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MEXICO NATIONAL AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION CAMPUS SCHOOL OF MECHA

NICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRICAL ARAGON


Machine Design M. in I. Emilio MARIN MARIA DE LOURDES
PROJECT DESIGN OF A CORN shelling
Joshua Juarez Mendoza Barajas Mario Alberto Martínez José Luis Rodríguez Abraham
Rodríguez
November 2007
INTRODUCTION The aim of our work is through the design process, sizing releasing
a machine that allows the corn kernels from the cob, so that "their maximum dim
ensions are 40 by 60 cm. -Has a maximum weight of 10 kg, is semi-cutting allows
different sizes of ear-cutting the maximum time of two ears is 10 min. Making th
e product benchmarketing we realized that existing machines using an operating p
rinciple based on the submission of the corncob random tangential forces on the
surface causing an uncontrolled release parameter and discontinuous. Other devic
es are the property of cut crosswise on the surface of corn so it seemed indicat
ed, here we have a controlled cut direction and strength, the downside: they are
manual, and that's where we base our work, generating early settlement by inves
tment variants we achieve this alternative. The excessive weight of commercial s
hellers and the extreme inefficiency of the manual, lead us to think in differen
t ways to solve this situation, besides being expensive and tend to the farming
sector, there is a device that meets the needs of small business maize, which ma
y have only one food business based on this product. In this paper we focus on t
he analysis of the solution by applying methodologies that optimize the work and
provides an option for making a corn sheller machine. As with any machine desig
n would address the following points:-support structure, power supply, transmiss
ion, drive-out mechanism (cutter)-control
CORN Corn belongs to the grass family. Its scientific name is Zea Mays, because
it is grown everywhere in the world, you can find this cereal plants with differ
ent characteristics. The cultivation of corn is an annual scheme, the growing se
ason ranges from 80 to 200 days from sowing to harvest. Its structure is as foll
ows:-plant-stem-leaf-root system or main seminal root: provides nutrients to the
seed-adventitious roots-roots support: perform photosynthesis aerial roots Corn
is monoecious, male flowers are saying and female in the same plant. The flower
s are staminate or apostille, staminate or male flowers are represented by the s
pike. The apostille or female are the ears. The male and female flowers consist
"of the male flower inflorescence is presented as a spike. Male-flower-spikes-tw
o-three stamens fertile bracts, inflorescence Postil rudimentary pistil-stigma-l
eaves-or corn-cob hair The fruit of the corn plant is called commercial grain is
a caryopsis and botanically known as agriculturally seed. It consists of:-peric
arp: cover the fruit, of maternal origin, is known as head, skin or shell. -Aleu
rone: endosperm cell layer protein in nature. -Endosperm: tissue reserves of the
seed that nourishes the embryo during germination. It is part of larger volume.
Two regions are distinguishable in the soft and starchy endosperm and the hard
or vitreous endosperm. The proportion depends on the variety. -Scutellum or coty
ledon: the embryo-embryo or germ: miniature plant structure to originate a new p
lant, to germinate the seed. Terminal-layer: part that joins the cob, with a spo
ngy structure adapted to the rapid absorption of moisture. Between this layer an
d the base of the germ is a black cloth known as spin coating, which serves as a
sealant during ripening of the grain.
