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- Sept. 2001 1 - INTRODUCTION The urban water supply (tap water) is not sufficient purity to use as many specific applications in laboratories, preparing the bath hemodialys is, drug production and some specific chemicals, production of certain electroni c components, power boiler systems, steam generation, cooling systems etc.. In t he specific case of research and analysis in general, researchers are often invo lved with analytical elements and compounds the level of ppb (parts per billion) in water and other materials. The analytical methods used in biological researc h are often sensitive to various contaminants, particularly heavy metals, dissol ved organic matter and microorganisms. The high performance liquid chromatograph y (HPLC - high performance liquid cromatography) requires ultrapure water for ca libration of the detector baselines and elution of reversed phase columns. The a nalysis of trace metals require water free of elements to be determined, purifie d, preferably through a system that includes the deionization. 2 - WATER QUALITY STANDARDS FOR LABORATORY To meet increased sensitivity required in their resear ch, several professional organizations have established standards of water quali ty. These groups, in the United States include the National Committee for Clinic al Laboratory Standards (NCCLS - National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Stan dards), the College of American Pathologists (CAP - College of American Patholog ists), the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (Association f or the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, 1 / 33 AAMI) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM - American Society fo r Testing and Materials); internationally, we can cite, among others, the World Health Organization (WHO) and specific organs of the European Economic Community . As an example, the NCCLS has specified four types of water, according to their respective applications, which are defined as follows: 2.1-Water Type I: can be considered as water quality "ideal", ie the water with the best quality can be achieved with currently available technology for treatment and water purificatio n. Should be used in analysis methods that require minimum interference and maxi mum precision and accuracy (atomic absorption, flame emission spectrometry, trac e metals, enzymatic procedures sensitive to trace metals, electrophoresis, highresolution liquid chromatography, fluorometry); preparation standard solutions a nd buffer solutions; cases where the presence of microorganisms should be minima l. The water type I should be used when it is produced, should not be stockpiled because its resistivity decreases, and there may be leaching of metals and / or organic compounds from the bottle storage and also development / bacterial cont amination. 2.2-Water Type II: analytical methods and processes where it is toler ated the presence of bacteria: reagents in general microbiology systems and meth ods / processes to which it is not necessary to use the type I water and water f or special applications. 2.3-Water Type III: for washing glassware in general, p roduce water of higher purity and preparation of bacteriological cultures. 2.4-W ater for Special Applications: used in procedures requiring the removal of speci fic contaminants - removal of pyrogenic tissue culture / cell and removal of tra ce organic performance liquid chromatography high resolution. 2 / 33
As tabelas a seguir mostram os padrões de qualidade de água dos tipos I, II e II I e os principais padrões de qualidade de água tipo I adotados por três respeita das instituições dos EUA – o NCCLS, o CAP e a ASTM: 3 / 33 TABLE 1 - Specifications of NCCLS for "Reagent Grade Water BENCHMARK Bacteria (C FU / ml) pH Resistivity at 25 ° C (MΩ.cm) Conductivity at 25 C (uS / cm) S i O2 (mg / l) Total Solids (mg / l) total oxidisable organic carbon (mg / l) TYPE I < 10 Not applicable> 10 <0.1 <0.05 <0.1 <0.05 TYPE II <1000 Not applicable> 1 <1 < 0.1 < 1 <0.2 TYPE III Not applicable 5-8> 0.1 <10 <1 <5 <1 TABLE 2 - Water Standards Type I adopted U.S. cm, 25 ° C) maximum conductivity (uS / cm, 25 aximum diameter of particles (mm) of material 0.05 10.0 0.22 18.0 0.056 0.003 0.2 ASTM Type ml Type IC: 10 / 10 ml BENCHMARK resistivity minimum (MΩ. ° C) Silicates, maximum (mg / l) M NCCL S 10, CAP 0.05 0.2 0 0.1 0.1 IA: 10 / 1000 ml Type IB: 10 / 100
Microorganisms - No.maximum colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU / ml) 10 10 NOTE: The resistivity and conductivity of water type I should be measured on lin e, measuring containers may give false results in that case. 3 - CONTAMINANTS IN THE WATER MORE OFTEN The following describes the five types of contaminants com monly found in water; Item 8 of this chapter discusses in more detail about the methods to determine their presence and concentration. 3.1-particulate material, including, principally, silica, broken waste pipe and metal colloids. These air borne particles can clog filters, valves, tubing and ultrafiltration membranes a nd reverse osmosis. Particulate matter is visible as a mist or haze and is 4 / 33 detected by filtration combined with gravimetric methods or by microscopy. 