PC. Application installation ... install or remove programs and Windows components. Appwiz.cpl Properties - Screen ... a ccess to display properties (color, wallpaper, screen savers, etc.).. Desk.cpl f irewall.cpl Windows Firewall ... configure the firewall in Windows. Hardware Wiz ard ... install a device or troubleshoot it. Hdwwiz.cpl Property - Internet ... configure the properties of your Internet connection. Inetcpl.cpl ... add or rem ove devices such as game joysticks. Game joy.cpl ... configure the properties of the mouse (buttons, scroll wheel, speed Properties - MAIN.CPL mouse pointer). P roperties - Sounds and Audio Devices ... set sound card, speakers, volume and sy stem sounds. Mmsys.cpl ... view and configure connections to the local network, Internet Network Connections ncpa.cpl or to other computers. ... add, remove and configure user accounts that access the User Accounts nusrmgr.cpl computer. ... configure power management settings (off powercfg.cpl Properties - Power Option s monitor, hard disks etc.).. ...€display information about your computer confi guration and set the System Properties sysdm.cpl many system parameters. Phone a nd Modem Options telephon.cpl ... configure the modem. Properties - Date and tim e timedate.cpl ... set the time, date and time zone. Using the command gpedit.msc can access the Group Policy window and configure th e elements accessible from the Control Panel. Win Magazine October 2006 81 105 09/26/2006 16:41 Page 105

Files MSC System ARE ON THE

Software

Let MSC files, essential tools for managing all functions of the operating syste m CD DVD PDFs of articles on file extensions published in earlier issues of Win Magazine are in the section System The family of tools for Windows XP On all know that Windows XP is an integrated Microsoft Management Console (MMC), a tool that allows us to gain full control of the operating system and effectiv ely manage every aspect. The secret of this console is its architecture: it work s as a sort of container for "SnapIn", ie plug-in that can be added to it to ext end its functionality. To invoke the console, just go to Start / Run, type comma nd mmc and press the OK button. Windows XP already has numerous snap-in, stored on your hard disk in the folder C: \ Windows \ System32 folder as a file with MS C (Microsoft Management Console Snap-in Control File). N Services.msc snap-in allows us to view the status of all services in Windows. Cl icking on a service you can access the screen allowing you to change the status. The components already integrated Some of the snap-in in Windows XP are our old friends: the utility to defragment the hard drive, the window for the management of peReportedly, the Event Viewer, and so on. These plug-ins can be invoked directly from the console (menu File / Open), or alternatively can be started by typing t he file name. Msc from Start / Run or simply clicking the right mouse button ico n My Computer on your desktop and iflessons from the menu that appears the heading Management. Services are also under control Among the available snap-ins, probably the most interesting is services.msc. Thr ough it we can view the status of operating system services, ie all those progra ms that run when Windows starts and, once loaded in memory, still waiting to be used. An example of a service system is the Windows Security Center, which is re sponsible to notify us whenever our antivirus definitions are out of date or the firewall is disabled. Using services.msc status of each service can be changed. To do so, we start this snap-in, click the right mouse button on the service yo u are interested in, select Properties, then on the Startup Type drop-down menu choose from Auto, Manual and Disabled, and confirm by clicking OK . This means, of course, be used with caution, because disabling some services, Windows may no t function properly or become unstable. TO EACH HIS SNAP-IN FUNCTION SNAP-IT FILE CERTMGR.MSC CIADV.MSC COMPMGMT.MSC DEVMGMT.MSC dfrg.msc diskmgmt.msc Eventvwr.ms c Fsmgmt.msc GPEDIT.MSC Lusrmgr.msc NTMSMGR.MSC NTMSOPRQ.MSC perfmon.msc RSOP. W MIMGMT MSC secpol.msc services.msc. MSC Here is the complete list of files. Msc available in Windows XP. FACILITY NAME

Computer Management Indexing Services Certificates What? Allows you to manage security certificates View the status of the indexing servi ce system provides access to all the utility system and manage services and appl ications, Device Manager displays the hardware installed Run the Disk Defragment er utility for defragmenting hard drives Disk Manager allows to create / modify partitions on a hard disk Event Viewer View system events Show Shared Folders sh ared folders system allows Group Policy to set security policies of the Local Us ers and Groups System Creates / edit local users and groups View Removable Stora ge Removable Storage including CD and DVD drives for removable storage operator Requests Show your requests for Removable Storage Performance View the status an d performance of the system displays a summary screen of all the criteria RSoP p rotezioneimpostati system of the Local Security Settings Set Security Policy Ser vices allows to start and stop system services Windows Management Infrastructure (WMI) allows system administration through use of scripts Win Magazine November 2006 105 103 10/23/2006 10:56 Page 103 SCR files System ARE ON THE Getting to Know the. Scr, used to give a touch of color to the monitor, but also to infect Windows CD DVD PDFs of articles on file extensions published in earlier issues of Win Magazine are present in the System section. M'allontano from the PC and the screen saver ati to preserve the quality of CRTs for a period of user inactivity, the screens aver (or screensaver) have become a decorative element and in some cases a real danger for the operating system. In the Windows screen saver in the form of file s. Scr and are generally within the cartella C: \ Windows \ System32. It is true executable files, that is just doubleclick a file. Scr screensaver to launch content in it. To create a screen saver that works properly may also be necessary hours of programming (a comprehensive tutorial is available on www.wischik.com/ scr / howtoscr.html), but there are en ough to open a file. Scr with any hex editor to see the appropriate software as it is a real program. facilitating the very work of creation, as Fac-screensaver configuration (if any) of paratory Pro (www.blumentals.net/ meters screensaver selected. Quanscrfactory, paid) or do we move away from our postaScreensaverWork s (www.rtsoft-tion , anyone can peek at our ware.org), but decision-PC freeware. To keep out strangers and cusamente narrower than rios just put a check mark in direct competition on the com-restoration-password protect. commercial. Every t ime you moved the mouse or pressed a button on the keyboard duSalvaschermo Timer Software

rant running the screensaver set buy running parirÀ requested to enter their p assword set as a screen-saver to resume work on while we are far from Windows. P C is to click the right mouse button on the danger in the free screensaver on yo ur desktop, selection is not all gold that glitters. The ment, the Properties it em, five-screensaver can often go trasformardi tab screen is in proper vehicle f or viruses and trojans. saver and from the pulldown menu is well-im so always be wary salpostare by one of the animations vaschermo downloaded from Web sites no t affipresenti. Speaking on the reliability and received from strangers by arrow s next to the e-mail box. Before running the screen saver, standby can adjust th e scan the file with a good antempo of inactivity after the forty-tivirus is alw ays recommended. Just ricorle you must start the sal-write the Sober worm was on ly one of vaschermo while clicking Popular malicious code to use the Settings bu tton may file. Scr to propagate boxes poDalla Properties - Screen Windows can ma nage and configure the screen saver on your system. we open the window for being of millions of users around the world. N Win Magazine December 2006 103