According to the structure of its grains, corn can be divided into subspecies, Z
ea mays or corn indurated crystalline, has a hard endosperm starch grains compac
t. It is known in other countries such as flint corn. This hard corn is used in
both food as feedstock in the production of alcohol or starch. -Zea mays amylace
a, or corn starch, has soft endosperm, their starch grains are not compact. Ever
t-Zea mays or popcorn, the endosperm is hard and busting the roasting. Zea mays
saccharata-or sweet corn, the endosperm is about 11% sugar is wrinkled when dry,
is suitable for human consumption.€-Or corn Zea mays tunicata tunicata, is iden
tified as having well-developed bracts covering the grain. Zea mays, or maize wa
xy waxy waxy endosperm is their no wild maize varieties, man has tamed so much t
hat if left to grow disappear, in Mexico there are 30 races and 6 subraces:
A popcorn-old indigenous yellow Arrocillo Toluqueño 2 3 4 Chapalote nal-tel-Colu
mbian exotic Cacahuacintle June 5 to July 8 Oloton starchy sweet corn in August-
modern emerging Chalqueño 23 Celaya 22 24 25 Northern conical mountain ball-slat
26 Western Bofo August 1927 big blue 28 29 30 Apachita
Prehistoric cone-mestizo September 10 exploder 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Tabloncillo Tehua Tepecintle Zapalote comiteco big guy pulls Zapalote Pepitilla
Olotillo Tuxpeño Vandeño
Table 0 .- varieties of maize in Mexico
Figure 1 .- cut a corn kernel
Figure 2 .- ear
BENCHMARKETING The strippers could find on the market are not as varied and can
be classified according to several criteria: - internal combustion - electric -
Manuals - Tractor The internal combustion shellers are named after the system us
ed to operate, its construction is robust and are designed for rough work, gener
ally constructed of carbon steel sheet and its structure in profile or angle. Th
is type of threshers has in general the following features: Power required HP Ma
rch 4 August 12 to 16 rpm rotor speed 350-450 650-750 650-750 650-750 Approximat
e yield in Kg / hr 3500 5500 800 1500
Table 1 .- Characteristics of internal combustion shellers
The shellers electrical energy used to achieve such purpose, its construction ma
y be strong or light, being able to be used for any production volume, as the la
rge variation in speed permits, similarly constructed of steel sheet and structu
re angle. This type of shellers have the following general characteristics: Powe
r required HP 1 1 / 2 2 3 7 1 / 2 rpm rotor speed 350-450 650-750 650-750 650-75
0 Approximate yield in kg / hr 800 1500 3500 5500
Table 2 .- Electrical characteristics shellers
As you can see the performance of electric threshers is greater, the power consu
med varies considerably. In addition, electric threshers can operate with single
phase motor which reduces the cost. The strippers of this type have an extracto
r fan and have the chaff to clean grain. The tractor shellers are coupled to the
vehicle so that the freshly harvested corn enters a hopper that is attached to
the thresher, and get corn without chaff. Compare the characteristics of manual
threshers are interested because we are in the same utility level as us.
Cutter Number 1, Capalla & Benefits Easy to transport Fitzsimmons is a single pi
ece Stainless Disadvantages Court nonuniform grain cut Risk of hands were deform
ed to some effort
Table 2.1
Cutter number 2, Caroline Rhea Benefits can be placed in a bowl Stainless has a
wide area setting Disadvantages None Machaca Blade dangerous grains move the cor
n should be cut p
Table 2.2
Cutter No. 3, Krishevsky-Lundholm-Westenhoefer Security Benefits Subject to oper
ate Good Good Disadvantages container cutting surface deforms enough some effort
is not uniform grain Court
Table 2.3
As we can see the first disadvantage of these is its reliance on manual and user
cutting resulting in irregular cut. In addition to the speed with which they ma
y break the grains is limited. From this we can consider parameters of the produ
ct on the market. Characteristic Features to consider to improve
Sure Fit nicely to operate can be placed in a good bowl cut surface
Avoid excessive deformation even cut Ensure Safety
Table 2.4
BRAINSTORMING
Figure 4 .- Brainstorming
STUDY OF THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER The study was based on surveys of persons eng
aged in this business, answering the question, what features should have a machi
ne for shelling corn? Minimum weight need speed automatic optimization space tha
t is easy to transport electrical steel Low Cost Insurance Safe to operate effic
iently clean electrical parts Number of people who said this 19 20 20 20 18 20 1
6 20 17 th March 20, 1920 20 on January 20, 1920 15 December 20 1920 14 20 13 20
Table 3 .- Results of the survey of customer needs
Minimum weight: we know of the restrictions that we have a maximum of 10 kg.€Aut
omatic: our specification is less stringent and semiautomatizacion enough, we mu
st choose which system will be. Speed: we know that our machine restrictions mus
t remove the kernels from two ears of different sizes in a no longer than 10 min
utes. Optimization of space, we have maximum dimensions of 40 by 60 cm. That is
power: this need is not clear, but our approach to suggest "that has a 127 will
take up to 2 A, single phase, which has an electric drive system Easy to transpo
rt: it is very important so the remove from the final list. Low cost: it is the
most important consideration. Stainless: Another consideration was the final lis
t. Safe to operate: one needs to define ambiguous: - low vibration-cutting speed
-controlled emergency stop, have no parts which can be in contact with the user
and jeopardize its integrity Insurance electric parts: it is easy to define this
parameter common sense, "low risk of shock and thermal-overload protection to o
perate Clean: specified according to what we, as designers believe" that the gra
in-mash that does not fly off the grains, which can be cleaned easily Parts in c
ontact with corn Efficient "not fail" to cut 80% of the surface of the ear at le
ast.