3.2-D issolved Inorganic Materials (solids and gases): Calcium and magnesium ions (Ca + + and Mg + +) dissolved rock formations, gases, as carbon dioxide (CO2), which ionizes in water to form carbonic acid, silicates leached from sandy beds of rivers or glass containers; ions iron (Fe + +) and f erric (Fe +++), released from pipes and iron surfaces , fluoride and chloride io ns in water treatment plants, phosphates, detergents and fertilizers, nitrates, fertilizers, aluminum ions, manganese, copper etc.. There are several tests to i dentify specific inorganic substances, the simplest of these is the direct measu rement of conductivity or resistivity. Most of the dissolved inorganic have an e lectric charge, positive (cations) or negative (anions), and transmit electrical current when it plunges into the water and electrodes voltage is applied to the m. The greater the amount of ions present, the greater the lower the conductivit y and resistivity. The conductivity is measured in micro Siemens / cm and is mor e suitable for water with large amounts of ions, the resistivity is measured in megohm.cm and is more suitable for water with few dissolved ions. Both measures are reciprocal, so the 25 ° C water with a resistivity = 18.2 megohm.cm has cond uctivity = 0.055 micro Siemens / cm - this is the highest purity water that can get with current technology. TABLE 3 shows the comparison between resistivity an d conductivity TABLE 3 - Comparison of resistivity and conductivity resistivity at MΩ.cm (megohm.cm) Conductivity uS / cm (micro Siemens / cm) 10.0 1 0.1 , 0 10 .0 1.0 0.1 18.24 0.055 5 / 33
3.3-Dissolved Organic Materials: pesticides, herbicides, gasoline, solvents and organic compounds in general, residues of animal and plant tissues, can also be waste linings of pipes, fittings and storage tanks, resulting from leaching from such surfaces; note that this latter case due to failure in the design and / or manufacture of water purification system, so each system must be designed not o nly to remove as much contaminant as well as to minimize the incorporation of th e same water. It is important to use water free of organic contaminants in the a nalysis of organic substances by HPLC, gas chromatography, electrophoresis, and fluoroscopy and research involving tissue culture. To determine the levels of or ganic contaminants in water type I are used for total organic carbon analyzers, which oxidize organic compounds, and measure the CO2 released. 3.4-Microorganism s: the surface water contains a great variety of microorganisms, including bacte ria, protozoa, algae and others. Whereas most of the water comes from municipal plants, where it undergoes intensive treatment for removal of microorganisms, mi crobes pertaining to the main water purification systems are bacteria. These pur ification systems penetrate through the water supply, clearances connections, le aks and cracks, inside the system the bacteria secrete a polymeric substance tha t allows its adherence to the internal surfaces of tanks and storage vessels, ta nks and cartridges of resins ion exchange, pipes and any other hard surface clea ning. The bacteria are usually detected and quantified by filtering the water sa mple through a filter of 0.45 micrometer and subsequent culture of this filter i n a suitable medium for several days. The bacterial counts are reported in CFU / ml (colony forming units per milliliter). 3.5-pyrogenic: are typically fragment s of bacterial cell walls of gram-negative, or lipopolisacarídeos. When injected in a mammal,the pyrogenic cause an increase in temperature 6 / 33 body. Thus, water and pharmaceutical grade for use in injectable should be free from pyrogenic. They also have degenerate or lethal effect in tissue culture. Th e pyrogenic are detected by injection of a water sample into mice and monitoring their body temperature, in the case of very low concentrations of lipopolisacar ídeos, we used the LAL test (Limulus Lysate Amoebocite), which is very sensitive . 4 - METHODS OF PURIFICATION Current technology allows the use of various water purification processes, are isolated, are combined, depending on the quality of raw water and the desired quality for the treated water, the main ones are: dis tillation, deionization, reverse osmosis , filtration, activated carbon adsorpti on, ultrafiltration, ultraviolet oxidation, adsorption organic etc.. and the pri ncipal described below. 4.1-Deionization: is commonly used in laboratories to pr oduce purified water for routine consumption; works by adsorption of impurities by ion exchange resins: resins cationic exchange their hydrogen ions (H +) by co ntaminants cationic (calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum , manganese, copper, zin c, chromium, nickel and other metals and various cations), anionic exchange resi ns their hydroxyl ions (OH-) by contaminating anionic (sulfate, sulfite, sulfide , chlorate, chlorite, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate , fluoride and other anions in addition to silica). The ion exchange resins are generally sulfonated organic polymers and derivatives of styrene and divinylbenzene in the form of s mall particles almost always spherical (diameter <0.5 mm). The world's leading m anufacturers are Bayer, Rohm & Haas, Dow Chemical and Resintech, among others. 7 / 33 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Grains of ion exchange resins (Extended)
