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as time goes on, for example of this, we can see computer s as powerful as the Blue Gene P, manufactured by IBM: Blue Gene P reaches 884 7 36 microprocessors, has a speed of Peta Flop and is 100 thousand times more powe rful than most modern personal computers "1. A microprocessor is the brain of a computer, is the key component and all functions performed by the computer have to do directly with it. It had its beginnings in the sixties and its development is growing rapidly, so that are built more and more capacity in information pro cessing. Thanks to Propositional Logic and Boolean algebra, facilitated the cons truction of logic gates, through which electrical circuits are designed, built a nd microprocessors that are so vital in this development. The applications of lo gic does not end here, the development of legal thought and the science of law, from its inception has been based on the study of propositions and logical infer ence rules to verify the validity of arguments, hypothesis and show form of writ ing the laws that govern the coexistence of nations in the world. We find for ex ample, an article by Dr. Olsen Ghirardi, National Academy of Law and Social Scie nces of Córdoba (Argentina), llamado2: "Law, Logic and Experience", where we fin d feedback on the topic: "The logic is an instrument that prevents us from error and allows us to reason correctly. It is therefore important when we think and when we express our thoughts. " "The logic governing the legal thinking: in the codified system of deduction and, in the common law system, the induction." As w e can see, logic and mathematics are embedded in fields such as law and the laws , obviously, we need to develop this theory that we serve, among other things, s ays O. Ghirardi, to "reasoning correctly." Gaviria Carlos Andres Medina Professo r and Researcher Full Time: Universidad La Gran Colombia. February 1 Based on the article page: http://www.uandes.cl/ver_articulo.asp?id=1477&seccion _padre=30 See more about this topic: http://www.acader.unc.edu.ar/artderechologi caexperiencia . pdf CHAPTER 1 Propositional logic BASICS: Propositions and logical connectives This chapter wi ll discuss the basics of Propositional Logic and Mathematical Logic, whose impor tance is evidenced when the training of students has a research focus, scientifi c-technological, or simply want to advance mathematics courses at senior level. 1.1 Definition: Proposition A proposition is defined as a sentence, a declarativ e sentence, or a symbolic expression, which can be said unequivocally that it is true or false, but not both. 1.1.1 Examples: • The TransMilenio is a mass trans it company in Bogota. • All students at the University of Gran Colombia are mino rs. • If John saw the movie: "Life is Beautiful," know the answer to: What is it that when pronouncing his name ceases to exist? 1.2 Definition: logical connect ives (Terms of Link) are words and / or symbols that link proposals to build a l anguage (verbal or symbolic) wider. The most usual logical connectives and study in this text are: "y", "o", "no", "If ..., then ..." "If and only if" 1.3 Defin ition: A proposition is Proposition Atomic Atomic when not has logical connectiv es. Then are the simplest. 1.3.1 Example: Mary is beautiful The Amazon is the mi ghtiest of the world John has the earliest sister city. 1.4 Definition: A Molecu lar Proposition atomic sentence or more properly written, together with connecti ves. 1.4.1 Example: Mary is beautiful and very smart The Amazon is the mightiest of the world or the Nile is the largest. If John has the most tender sister Bog otá, then any Bogota is not as tender as her. 1.5 Notepad The logical connective "No", can act on a single atomic sentence, wh ile the other connective operate at least two atomic sentences. The molecular fo rm of propositions depends on the logical connectives have, not the content of e ach atomic sentence.

