WHITE BACCALAUREATE SESSION 2008 SERIES ES ECONOMICS AND SOCIAL DURATION OF TEST: 4 HOURS - COEFFICIENT: 7 As soon as this matter

is given to yo u, make sure it is complete. This topic comprises 6 pages numbered 1 / 6 to 6 / 6. The use of the calculator is not allowed The candidate will address the choice is the essay, namely the question of synth esis. Question synthesis supported by preparatory work is asked to candidate: 1. To co nduct the preparatory work that provides components to be used in the synthesis. 2. The answer to the question of synthesis: ⠢ By an argument accompanied by cri tical thinking, responding to the problem given in the title, · By using his pe rsonal knowledge, · By dialing an introduction, a development, a conclusion a l ength of about three pages. Both parties are equally important for scoring. It w ill be taken into account in scoring, clarity of expression and careful presenta tion. TOPIC OF PROGRAM: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION, INEQUALITY AND GLOBALIZATION I. Documen ted Document 1: Report interdecile Gini coefficient ratio (in%) Exports of goods Ope ning Index in terms of high technology (trading in 2005,% of GDP) 2000 = 100 31. 8 97 Etats15.9 40.8 12.5 9.1 32.7 26.5 France Germany Finland 20 111 26.9 37 5.6 25.2 86 Bolivia 60.1 168.1 34.54 02.09 07.08 06.31 108 Korea 41 Japan 77 South 5.4 3 2.3 24.9 12 22.5 83 Source: UNDP Report 2007, http://hdr .undp.org/en/reports/gl obal/hdr2007-2008/chapters/french / Document 2: A: The experience of dynamic economies of East Asia has to a certain extent, empirically validated the hypothesis that the integration in globalizat ion helps to reduce inequalities of wealth and is a solution the problem of unde rdevelopment. Indeed, their growth has been based on a deliberate policy of prom oting exports, but also, in many cases, substantial flows of foreign direct inve stment. [...] However, a [...] [the] weakness [s] analysis that attempt to highl ight the positive impact of trade openness on growth is not able to clearly shar e Things between the impact of trade liberalization and that of other economic p olicy measures associated with them. A key question is whether the integration o f globalization is able to assist all countries in the same way. [...] However, the positive impact of globalization on growth [...] and therefore its role as a n instrument for reducing inequality is confirmed in high-income countries and m iddle, but not in other countries low income. Source: Francoise Nicolas, "Global ization and North-South inequalities," Cahiers French No. 305, © French documen tation, November-December 2001. B: gini index 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 Curve 1: unequal world (including China) world without inequalities Curve 2 Curve 3 china inequalities between countries Source: Isabelle Bensidoun, "Inequalities in the world," à coflashn 195. © CNDP, February 2005. Document 3: Openness is not absolute guarantee of a rapid and su stainable development. Worse, for some developing countries, it can be detriment al to developing countries well endowed with natural resources [...]. [...] Such specialization makes them vulnerable to developing countries and sometimes unpr edictable variations brutal market prices of raw materials. The changing terms o f trade can be very detrimental to these countries compared to northern countrie s. This amounts to saying that the gains from trade would be largely captured by the North at the expense of the South. The exchange becomes uneven, as outlined in its time by A. Emmanuel. Empirically, there is actually a trend towards decl ining terms of trade for developing countries. Export earnings (of commodities) being reduced in value (or not increasing enough) to face rising prices of impor ts of goods and services in the North. Source: Jean-Marie Cardebat, "Openness: engine of development? "ECOFLASH No. 172