4 - Structure of ion exchange resins The process consists of passing water throu gh a bed of these particles, whereupon the cations and anions present in water w ill gradually displacing and replacing the hydrogen and hydroxyl ions of the sam e assets until saturate them, ie, until no more H + and OH-to be replaced: this point, the resin must be regenerated, that is chemically treated so as to recove r their 8 / 33 ion exchange capacity, the regeneration process is exactly the inverse operation , ie, it promotes the replacement, the particles of resin, the cations and anion s kidnapped during normal operation by H + and OH-, respectively. The deionizati on alone does not produce totally pure water, for the following reasons: a) ther e is leakage of small fragments of the resin system during the operation, b) the stagnant water in tanks and cartridges promotes excessive bacterial growth, c) does not remove some organic compounds; d) not remove all the dissolved organic matter in water supply and, in fact, this organic matter can bridge (cover and b lock) resin. Therefore, one must combine the deionization with other purificatio n processes to achieve the purity of water required to research and analysis of higher precision and sensitivity. 4.2-RO: reverse osmosis can best be explained after understanding the natural process of osmosis. Osmosis is the movement of w ater through a semipermeable membrane, the side with lower concentration of impu rities (pure) to the side of higher concentration of impurities (side of higher salinity, less pure). This movement continues until the concentrations reach equ ilibrium or the pressure in the more concentrated it becomes high enough to prev ent the flow. Osmosis is the natural process by which water is absorbed by plant roots and moves from cell to cell in our bodies. When applied, the more concent rated solution, a higher pressure than the osmotic pressure, using a high pressu re pump, the water molecules are pushed back across the membrane to the side les s concentrated, resulting in water purification; this is the process of reverse osmosis. 9 / 33 Figure 5 - Diagram of water purification membrane - cross flow: the water supply is forced to pass along the inside of the membrane, the applied pressure causes part of the water passes through the porous walls of the membrane and get purif ied. 6 - Examples of membrane filters used in reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and ult rafiltration. 10/33 Figure 7 - Detail of construction of a filter membrane used in reverse osmosis o r nanofiltration or ultrafiltration. Reverse osmosis removes 90-99% of most cont aminants. TABLE 4, below,shows the performance of reverse osmosis for removal o f various contaminants. 11/33 TABLE 4 - Efficiencies of reverse osmosis to remove contaminants from solid cont aminants suspended Bacteria Virus pyrogenic organic substances c / molecular wei ght> 250 Daltons inorganic substances monovalent inorganic substances divalent t rivalent inorganic substances removal efficiencies (%) 99.5 99.5 100 99 5 from 9 7 to 99.5 94-96 96-98 98-99 Due to its exceptional efficiency of purification, reverse osmosis is an option that has a cost / benefit ratio very attractive for a water purification system.
Due to its high capacity to remove bacteria and pyrogenic, reverse osmosis is o ften combined with deionization to reduce considerably the frequency of regenera tion of ion exchange resins, which greatly increases the life of them. Reverse o smosis alone is a resource for obtaining pre-purified water of high quality, sui table for many routine applications in the lab. 4.3-Using Activated Carbon Filtr ation: removes chlorine by quimisorção and dissolved organic substances by adsor ption. Generally, the activated charcoal filter is placed in water purification systems prior to reverse osmosis and deionization before because both osmosis me mbranes as the ion exchange resins are sensitive to chlorine and can be filled b y dissolved organic matter. On the other hand, some people prefer not to put the carbon filter before the resins in order to keep the chlorine in the water and impede the proliferation of microbes in the resins. It also tends to put the car bon filter in the cycle of polishing systems for water purification, to remove t races of organic substances. 12/33 Currently the granulated activated carbon filters are being replaced with carbon filters sintered (compressed), which has much larger contact surface and is mor e resistant, hindering the release of particles into the water. Figure 8 - Carbon Filter sintered (carbon block) 4.4-Organic Adsorption: kidnaps organic contaminants at concentrations at trace levels. This process allows mor e water with less than 20 ppb (20 parts per billion or 0.02 mg / l) of total org anic carbon. The organic adsorption cartridge may contain special resins and act ivated carbon and is usually placed on the polishing cycle (posttreatment) purif ication system. 4.5-or submicron microporous filtration: use a membrane or hollo w fiber with a porosity of 0.2 micrometer that prevents the passage of any conta minant with a diameter above this value. The filters retain sub-micron particles of coal activated carbon filter, fragments of resin deionization system and bac teria that may have entered the system. The CAP and NCCLS consider that water is free of particulates when she was filtered through filter porosity = 0.2 micron . 13/33 Fig 9 Fig 10 Cartridge and membrane filters 4.6-Ultrafiltration: uses a membrane that is very similar to that used in reverse osmosis, except for the fact that the pores of the ultrafilter are slightly larger. The ultrafilter is used to remove pyrogenic water purified. Whereas a high percentage of water brought to the ultrafilter p asses through it, it will eventually clog if you do not receive proper maintenan ce. In a properly designed system, the ultrafilter is washed regularly, tangenti ally, to remove contamination. Figure 11 - purification system with three pre-filters and an ultrafilter 14/33 4.7-Oxidation with Ultraviolet and Photo-Oxidation: uses UV light with a wavelen gth of 254 nm to eliminate bacteria from the system. Also dissociates and ionize s certain organic substances to 185 nm for subsequent removal thereof by deioniz ation and organic adsorption cycle of polishing. Figure 12 - Cartridge with UV lamps 5 - COMPARISON OF PROCEDURES FOR PURIFICATIO N OF WATER TABLE 5 - Procedures for the purification of water - comparison of re moval efficiencies of contaminants PURIFICATION PROCESS Adsorption with activate