Proposition 1.6 with a disjunction disjunction or a disjunctive proposition is o ne that is made up of atomic or molecular propositions, say P and Q, with the lo gical connective "or." It is symbolized as follows: "V"is written: P v Q and re ad: P happens or occurs Q. 1.6.1 Inclusive Disjunction disjunction is characterized by allowing the proposa ls it contains are all true, so is also called Inclusive. Below is a table of va lues that can be inclusive disjunction, which later will be studied: P ∨ QVVVF V V F F P Q V F V F Table 1: Inclusive Disjunction 1.6.1.1 Examples: Juan bought at the supermarket or corner shop. Or the college students after class rest or walk toward the house. Buy a shirt or trousers on A rthur Street. 1.6.2 Exclusive disjunction is a disjunction that does not allow t he proposals contained are all true, so is also called exclusive. The following table shows the possible values that can take the exclusive disjunction, which w ill be studied in more detail below: PVVFFQVFVF F V V F Table 2: Exclusive Disjunction 1.6.2.1 Examples: • Mary sell or rent your home unique. • Abraham Lincoln is ali ve or dead. • I'm sick or I have health. Proposition 1.7 A Conjunction Conjuncio nal or Conjuncional proposition is one that consists of atomic or molecular prop ositions, say P and Q, with the logical connective "and." It is symbolized as fo llows: "∧" is written: P ∧ Q, and read: P and Q. ∧ is said that a conjunction is true only when each of the propositions that constitute it are true, see Table 3. P V Q V F V F V F F P Q V F F ∧ F Table 3: Conjunction 1.7.1 Examples: • Milena is tender and beautiful. • Abraham married Sarah and ha d two sons Isaac and Ishmael. • I'm sick and I can go to school. Proposition 1.8 in the form of Denial of such a proposition is one that consists of an atomic o r molecular proposition, say P, with the logical connectives "No". It stands thu s: "¬", is written ¬ P and reads: No P; denial of p, or is not true that P. see Table 4. P v ¬ P F V F Table 4: Denial 1.8.1 Examples: • It is true that Milena is tender and beautiful. • We can not s ay that Abraham married Sarah and had two sons: Isaac and Ishmael. • It happens that you are sick and can go to school. Proposition 1.9 Conditional A conditional sentence is one that is formed by two atomic or molecular propositions q, conditioned from one another. Which is indic ated as follows: P → Q is read "If P then Q" 1.9.1Ejemplo: A candidate of the Democratic Pole R for president says: "If I get elected president will receive a 50% increase in his salary next year." A state ment like this is known as conditional. Sean P: R was elected President of the R epublic. Q: Receive a 50% increase in his salary next year. So that the statemen t can be expressed as: P → Q The following is a table representing information i n a systematic way of truth or falsity of the conditional logical connective, is

called a truth table, is deepened further in front on this issue. V V F F P Q V F V F P → Q V F V V Table 5: Table to systematize the truth or falsity of the conditional Proposition 1.10 Let P and Q Biconditional two propositions (atomic or molecular ), then you can indicate the biconditional statement as follows: P ↔ Q is read " P if only if Q" This means that P is true if and only if Q is also true. Or, P is false if and o nly if Q is too. 1.10.1Ejemplo: The following sentence is a biconditional sentence: "Mauritius is an excellent student if and only if GPA is between 4.8 and 5.0" Wh ere: P: Mauritius is an excellent student Q: Has GPA between 4.8 and 5.0 Therefo re, we can say that: The proposition is only Biconditional true if both p and q are false or both true Consider the following table: VVFF p p q ↔ q VFFV VFVF Table 6: Table to systematize the truth or falsity of Biconditional From this po int, you have some tools to make connectors represent a logical statement. 1.10. 2 Example: Consider the following statement "If you do not pay the electricity b ill, then I cut the power and light If I pay, then I run out of money or do I ha ve to borrow, but If I run out of money and I have to borrow, then I can not pay the debt if and only if, I'm disorganized "Where: P: Payment light. Q: I cut th e power. A: I run out of money. S: I have to borrow. T: I can pay the debt. W: I 'm disorganized. (¬ P → Q) ∧ [P → (R ∨ S)] ∧ [(R ∧ S) → (¬ T)] ↔ W 1.Equivalence of Propositions 11 (relative to verbal language) Here we see a tab le that shows some equivalent ways of writing the different propositions: Table 7: Summary of the logical connectives. 