CUSTOMER NEEDS LIST No. of necessity 1 2 3 system control all Drive Transmission
Mechanism cut all power source drive all cutting drive Transmission Mechanism D
rive Transmission Control Transmission Control Mechanism drive power source cutt
ing mechanism cutting drive control structure Support Mechanism Drive Transmissi
on Mechanism cut all need cutting speed semiautomatic Minimum weight Relative 3
2 1b
4 May 6 July 8
Food residential space optimization Have Little Low cost electric motor vibratio
n
1 5b 6b May 4
September 10, 1911
Cutting speed adjustable Emergency Stop Null user contact with parts Low risk of
electric shock and thermal overload protection not crush the grain do not leave
random grains Easy cleaning of parts that will not fail to clean the surface 80
%
The 6th 6c 6d
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
9b 8b 7b 7c the 9th the 7th the 8th
Table 4 .- list of customer needs
MATRIX REQUIREMENTS - ACTION
Cutting Forces
Measure
Dimensions
Fatigue
Vibration
Friction coefficient
Cutting Efficiency
Material
No. Of necessity 1 1b 2 3 4 May 6 6b 6c 6d 7a 7b 7c 8a 8b 9a 9b
Need Low cost minimum weight fast semiautomatic optimization of space residentia
l Food Emergency Stop Low Vibration Cutting speed adjustable Null user contact w
ith items not crush the grain easy cleaning of parts that do not come clean grai
n random 80% of surface not failure and thermal overload protection Low risk of
electric shock * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * * *
*
transmisiónRelación of
*
Table 5 .- An array of measures needs
Weight
OBJECTIVE SPECIFICATIONS No. of No. of need as a 1,3,5,6 b, 6c, 7a, 7b, 7c, 8a,
8b, 9a 1,2,3,5,6 b, 6c, 7a, 7b, 7c, 8a, 8b, 9a 1.1 b, 2,4,6 b, 6c, 7a, 7c, 8a, 8
b, 9a, 9b, 1,2,3,6 a, 6b, 6c, 7a, 7c, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b Measure A-B-coefficient of
friction-force cutting forces resulting C-Efficiency-cut energy consumption, per
iod and frequency DVibraciones critical speed E-3 Material Importance Value Unit
s Value marginal ideal -
2
9
N
-
-
3
6 KW 4 sec. Hz rpm 8 -
Max. 1 -
4
5
6
1.1 b, 2,4,5, 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 8a, 9a, 8b, 9b 5.6 1,2,3,4 a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 7a, 7c,
8a, 9a
-
-
7
1.1 b, 4.6 b, 6d, 7b
F-ratio transmission, peripheral speed-power-transmission-loss performance torqu
e-o-calentamient GDimensiones protections of the machine-dimension geometry and
H-fatigue-loading regime I-Weight
5 in / sec Hp W N-m% 2 meters
-
-
40 60
<40 of 60
8
1,2,4,6 b, 1,2,4,6 b 8b
7
Newton per meter kg
-
-
9
1
10
<October
machine
Table 6 .- An array of target specifications
maximum
MEMORY OF CUTTING FORCE CALCULATION To determine the shear force necessary to ap
ply to release their grain corn and apply a transverse force in the ear and meas
ured with a dynamometer, we do this five times and apply a measure of dispersion
.