d carbon filtration Deionization Distillation Reverse Osmosis Ultrafiltration Ul traviolet Oxidation Dissolved Solids ionized REB / E (* 1) RB (* 7) RR ionized g ases dissolved R (* 2) dissolved organic substances errrrr B / E (* 3) RBRBB / E (* 5) B (* 4) Particulate matter RREEERE Bacteria RREEEB (* 6) and pyrogens RRE RERB / E E = EXCELLENT (total or near total removal), B = GOOD (removal of appreciable am ounts), R = BAD (little or no removal). 15/33 COMMENTS ON THE TABLE 5 (1 *) - The resistivity of water purified by distillatio n is an order of magnitude lower than the resistivity of deionized water, mainly due to the presence of CO2 and, sometimes, H2S, NH3 and other gases ionized in the water supply. (2 *) - Activated carbon removes chlorine by quimisorção (chem ical adsorption). (3 *) - When used in combination with other purification proce sses, some special types of activated carbon and other synthetic adsorbents exhi bit excellent capacities to remove organic contaminants. (4 *) - The ultrafilter s have shown their efficiency to remove specific organic contaminants, based on their ability to molecular sieving. (5 *) - In the batch processes (batch) oxida tion with UV light at 185 nm is effective to remove trace organic contaminants, when used as post-treatment. The replacement of water supply has a critical infl uence on the performance of such processors discontinuous. (6 *) - Systems UV ox idation (UV wavelength = 254 nm), and does not physically remove bacteria, may h ave their bactericidal or bacteriostatic limited by light intensity, contact tim e and flow. (7 *) - The concentration of residual solids depends on the concentr ation of solids in water supply. 6 - METHODS OF PREPARATION OF REAGENT WATER LEV EL OF TYPE IA Type I water can be produced by different combinations of the case s cited above, the choice of procedures depends on several factors such as quali ty of water supply, pressure and flow requirements, working shifts, consumption, etc. specific applications. 16/33 The resistivity of the water type I should be greater than 10 MΩ.cm 25 ° C, meas ured in line. The resistivity measurements do not detect organic contaminants or contaminants not ionized and does not provide precise information about the lev el of ionic contaminants mg / l (ppm). Therefore, it is necessary to make separa te determinations of the levels of contaminants such as TOC, silica and count co lonies of bacteria, as well as pH, hardness and alkalinity. 7 - REAGENT PREPARATION OF WATER LEVEL OF TYPES II AND III water Type II is typi cally produced by distillation or deionization. Its resistivity must be greater than 1 megohm.cm 25 ° C. Must be observed the same precautions taken for water t ype I with reference to the determination of contaminants. As for the water type III usually enough filtration and deionization. 8 - parameters that must be mon itored continuously IN WATER REAGENT GRADE 8.1-Microbiology Surface water contai ns a great variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, algae and ot hers. Whereas most of the water comes from municipal plants, where it undergoes intensive treatment for removal of microorganisms, microbes pertaining to the ma in water purification systems are bacteria. These purification systems penetrate through the water supply, clearances connections, leaks and cracks, inside the system the bacteria secrete a polymeric substance that allows its adherence to t he internal surfaces of tanks and storage vessels, tanks and cartridges of resin s ion exchange, pipes and any other hard surface cleaning. The bacteria are usua lly detected and quantified by filtering the water sample through a filter of 0. 45 micrometer and subsequent culture of this filter in a suitable medium for sev eral days. 17/33
The bacterial counts are reported in CFU / ml (colony forming units per millilit er). The organisms that often contaminate water are gram-negative rods, includin g representatives of the genera Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Klebsi ella, Enterobacter, Aeromonas and Acinectobacter. 8.1.1-Things to consider: thre e aspects of bacterial contamination should be considered: levels allowed / to lerated bacteria that may be present when it produces different types of reagent grade water; effects of different concentrations of bacteria on accuracy and accuracy of clinical laboratory tests; influence of bacterial load on the main tenance of other important parameters of water quality reagent grade - for examp le, total organic carbon (TOC). 8.1.2-Effects of bacterial contamination: ideall y, the reagent grade water must be free of bacteria, but production and storage of reagent grade water make it difficult - if not impossible. Bacteria can affec t water quality reagent grade reagents for disable or change substrates or met abolites by the action of enzymes; contribute to the increase in total organic carbon; alter the optical properties of water and cause high background (nois e) from absorbance in spectrophotometric analysis; production of pyrogenic and endotoxin. Few studies have been published on these theoretical problems. Sever al clinical trials using laboratory reagents that are either bactericidal or bac teriostatic, or have preservatives (eg sodium azide). The reagent grade water co ntaminated enables the multiplication of bacteria, total bacterial count of wate r not 18/33 sterile increases proportionally with the storage time of water before use. Reag ents, controls, and appropriate