1.12 Representation of well-constructed formulas Definition: Formula (Propositio nal Logic) is defined as a compound statement written in symbolic language unamb iguously. In this part we will see the correct way to represent the propositiona l logic formulas and establish criteria for grouping, as well as, priority of th e connective. Usual Form 1.12.1 Usually we consider correct writing of the follo wing formulas It is clear that the use of parentheses we want to avoid confusion and obviously the major connective, however, we can establish conventions coercive priority o f writing in a less complicated formulas. 1.12.2 shorthand for writing a formula in an abbreviated form, we can do the following: a) Ignore the outer pair of pa rentheses: So that the formula 1), 2) and 3) will be abbreviated respectively as follows: b) priority rules are introduced or connective power of logical endings: That we should be applied to reducing formulas: Table 8: Level of Priority of the logical connectives Applying the priority rule s, formulas 1.1), 2.1) and 3.1) are respectively written as: 1.13 Grouping and parentheses Most molecular propositions are not easy to study, for that reason, it is through clustering, and makes it clearer how they posses

s. 1.13.1 dominant connective is the logical connective which acts on the whole proposition and define its shape. 1.13.2 Note: • The major connective must be ou tside the parentheses (in the cases where they appear) in the otherwise dominant means which have priority according to established levels. • The "comma" in a l anguage written proposal "informal" to be placed to symbolize, is grouped proper ly and, along with the words "key" that appear in Table 7 (see table 7) is deter mined by the end of connective, and hence the form of this proposition. 1.14 Summary of Basic truth table 1.15 tautology Tautology is called a proposition which is true for any truth val ue of its components. Therefore, the last column of its truth table shall consis t solely of v (true). Examples of tautology Check out some tautologies: 1) P PPVF ¬ v ¬ v ¬ PFVP ∧ Q → QVVVV PVVP 2) P ∧ Q → P ∧ Q Q Q Q VV V VF F VF F FF F 1.16 Contradiction is defined as the negation of a tautology, a proposition is f alse then whatever the truth value of its components. The last column of the tru th table of a contradiction shall consist solely of F (false). Example: write the negation of the previous example, as we know it is a contradi ction: ¬ (P ∧ Q → Q) ∧ PVVFFQVFVVP QVFFFP QVVVV ∧ Q → ¬ (P ∧ Q → Q) FFFF Propositions Singular propositions 1.17 and General (Quantifiers) As you know, t he phrases: 1. "... It is very friendly and likes to make friends" 2. "X is deta iled and a good friend" are not propositions, because they have "ambiguity", no one knows who you mean, that is, no one knows who is the subject of the sentence . Such expressions are very common from now on, especially type 2., And we call quasi-propositions, they are almost about propositions which must be exemplified (add a subject in particular) to be so. In this case, the illustration would be : Let x: Marcela (a particular subject) So the idea becomes a proposition: "Marcel a is a retailer and a good friend" 1.17.1 Quasi-proposition can say that is a se ntence, a declarative sentence, or a symbolic expression to be exemplified or qu antified to be a proposition. Quantified concerns that many individuals who make up the universe is applicable, and illustrate, refers to state the subject of t he speech. It quantifies a quasi-proposition to categorize and generalize or spe cial qualities, so we talked about items that meet a certain characteristic. Exa mple: "The x are alive, they are born, grow, reproduce and die" (it is a quasi-p roposition) Let x: Men Thus, the quasi becomes Proposition proposition, which is true. Monetised for generalizing, in this case, a characteristic of human being s: "All men are alive, they are born, grow, reproduce and die." 1.17.2 Proposals universal and existential propositions latter procedure to conv ert a predicate in a proposition is called generalization, because it is a way o f speaking "in general", without specifying the name of our logical subject. Of the many forms which may be the procedure of generalization, two are particularl y useful. The first, which we call universal quantifier: is to put before the qu asi-sentence the words "all x is said to be" the second, which we call existenti al quantifier: it consists in prefixing the words "there is at least one x such that" the quasi proposition. Here are some examples: If the expression we have i s: "... is good", our quasi-proposition is "x is good", we do not know if it is true or false, nor can we find out. This requires precede a sentence. Thus, an o ptimist will say, "all x, say x is good", which is in ordinary language "any goo d." A pessimist will say instead, "all say that x is not the case that x is good " in everyday language that amounts to "nothing is good." The moderate, sensible people will say rather, "there is at least one x such that it is good" and "the