Fs max (N) 2 1857 1868 2.2 1921 max = 1.9332 Fs
Figure 5 .- longitudinal section of corn
| Fis max - max fs | 0.0668 0.0762 0.0652 0.0122 0.0868 Δfsmax = 0.06144
Diversion Media
1.9332/9.81 = 0.1970 μ =
Δx =
Σx
f = 1
n
1
-X
n 2 + 1,857 + 1,868 + 1,921 + 2.02 m = 1.9332 N = 5 2 - 1.9332 + 1857 - 1868 + 1
.9332 - 1.9332 + 1921-1.9332 + 2.02 - 1.9332 = 0.06144 N Δm = 5
Now we apply a tangential force and repeat the experiment.
Fs max (N) 2,521 2,500 2,496 2,512 2,010 max = 2.4078 Fs
| Fis max - max fs | 0.1132 0.0922 0.0882 0.1042 0.3978 0.1591 Δfsmax =
Figure 6 .- tangential cut corn
On this basis we have the following hypothesis: "if we make a cut on the circumf
erence of the surface, the applied shear force is greater, forces us to choose a
metal that has a higher elastic modulus and having sufficient rigidity The cour
t, in addition to having to increase their size whereas no system could have a p
ower cut. You also have to design a restraint system that supports the regime of
load present at the time of the cut. This system is inappropriate because "the
cutter goes in the opposite direction to the orientation of vitreous endosperm.
, The cutter must release more terminal layer. -If we make a cut on the length o
f the surface, the force required is lower because the court is independent of t
he position of corn, besides the dimensions of the tool as a criterion dependent
. The power cut can be manually or automatically if desired. This system we indu
ce vibration due to the race but you can decrease the design of checks and flywh
eels, this thanks to the arrangement of the elements is carried out in a tree th
at can introduce elements that absorb vibration, bearings, etc. . Therefore we c
hose a cross section through a linear motion mechanism crank-handle. ANALYSIS OF
SPEED In our mechanism we believe to have no taller than five inches, so the sy
stem has a speed limit: VB = 20 in / sec Assuming that we have the position: Θ =
100 °, α = 60 °, ψ = 20 º
v vC vB = CB = sen60 º sen20 º sen100 No. 20 in v sec = CB sen60 º sen20 º in 23
.0940 = 2.923v CB sec in v CB = 7.8986 sec v CB vC = sen20 º sen100 º 23.0939 =
1.0154v C v C = 22.7430 in sec
To size the mech nism we use f mil of curves speed of the slide-cr nk speed /
position of the mech nism. For the conditions
initi l nd obt ined, our requirements re ver rigid nd we c n look for the r
nge:
ω =
620rpm = 64.9262 netork 2π 60 s
∴ v = 3in L = 0.4 to 0.6 R Rω
We chose to 40 º - 110 º
25 in v = 0.8ω sec R = 0.8 (64.9262) R = 0.4813in L = 3R
L = 3 (0.4813in) = 1.4439in
PO
Figure 7 .- Diagram of forces in the mechanism
We can choose for the range: R = 0.4813 to 0.6048 in YL = 1.4439in
Figure 8 .- velocity olygon
ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATORS
aB
n