standards, the laboratory tests are able to dete ct possible deviations in quality of reagents with almost absolute certainty. Un doubtedly, the quality of reagent grade water used to prepare / restore such rea gents may be the source of a problem, and the excess bacteria, the cause. Manufa cturers of reagents have to specify the type of reagent grade water needed to pr epare them / reconstruct them. 8.1.3-General Guidelines: the limits suggested he re for total bacteria count and storage time were based on previous comments. Th e recommended limits can be achieved through appropriate systems for the product ion of reagent grade water, when it is produced. The methods are readily adapted to existing utilities in clinical laboratories and using techniques familiar to their personnel. Clinical laboratories should evaluate their own historical exp eriences and recognize that excessive levels of bacteria can cause problems in m aintaining water quality reagent grade. 184.108.40.206-Quantification: the dosage shoul d include the microbiological assessment of total colony count of second standar d method after incubation at (36 + 1) º C for 24 hours, followed by 24 ha (23 + 3) º C. The microbial concentration is reported as "colony forming units per mil liliter (CFU / ml). 220.127.116.11-Collection of samples - the procedure for sampling i s as follows: a) collect the sample in a sterile, large enough to contain all of it. Leave enough empty space to facilitate the homogenization of the sample bef ore analysis, b) open the tap fully and let the water run for at least 1 minute before collecting the sample, then, restrict 19/33 flow to fill the jar without splashing. It should be borne in mind that the flow (flow) is an inadequate common causes of high counts of bacteria; c) collect a minimum of 10 ml of water each sampling point, d) maintain the sample at a tempe rature between 2:08 processála º C and after up to six hours. If you can not pre serve it in this temperature range, the analysis must be done within 1 hour afte r collection. 8.1.4-Methods for counting of total bacteria-18.104.22.168 General Guide lines: The procedures for counting bacteria provide standardized methods to quan tify the population of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and facultatively anaerobi c in the water. It is an empirical measurement because bacteria occur alone, in pairs, chains, clusters or packets. Moreover, no means isolated or set of physic
al and chemical conditions can be regarded as capable of providing the bacterial growth in a water sample, and consequently the actual number of bacteria may be greater than the number of CFUs (colony forming units) . 22.214.171.124-Criteria for s electing the method: different rules regarding water quality recommend a range o f procedures to determine the count of total bacteria, such as plate, filtration , and bacteriological methods of sampling. When choosing a method, the decision should be based on the following considerations: a) sensitivity of the method, b ) using means that would enable the development of bacteria most commonly isolat ed from water within the time specified; 20/33 c) available resources for execution of the procedure, d) cost of the procedure. 126.96.36.199Limitações methods: the methods not recommended understand all the techniques that can meet the goals mentioned above. Different methods can recommend a sampling of different volumes of water, especially when using the kits (kits) of bacteria count on the market today. Sample volumes fro m 1 ml may already be sufficient to have good sensitivity, since it is possible to detect contamination at levels below 1 CFU / ml. Larger volumes are recommend ed to minimize delivery problems with bacteria suspended in fluid.It is importa nt to ensure adequate homogenization of the medium, so as to have representative distribution of microorganisms for the enumeration of total bacteria in the wat er sample reagent grade laboratory chemicals. When using a system of commercial kit, follow the instructions for sampling, counting and the results converted to CFU / ml. The NCCLS does not recommend the method of calibrated loop because it has little sensitivity for colony counts below 100 CFU / ml. 8.1.5-Incubation c onditions for counting of total bacteria-188.8.131.52 Maintain a temperature of (36 + 1) ° C, this temperature must be measured with a thermometer calibrated and trac eable to the Brazilian Calibration Network (RBC). In the U.S., the NCCLS recomme nds that the thermometer is traceable to the National Institute of Science and T echnology (NIST). 184.108.40.206Monitorar humidity incubator regularly (many incubators have humidity controls), recommended humidity in the range 70-96% at 36 º C. If the incubator does not have control 21/33 moisture, keeping a pan of water in the incubator to ensure the necessary moistu re. 220.127.116.11-To ensure the best conditions for incubation, the following steps: a ) incubating the samples (36 + 1) º C for 24 hours, b) then incubated at room te mperature (23 +3) ° C for an additional minimum of 24 hours. The total incubatio n time should be at least 48 hours. The 8.2-pyrogenic pyrogenic are detected by injection of a water sample into mice and monitoring their body temperature, in the case of very low concentrations of lipopolisacarídeos, we used the LAL test (Limulus Lysate Amoebocite), which is very sensitive. NCCLS, by itself, has no s pecific recommendations for dosing of pyrogenic and may be used methods availabl e in current literature. It should be borne in mind that this dosage is essentia l even for the water that has been purified by distillation. His pH 8.3-periodic measurement is necessary to ensure compliance to specifications that manufactur ers of diagnostic kits make for the water to be used with them. In addition, the pH can indicate whether a water deionization system is performing satisfactoril y or not, or if the ionic balance of the resin bed is correct or not, for exampl e, a very low pH of effluent water from a demineralisation system may mean that there is excessive in relation to the cation resin anion resin, or that for some reason, the anionic resin has reached saturation before the cationic resin. 22/33 For pH measurements the NCCLS recommends the use of two buffer solutions as a be