, © CNDP, November 2002. Document 4: According to these studies, income inequal ity has fallen sharply in all countries considered, during the first half of the twentieth century. Thus, in France and the United States, the richest per cent of the population earned nearly 20% of the total mass of national income at the beginning of the previous century until the late 70s, the ratio had reduced sign ificantly to about 8%. (...) However, several studies show an increase in income inequality,€First, the United States and Great Britain, but later also in Aust ralia, France, Japan, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Recent studies also show s imilar trends in developing countries, eg India, where the share of higher incom e has decreased since the early twentieth century to the eighties, to increase s harply again during the two decades. That is why scientific authors speak of a " U-shaped curve, meaning that inequality in income distribution in developed coun tries and some developing countries, after having declined continuously since 19 45, rising again since the late 70s or early eighties. If one looks at the evolu tion of income distribution on an international scale, we see that since the ear ly nineteenth century, the relative significance of inequality has changed: whil e it was evident even within country at the time, there is currently mostly diff erences between nations. In the early nineteenth century, differences in income in the world were mostly due to inequality within countries. Industrialization t hen sharply increased inequality between countries, and this, until the second h alf of the twentieth century. During the last two decades of it, this inequality has declined (a phenomenon mainly due to the development of China and India) wh ile at the same time, it increased again in the same country. In the early twent y-first century, income inequality in the world comes to about 60% of the variou s international inequalities and 40% of those existing in the country. Source: h ttp://www.estv.admin.ch/f/dokumentation/publikationen/dok/arbeitspapiere/04f_bau r.pdf II. Groundwork 1. Give playback and calculation of figures in bold (doc 1) (1 point) 2. Do you observe a systematic relationship between measures of openness and inequality (d ocument 1) (1 point) 3. The underlined sentence in the document is checked for 2 A in Figure 2B? (Document 2) (1.5 points) 4. He commend the author's view that g lobalization is the only factor contributing to the reduction of inequality? (Do cument 2) (1.5 points) 5. How does the author of the document 3 justifies the as sertion made in He commend the first underlined sentence (document 3) (1.5 point s) 6. What critical analysis of the underlined He commend (Document 4) (2 points ) 7. The internal and international inequalities they evolve systematically in t he same direction? Explain (document4) (1.5 points) III. Question Summary After finding and explained how the opening contributes to reducing inequality, you relativize Essay based on a documentary record He asked the candidate: - responding to arguments raised explicitly or implicitl y in the subject - to build an argument from a problem that needs to develop - t o mobilize knowledge and information relevant to address the issue including tho se contained in the record - to write using the vocabulary specific economic and social and appropriate to the issue, organizing the development in the form of a coherent plan that saves balance of parts. Factors to be considered in the rat ing of the clarity of expression and careful presentation. THEME: Labour and Emp loyment and Globalization SUBJECT IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT OF ACCELERATED CONSIDER YOU THAT THE LOW COST OF WOR K IS A NEED TO CREATE JOBS? Document 1 with persistent unemployment and underemployment, massive, the idea h as gradually installed at the cost of labor could be a barrier to employment. Su ccessive governments then set up different devices. Initially, there has been th

e introduction of targeted policies in the form of subsidized jobs. These positi ons correspond to specific statutes and seek some categories, particularly women part-time, young, old or non-qualified. [...] In a second phase, from 1993, has seen the establishment of general exemptions from social security contributions for low wages. [...] These reductions in social security contributions account for around 15 billion euros and the government announced its intention to increa se this to 21 billion in 2006, which represents the equivalent of 40% of tax inc ome. Source: Pierre Concialdi "The impact of social contributions in question. A n economic approach, "Social Information No. 117€June 2004. ATTACHMENT 2 skille d and unskilled jobs: Growth (1984-2002) Source: Employment Surveys, 1984, 2002; fields: employed. DOCUMENT 3 Too expensi ve the French? Certainly more so than their Chinese or Indian, by far. In these conditions, the race to the bottom advocated by some may still have meaning? The flexibility is really socially acceptable dwarfed by the wage gap with the poor countries. Faced with his relocation to neighboring China, "Japan succeeded, ho wever, back off with exports to China of electronics products for the industry," says Philippe Askenazy economist, researcher at CNRS (1) . "The product differe ntiation strategy is optimal: it is not possible to make them competitive Europe an countries for the production of standard goods, falling wages," says Patrick Artus, head of research from CDC ( 2) Ixis. But the high specialization (financi al services, high technology) is like an endless, as and as emerging technologie s and acquire skills. If we really wanted to get immune to offshoring, it should not therefore rely on the creation of local jobs. A prospect not really excitin g. Source: Anthony and Catherine REVERCHON ROLLOT, "The cost of labor, a black b ox to read" Le Monde, 14 September 2004. (1) CNRS: National Centre for Scientifi c Research (2) CDC: Deposit and Consignment DOCUMENT 4 Cost per hour, hourly productivity and unemployment rates for some OE CD countries, 1985 2002 Cost per hour (index) (index) 126,144,116,125 83,100,100 ,100 62 69 21 27 Unemployment rate 2002 (%) 8 2 2.8 5.1 8.9 11.3 5.0 hourly prod uctivity in 2002 (index) 98 103 77 100 72 49.5 Germany Netherlands United Kingdom France Spain Portugal USA Japan 172 84 122,108 5.8 5.4 97 70 Scope: manufacturing. Unemployment ators, Paris, May Productivity per at, "Measuring productivity", OECD omic Problems 2870, p.13, March 2, rate: source OECD (2005), Main Economic Indic hour: source OECD, Paul Schreyer and Dirk Pil Economic Outlook, No. 33, 2001 / 2 in No Econ 2005.

Source: Bureau of Labor Statitics, In Economic Problems No. 2859 p.47, September 29, 2004. DOCUMENT 5 Between 1970 and 2000, the French economy has destroyed every year, a pproximately 15% of its jobs ... and created 15.5%, to ensure a net increase in employment of 0.5% per year. [...] For many, globalization is the main cause of job losses. In addition, it would cause far more destruction than job creation. The reasoning behind this conclusion is simple [...]. In essence, it can be summ arized as follows: the cost of unskilled labor is very low in developing countri es, we can not compete in the markets for products whose manufacture is highly l