re exists at least one x such that it is good." The first two are universal gene ralizations, the latter two, existential. Formalizing 1.17.3 Notation Name quantifiers Universal Quantifier is read for al l x. .. Existential Quantifier There is at least one x. .. Quantified statements are written in the form: To be read "for all x, it is true that P" and "there e xists at least one x such that Q is true." These two quantifiers can be written equivalently as it says exactly what it says:. In words, saying "not for all x t hat p is true" is like saying "there is x such that p is false." Exercise 1 (Exercise and the text of Suppes). 1.1) Identify which of the followi ng propositional formulas are not and which are not propositional abbreviated an d why. 1.2) Write in abbreviated form the following propositional formula: 1.3) Write on a non-propositional formulas short the following: 1.4) Write propositional formulas corresponding to the following sentences: a) A relationship is an equivalence relation if and only if it is reflexive, symmetr ic and transitive. b) If the humidity is high, it will rain this afternoon or to night. c) Cancer is not cured at least determine their cause and find a new drug . d) It takes courage and preparation to climb this mountain. e) If a man doing a tough campaign, probably will be elected. 1.5) with the following assignment of meanings to the propositional variables P Mary need a doctor urgently Q: Maria needs a lawyer to defend him R: Mary has an accident S: Mary is sick U: Maria is injured express the verbal language follow ing propositional formulas: a) (S → P) ∧ (U → Q) b) P → (S ∨ U) c) (P ∧ Q) → R d ) (P ∧ Q) ↔ (U ∧ S) e) ¬ (S ∨ U) → ¬ Q 1.6) invent atomic propositions can be re presented by the following formulas (must be assigned to each corresponding lett er), then write them in verbal language. In the event that they are contradictor y to say why they are. a) ¬ (¬ P) → P b) P → (P ∧ Q) c) ¬ (S ∨ Q) ∨ ¬ Q d) (P ∨ Q) → P e) (P → Q) → (¬ Q → ¬ P) f) (P → Q) → (Q → P) g) P ∨ (P → Q) h) (P ∧ (Q → P)) → P i) P ∨ (Q → ¬ P) j) (P ∨ ¬ Q) ∧ (¬ P ∨ Q) k) ∧ ¬ P (¬ (P → Q)) l) P → ¬ P m) ¬ P → P 07/01 Sean P, Q, R and S formulas. If you know only that P is true , what can be said of the truth value of each of the following sentences? a) P ∧ Q b) P ∨ R c) R P ∧ d) ∨ ¬ P and S) R → P f) P → Q g) P → P ∨ S h) ¬ P → Q ∧ R i) S → j ¬ P) R → (S → P) k) P ∨ S → (Q ∧ ¬ P) l) Q ∧ R ∧ ¬ P → Q 1.8 What can be concluded from each of the previous propositions in the followin g cases? a) If P is false. b) If P is false, Q is true and R is true. 1.9 Let P, Q and R propositional formulas, then: a) If R ∨ P → Q ∧ P is false and P is fal se, What is true of R and Q? b) If Q → Q ∧ P is true and P is false, What is tru e of Q? c) If P → Q ∧ R ∧ P is false, What is true of P, Q and R? d) If (Q ∨ R) → (P ∧ Q) ∨ R is false, What is true of P, Q and R? e) If (P → Q) → (R ∨ P ∨ Q → R) is true, What is true of P, Q and R? 10/01 Sean P, Q and R propositional for mulas.Determine which of the following propositions are tautologies: a) P ∧ Q → P ∧ R e) (P → Q) → (¬ Q → P) b) P → P ∧ Q f) (P ↔ Q) ∧ (P ∧ ¬ Q) c) P ∧ ¬ (P ∨ Q) g) P ∧ ¬ ((P ∨ Q) ∨ R) d) (P → (Q ∨ ¬ P)) → ¬ Q h) P ∨ (¬ P ∨ R) 1.11 Convert each of the quasi-sentences in sentences, using quantifiers. To say whether the y are true or false: a) x is a Colombian senator b) x is a college student Gran Colombia c) and is a good book d) x is a number greater than or equal to 4 1.12 Use quantifiers to symbolize following propositions: a) For each x, x has a name . b) There are quite cold climates where you can not live. c) For every y, and b elongs to a group of countries. d) No one is eternal in the world e) No lemon is sweet f) No cat is dog g) All horses are quadrupeds. h) There are wise men. i) There are no young people lazy. 1.13 Write the quasi propositions as propositions, then write them symbolically

as well as their symbolic negation (using the Dual quantifier). Finally, write t his negation in verbal language. (Use the equivalencies views in class.) a) For all x it holds that if you can listen and sing along and play. b) It is not true for some x that if they like to sing and like to dance, sit at the holidays. c) All and / or are not arrogant or congenial. d) There are M such that are friend ly and like to fight. 1.14 Write the quasi propositions as propositions symbolize and write their symb olic equivalence. (Use the equivalencies views in class.) a) For all x, if we re move a vital organ, then live a normal life or suffer a lifetime. b) For some, a nd not going to live in the north pole, unless your life expectancy decreases. c ) is not fulfilled in any way that the x, are not mammals and are not quadrupeds . d) There is no x which in turn are vegetarians and do not eat: soy or cereals.

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