nchmark, one with a neutral pH (7.0) and one with a pH lower - around 4, for exa mple. Can you use tampons commercially available, provided they have quality cer tificate, preferably traceable to RBC. You can also prepare such solutions in th e laboratory, using ACS reagent purity or equivalent. 8.4-Resistivity and conduc tivity are two parameters related to the concentration of ions in water, ie, the concentration of materials dissolved in it - for example, calcium ions and magn esium (Ca + + and Mg + +), present in water supply and whose origin can be leach ing of rock formations and the use of reagents in the treatment of potable) gase s such as carbon dioxide (CO2), which ionizes in water to form carbonic acid, si licates leached from sandy beds of rivers or glass containers; ions ferrous (Fe +2) and ferric (Fe +3), released from pipes and surfaces of iron, chloride and f luoride ions in water treatment plants, phosphates and nitrates from fertilizers and detergents, aluminum ions, manganese, copper etc. . Most of the dissolved i norganic have an electric charge, positive (cations) or negative (anions), and t ransmit electrical current when it plunges into the water and electrodes voltage is applied to them. Thus, the higher the ion concentration, the easier the tran smission of electrical current. The resistivity is inversely proportional to the concentration of ions in water, so the larger the quantity of ions present, the lower resistivity (ie, the water will have less resistance to the passage of el ectric current) and the higher the conductivity (or That is, the water will lead to better electrical current). The conductivity is measured in micro Siemens / cm (uS / cm) and is more suitable for water with large amounts of ions, the resi stivity is 23/33 extent megohm.cm (MΩ.cm) and is more suitable for water with few dissolved ions. Both measures are reciprocal, so the 25 ° C water with a resistivity = 18.2 MΩ. cm has conductivity = 0,055 μ S / cm - this is the highest purity water that can get with current technology. The measurement of resistivity or conductivity giv es only a general statement, not specific, the presence and concentration of ion ized chemical species, she fails to indicate the presence, type and concentratio n of chemical species not ionized, or ionized substances to the level of shares per billion. At 25 º C and a resistivity of 10 MΩ.cm (= the lower limit for wate r type I) the concentration of ionized species is less than 10-6 gram equivalent s per liter in water with higher resistivities, the decrease in ionic contaminat ion is extremely small. The resistivity of the water type I have to be measured daily, online only, through an electrode adapted to the pipe; this measurement c an not be done on a sample collected from the pipe because the water absorbs the type I air pollution extremely quickly, reducing resistivity gradually and caus ing unstable and gradually increasing reading the meter. For water type II NCCLS also recommends daily monitoring of resistivity, but in cases of Type II water Type III water and this measurement can be done in a tota l sample of the output of the system of purification is not necessary to measure exclusively online. Particulate Matter 8.5-Composed primarily of quartz, broken waste pipes and metal colloids. Such particulate matter may clog filters, valve s, pipes and membranes ultra / nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. Particulate m atter is visible as a mist or haze, and is detected 24/33 by filtration combined with gravimetric methods or by microscopy. The soluble si lica, in particular, can be a serious problem in certain geographic areas, it ad versely affects most of the strengths of enzymes, analysis of metals at trace le vels and analysis of electrolytes, it also directly interferes in some spectroph otometric analysis. The concentration of silica can be mainly determined by spec trophotometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP), a high concentration of silica in deionized water may indicate that the anion has already reached saturation point and hence the need
for regeneration of the resin bed. 8.6-Organic Contamination Caused mainly by p esticides, herbicides, gasoline, solvents, waste of animal and plant tissues and organic compounds in general, there may also be waste linings of pipes, fitting s and storage tanks, resulting from leaching such surfaces, it is noted that thi s latter case stems from failure in the design and / or manufacture of water pur ification system, so each system must be designed not only to remove as much con taminant as well as to minimize the incorporation of these water. It is importan t to use water free of organic contaminants in the analysis of organic substance s by HPLC, gas chromatography, electrophoresis, and fluoroscopy and research inv olving tissue culture. There are several methods to investigate the contaminatio n of reagent grade water by organic compounds, but they are impractical for rout ine use in clinical laboratories, because of this, the NCCLS does not recommend, in principle, any method in particular. 