2 20 sec in vB = 661 375 in = 0.6048in = sec 2 0B
n
2
ACB
In 7.8969 sec VCB = 43.1892 in = 1.4439in = sec 2 BC
t
2
ACB = 682.59 aB
t
t
am in , α e = CB = 472.74 1.4439 sec 2 sec 2 in (0.6048in) = 285.9134 in 2 =
α E 0 B = 472.74 sec 2 sec
n n t
BC = B + ACB + ACB = 661,375 + 43.1892 + 472.74 = 497.7142 m 2 sec
Figure 9 .- cceler tion polygon
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS R = L = 1.4439in 0.6048in
σ ec 2 t = 1 and B = 285.9134 in ec 2 n aσ 2 x = CB = -43.1892 aσ in ec 2 t
2 = CB = -682.59 in ec 2 α 2 = α = 472.74 in sec 2 σ 3 = C = -497.7142 in ec
2
aσ 1x = a B = 661 375 in
n
For the inertial force  and couple  1lbm m1 = m2 = m3 = 3lbm 2lbm
For our load
1lbm - 661.3 in 1.7116lb = - m1 = aσ 1x = - in ec 2 ⋅ ⋅
lb ec 386.41lbm 2 1lbm - = 282.9134 in 0.7399lb - m1 = aσ
1 y = - in ec 2 ⋅ ⋅ lb ec 386.41lbm 2 = 2.4lb in ⋅ in - I
σ 1α 1 = (2 ⋅ sec ⋅ 0.01lb in) - sec 2 240.5 2lbm - 43.1892 i
n 0.2235lb = - m2 = σ 2 x = - in ec 2 ⋅ ⋅ lb 386.41lbm 2 ec
2lbm - 682.59 in 3.5330lb = - m2 = aσ 2 y = - in ec 2
⋅ ⋅ lb 386.41lbm 2 ec in 9.4548lb = ⋅ in - I σ 2α 2 = (2 ⋅ sec ⋅ 0.0
2lb in) - 472.74 sec 2 - 3 m3 = σ 3lbm - 494.7142 in =-
in ec 2 lb ⋅ ⋅ 386.41lbm ec 2 = 3.8409lb
Now:
F23 x + (- m3 aσ 3) = 0 F03 + F23 and F23 = 0 x =-3.8409lb = - x F32 and F32 = -
F23 and
and
F32 F12 x + x + (- m 2 aσ 2 x) = 0
F12 and F32 + and + (- aσ 2 m 2) = 0
For α = 70 °, ψ = 24 º
Lsenθ X F32 + F32 and L co  θ + (- m 2 aσ 2 x) Lσ enθ + (- m 2 aσ 2) Lσ co  θ +
(- I σ 2α 2) = 0 y = F32 nd F32
F21x F12 = F32 x = x - (m 2 σ 2 x) = (m3 aσ 3) - (m 2 aσ 2 x) REPLACE - (-
3.8409) - 3.5330 = 0.3079lb y = F03 and F12 - (m 2 aσ 2) = 1.1307 - 0.2235 = 0.9
072lb F01x + F21x + (m1 aσ 1x) = 0 F01x = - F21x (- m1 aσ 1x) = -0.3079 - 1.7116
=-2.0195lb F01 and F21 + and + (m1 aσ 1 y) = 0 y = F01 - F21 and (- m1 aσ 1) =
-0.9072 - 0.2235 =-1.1307lb
Finally we determine the nece ary torue to need
- 3.8409 (1.4439) en24 º -3.8409 (0.6048) en24 º -3.5030 (0.6048) +9.4548 1.44
39 co  24 ° co  24 ° = 1.1307lb ∴ y = 1.1307lb F03
T1 - F21 and F21x R enφ + R cos φ - (- m1 σ 1x) enφ rσ + (m1 aσ 1) rσ co  φ +
(- I σ 1α 1) = 0 T1 = F21x Rsenφ - F21 nd cos φ + R (m1 σ 1x) rσ enφ - (m1 σ
1) rσ co  φ + (I σ 1α 1) T1 = 3.4147lb in ≈ ⋅ ⋅ 4lb in T1 = (0.3079) (0.6048) s
en70 º - (0.9072) (0.6048) sen70 º + (1.7116) (1) sen70 º - (0.7399) (1) cos 70
º +2.4
ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS
I nom ≅ 1.3
generic or sm ll univers l motor
Vnom = 127V RPM = 3100rpm no lo d poer consumption
P = I 2 V = (1.3 A) (127V) = 214.63W
2
214.63W 1HP = 0.2877 HP 746W i  T ⋅ ⋅ rpm 63 000 0.2877 63 000 HP HP ∴
T = = = = 5.8468lb ⋅ 63 000 rpm in Tsu min 3100rpm = 5.8468lb ⋅ tered in
Around the tree h s to rot te t 620 rpm it is me n v lue beteen the r nge o 
h t e discussed shellers h ndled in benchm rketing.