abor-d The work of this type. [...] One of the great lessons of the study * cond ucted in France is that globalization did not consistently causes more losses th an job creation, over twenty years it appears more neutral. Moreover, these resu lts refer to all countries with which France maintains trade relations. In this group, the share of trade with emerging countries is very small. Charge to trade with these countries a privileged role in the deterioration of the employment s ituation does not doubly resistant to the review. * Study conducted by S. Guimbe rt and F. Levy-Bruhl, "The employment situation in France regarding internationa l trade", Economics and Forecasting, No. 152-153, January-March 2002, p.189-206 Source: PC Cahuc, A. ZYLBERGERG, "Unemployment, fate or necessity", Flammarion, 2005. DOCUMENT 6 Number of social contracts in the 90s did not withstand the eco nomic downturn: the Netherlands, often cited as an example, there is now very ha rd social confrontations, in Italy, general strikes will follow, in Germany, the face-to-face trade unions, employers, government has significantly tightened .. . These difficulties are mainly linked with the non-cooperative game that has pe rmanently installed in Europe, and especially on the continent. Indeed, within t he common market, more unique, it is "logical" that each country seeks to limit the evolution of wage costs to improve its cost competitiveness relative to othe r countries in the area. So, somehow, better export its unemployment among neigh bors.€When a single country playing this game, it wins, but when all indulge in at the same time, everyone loses, because it is domestic demand in any area tha t is weakened. And that is what is happening in Europe for twenty years. Source: Duval Guillaume "A vicious circle that wins throughout Europe," Economic Altern atives, p.14, No. 232, January 2005. EDUCATION SPECIALTY This issue includes two papers. THEME OF THE PROGRAM: International Exchange and Growth, Ricardo DOCUMENT 1 Foreign trade is very beneficial to a country, since it increases the quantity and variety of goods in which income can be spent, an d since the abundance of goods and their Cheap stimulate savings and capital acc umulation. [...] In a system of perfect freedom of trade, each country naturally devotes its capital and labor to jobs that are most advantageous. The search fo r his own benefit fits perfectly with the universal good. By stimulating work, r ewarding ingenuity, and making the best use of talents for nature, this research promotes the distribution of work most efficiently and economically; the same t ime, increasing total mass of productions, it diffuses across the well-being, an d united by the bond of mutual interest and trade, the nations of the civilized world in a global society. This principle leads to what France and Portugal prod ucing wine, America and Poland grow wheat, or that England produces utensils and other manufactured goods. David Ricardo, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, Flammarion, 1992 (f irst edition 1821). ATTACHMENT 2 Human Development, growth, exports and terms of trade for four coun tries The United States Japan Gabon Guinea-Bissau HDI (2003) 0.944 0.943 0.635 0 .348 Average annual growth rate of GDP per capita volume (% ) 1990-2003 2.1 1 -0 .4 -2.4 Exports of goods and services 2003 (% of GDP) 10 12 62 30 Terms of trade , 2002 (100: 1980) 119 145 58 86 Source: UNDP, Human Development Report 2005 Questions 1. Using your knowledge of a document, you will present the benefits o f foreign trade according to Ricardo. (8 points) 2. Why, according to Ricardo, F rance specializes Does the production of wine, while England specializes in the production of utensils and other manufactured goods? (Document 1) (5 points) 3. The document 2 enables it to confirm the benefits of trade put forward by Ricard o? (7 points) EDUCATION SPECIALTY This issue includes a document. THEME OF THE PROGRAM: Equalization of conditions

and democracy in Tocqueville DOCUMENT particular fact and which picks the domin ant centuries, the playing field, the main passion that stirs men of those times there is love This equality. Do not ask what are the peculiar charm of democrat ic ages men to live as equals, nor the specific reasons they may have so obstina tely attached to equality rather than other goods that society presents them: eq uality forms the distinctive character of the time they live; that alone is enou gh to explain that they prefer it to everything else. But apart from this reason , there are several others who, in all times, men will usually prefer equality t o freedom. If a people could never succeed in destroying or just to diminish its elf in her womb that equality reigns, there would come only by long and arduous efforts. He should state alterations at his office, abolished its laws, repeated her ideas, changeât habits, manners Alterati. But to lose political freedom, j ust do not remember, and she escapes. Men do not only equality because it is dea r to them, they still attached to them because they believe it should last forev er. That political freedom may, in its excess, disturb the peace, wealth, the li ves of individuals, we do not encounter men so stubborn and so light that never discover. There is, however, that people pay attention and clairvoyants who see the dangers which threaten us equal, and usually they avoid to report them. [... ] I think that democratic peoples have a natural taste for freedom left to thems elves, they seek it, they love it, and they see with pain that precludes them. B ut they have a passion for equality ardent, insatiable,€eternal, invincible, an d they want equality in freedom, and if they can not get it, they still want to slavery. They suffer poverty, servitude, barbarism, but they will not endure ari stocracy. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1840), Volume 2, Garnier-Flammarion , 1981. Questions 1. Using your knowledge and document, present an analysis of Tocquevil le on equal terms. (8 points) 2. Explain how, according to Tocqueville, the cont radictions between freedom and equality. (6 points) 3. Illustrate by a contempor ary example, "the dangers which threaten us equal." (6 points)