25/33 Spectrophotometric analysis of water in the far ultraviolet region is one, but i s feasible only with a special spectrometer for research if there is availabilit y of this resource, it can be useful to assess the presence of organic compounds in water produced. As for the methods based on the reduction of potassium perma nganate are not suitable because they are limited and can not detect large varie ty of organic, liquid chromatography (HPLC), if available, can satisfy this need . Finally, there are total organic carbon analyzers, which oxidize organic compo unds, and measure the CO2 released. 26/33 9 - STORAGE WATER REAGENT GRADE A reagent grade water - particularly the special types, I and II - should not be stored in any container that is. It has to be u sed when it is produced due to contamination by ambient air and also by unavoida ble microbial growth that occurs in stagnant water. In addition, due to microbia l growth, one should never use the first quantities of water produced by a purif ication system that has been inactive for over four hours. When you restart the system operation, it should discard the first volumes of produced water;this qu antity to be neglected should be equivalent to at least two static volumes of th e system. Ideally, the water purification system is equipped with a recirculatio n system in order to keep the water moving, even during periods in which the lab does not work, the NCCLS recommends a minimum speed of recirculation equivalent to 5 ft / s (~ 1.6 m / s). 10 - TABLE 6 SPECIFICATIONS FOR COLLECTION, HANDLING , PRESERVATION AND STORAGE OF SAMPLES OF WATER IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAMETER parame ter being measured ABS (detergents) Acidity Alkalinity Arsenic Barium Boron Brom ide Cadmium TYPE OF BOTTLE P; VP (A), V (B) P; VP (A), V (A ) P (A), V (A) PP; V P (A), V (A) Low Volume (ml) 1000 100 200 1000 1000 100 1000 --------- STORAGE M AXIMUM 24 h 24 h 24 h 6 months 6 months 28 days 28 days 6 months Refrigerate PRESERVATION <4 º C in the dark Cool <4 º C in the dark Cool <4 º C in the dark Add HNO3 to pH <2 Add HNO3 to pH <2 Not required Not required Add HN O3 to pH <2 P = Plastic (polyethylene or similar), V = glass, rinsed with HNO3 A = 1 +1, B = borosilicate. 27/33 BENCHMARK TYPE OF BOTTLE
Minimum Volume (ml) PRESERVATION MAXIMUM STORAGE 100 V total organic carbon (TOC) Lead P (A), V (A) 1000 Residual Chlorine Cyanid e Copper Copper (colorimetry) Conductivity Color Chrome Chrome hexa total BOD5 C arbon dioxide Chlorine dioxide soluble COD total COD Hardness Phenol Tin Iron Ph osphate Fluoride Iodine Manganese Mercury P, VP, V 500 500 Analyze immediately or add HCl to pH <2 and cool <4 º C in the dark 7 days Add H NO3 to pH <2 6 months Ad NaOH until pH> 12; refrig. <4 º C, 24 h dark Analyze im mediately 30 minutes Add HNO3 to pH <2 6 months Add. HNO3 to pH <2; cooling to T <28 days 4 ° C in the dark Cool T <4 ° C in the dark 28 days cooling to T <4 ° C in the dark 28 days cooling to T <4 ° C in the dark 24 hours Add HNO3 to pH <2 6 months cooling to T <4 ° C, 24 h in the dark immediately analyze Analyze imme diately 30 minutes None P (A), V (A) 1000 P (A), V (A) 500 P, VP, VP (A), V (A) P (A), V (A) P; VP VP VP ; PV, V 500 500 300 1000 1000 100 500 100 100 P, V P 100 (A), V (A) 1000 P; VP (A), V (A) PV (A) P; VP (A), V (A) P (A), V (A) P , V 500 1000 300 100 500 1000 500 1000 Microbiol. Organic N2, P, V 500 Kjedahl Nickel P (A), V (A) 1000 Ad H2SO4 to pH <2; cooling to T <7 days 4 ° C in the dark Ad H2SO4 to pH <2; coo ling to T <7 days 4 ° C in the dark Add HNO3 to pH <2 6 months Add HNO3 to pH <2 6 months Ad H2SO4 to pH <2; cooling to T <28 days 4 ° C in the dark Add HNO3 to pH <2 6 months Not required 28 days Refrigerate <4 º C in the dark 48 h Analyze immediately 30 minutes Add HNO3 to pH <2 6 months Add HNO3 to pH <2 Refrigerate 28 days at T <4 ° C, 24 h in the dark add H2SO4 to pH <2, 7 days a cool T <4 ° C in the dark Add HNO3 to pH <2 6 months P = Plastic (polyethylene or similar), V = glass, rinsed with HNO3 A = 1 +1, B = borosilicate. 28/33 BENCHMARK Nitrate (NO3-) Nitrite (NO2-) nitrogen ammonia (NH3-N) NO3-+ NO2O2 dis solved O2 - Winkler electrode Oils and Greases Ozone Odor pH Silver Flavor Selen ium Silica Solid Salinity Temperature Turbidity Zinc Sulfate Sulfide TYPE OF BOTTLE P, V P, V P, V P, V V BOD DBO Minimum Volume (ml) 100 100 500 200 300 300 500 PRESERVATION Cool <4 º C in the dark Analyze as soon as possible, refrigerate 48 hours at T < 4 ° C in the dark MAXIMUM STORAGE 48 h Add H2SO4 to pH <2; cooling to 7 days T <4 ° C in the dark add H2SO4 to pH <2; c ooling to T <4 ° C in the dark Analyze immediately Titration may be delayed afte r acidulation Analyze + asap; cooling to T <4 ° C in Dark add H2SO4 to pH <2; co oling to T <4 ° C in the dark Analyze immediately analyze immediately Add HNO3 t o pH <2 Analyze immediately; cooling to T <4 ° C in the dark Analyze immediately
or use wax seal Add HNO3 to pH <2 Refrigerate T <4 ° C in the dark, do not free ze. Cooling to T <4 ° C in the dark Cool T <4 ° C in the dark Add 4 drops Zn (CH 3COO) 2 2N and NaOH to pH> 9; cooling to T <4 ° C in the dark Analyze immediatel y analyze the same day, refrigerate the T <4 º C in the dark Add HNO3 to pH <2 2 8 days 8 hours 30 minutes 6 hours 30 minutes 2 hours 28 days 24 hours 6 months 6 months 6 months 28 days 2 days 28 days 28 days 24 hours 6 months None V (wide mouth, 1000 calibrated) 1000 V P, V P ---------- (A), V (A) 1000 V 500 V (240, sealing wax) P (A), V (A) 1000 PP VP VP VP VP V ---------------------- 1 00 ---------- -------- ----------P (A), V (A) 1000 P = Plastic (polyethylene or similar), V = glass, rinsed with HNO3 A = 1 +1, B = borosilicate. 29/33 11 MAIN FACTORS The BE CONSIDERED NA SPECIFICATION, DESIGN AND SELECTION OF A SYSTEM FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER.A wat er purification system for special uses usually have to be made of various metho ds of purification that can produce water with quality objectified. Thus, beside s the cost itself (which is an important factor, but should never be considered alone) is essential for the project, specification and selection of a given syst em to observe the factors described below. Features 11.1-Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Water Supply: they are very important factors because they deter mine the frequency of system maintenance - replacement / cleaning of membrane el ements and filters, checking / cleaning / replacement of pipes and connections, exchange resin regeneration ion etc.. Are also important to determine the necess ity of methods most appropriate / feasible to be used for initial purification o f the raw water (sand filters, charcoal, etc. dechlorinated.) And to scale the a mount of filter media and ion exchange resin eventually necessary (in this case, we consider the flow to be treated). Should be considered the worst condition, ie, the worst contamination levels that the water supply can reach - due, for ex ample, seasonal variations (in dry periods the concentration of impurities from water sources significantly increases). Features 11.2-Physical, Chemical and Mic robiological Water Purified (objectified on the basis of quality analysis / test ing characteristic of laboratory activities) primarily determine the methods to be used for polishing (final stage of purification) of water, as well as methods needed for pre-purification of raw water. 11.3 Flow Requirements: must also be considered in conjunction with the factors mentioned above, not only to the calc ulations and specifications of the methods of purification and also for sizing 30/33 number, type and size of the purification devices and the sizing of any tanks an
d tank-lung recirculation, if necessary. Distance 11.4-Output System at (s) Item (s) of Use: the points of use of purified water should be as close as possible to the exit of the purification system, the greater the distance, the greater th e possibility of microbial contamination or even by air intakes or particles dra g pipes. Moreover, longer distances may require temporary storage of water (whic h is absolutely unacceptable for reagent grade water I and II) and / or pumping (which also means greater possibility of contamination, and additional cost). In some cases it may be much more interesting and advisable to have more of a puri fication system. 11.5-Layout: as the distance, another factor that can contribut e much to pollution - mainly microbial - is the number of pipe bends due to the formation of so-called "dead legs" (dead spots), where there may be stagnation o f water and consequent microbial growth. The pipe must have a minimum of connect ions and knees and must also always be apparent (external walls), to facilitate maintenance. 11.6-Material of Filter Housings, Tanks, Tanks, Piping and Connecti ons: the types of analysis, tests and other special applications determine the m aterial of construction of these components as they may suffer interference due to leaching of pipe material, if this is metal, or bacterial growth, greatly fac ilitated by porous plastic tubing such as PVC, for example. 11.7-Availability of Technical Assistance: to ensure that suppliers of the system and its components have the technical capacity, inventory replenishment and sufficient resources t o enable immediate care in case of any problem. Many unsuspecting people are 31/33 ensnared by the apparently low cost and also by verbal fluency and arguments of the vendors, which can bring big losses in the future. It is always advisable to get as much references on system performance and the type / technical assistanc e capacity, before any final decision. 8.11-Instrumentation and Control: The equ ipment and measuring instruments for routine monitoring of purified water should be compatible with its purity. A simple bench conductivity has the minimum cond ition for measuring the conductivity of water that is of reagent grade I or II, such cases should be used with sensitivity of a conductivity reading at home tha n 0.01 uS / cm or even a resistivity where possible installed online. Conductivi ty,resistivity and pH meters must always be with the calibration day, preferabl y carried out by entities associated with RBC - Brazilian Network of Calibration . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1BAYER - webpage: technical papers on various ion exchange resins and its use in purifying water and other liquids. 2epa (Environmental Protectio n Agency - USA) - webpage: technical articles about various laboratories and wat er purification. 3EPA, AWWA, WPCF: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater - 17th edition - Parts 1070B, 1080 A / B / C, 9020 B and 9050. S CIENTIFIC 4FISHER: Electronic Catalogue of Reagents and Materials Laboratory. 5G ould, Charles: Treating Water with Industrial Membrane Technology - Osmonics / F iltration & Separation Systems - 1 / 3 / 1995. 6NCCLS: Doc C3-A2 / Vol.11, no. 1 3 - "Preparation and Testing of Reagent Water in the Clinical Laboratory Grade 2nd edition." 7OSMONICS - webpage: technical papers on water purification and f iltration membranes. 32/33 8 R. CHAPMAN - webpage: technical papers on water purification. 9 RESINTECH - webpage: technical papers on various ion exchange resins and its use in purifying water and other liquids. 33/33