3100rpm 3100rpm = 620 X = 5620 X =


"The tr nsmission r tio is 5:1 to consider
M x. = 20cm
39.37in 1m = 7.87in 100cm 1m
We chose m ximum idth o  8 " or the dimensions o  the r me so e decided th
t the driven pulley, not exceeding 5 cm. M x. = 15 748 in the r me, s the corn
is cut in h l  so e c n optimize the m chine. We h ve service  ctor o  1.6
or c rs. FS = HPnom HPre l HPre l = 0.2877 (1.6) = 0.46032 HP drive pulley di m
eter = 5in 3100rpm = 1in pulleys must be o  c st steel ith the olloi

ng ch r cteristics S Sy = 380 MP = 225 MP Se = Sut 0504 Length = 297 MP e e
ctive step C should not be gre ter th n 3 in it prevent us rom restrictions on
dimensions.
620rpm
(D - d) 2 L = 2C + 1.57 (D + d) +
4C
(5-1) 2 L = 2 (3) + 1.57 (5-1) + 4 (3) = 16.7533in
Peripher l speed o  movement
π ⋅ π ⋅ d ⋅ rm 620rm ft 5in ⋅ December 1912 = 811 578 ft min 1 min 12in
in V = 811 578 60 sec 1 ft = 162.31 sec min
V =
Under revious alo choose a rubber band ith the folloing features Gear Limit t
ensile strength 20 MPa Elongation at break 10% E = 150 MPa ρ = 9.8 N/dm3 Section
A t apezoidal Wo king speed 50-250 ft / min φ = 0.7
Tr ction
P = 2φF1
P1 = φ = 0.7 2 (0.7) (31.4721) = 44,060 lb
Axle lo d due to belt tension
sin σ = 3P
α2 2
α 2 = 120 º σ = 3 (44 060) in 60 º σ = 144 471 p i
Ten ion in the band
33000 33000 HP 33000 (0.4632 HP) F1 - F2 = = = 18.8344lb ft min 811 578 F1 Vp =
e fα I   = 0.3 F2 = e1.33 18.8344 18.8344 (0.3) ∴ F2 = 1.33 (0.3) = F2 12.6377l
b nd F1 - F2 = 18.8344lb F1 = (18.8344 + 12.6377) F1 = 31.4721lb lb
Cl mping ngle
HP =
(F1 - F2) Vp
senα =
rc R-5 in - 1 in 3 = = 1.33 º in
Use ul e ort
K = 2φσ 0
K = 2 (0.7) (261,070 p i) = 61 685 p i
Effort by centrifugal force 
σ 0 max = 261 070 p i
σV =
ρ v2 10 g
ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE Powe  output = 214.63 W Powe  t ansmitted f om the pulle
y axis
746w 5.8468 lb ⋅ in = 0.05753 hp 1hp = 42 924 63 000 w
Ideal cutting powe 
w 746 3.4147 (620) = 0.0336 hp = 1hp 25.069w 63 000
The flywheel abso bs W-42 924 214.63 171 706 W = W The loss in the 42 924 axis W
- W = 25 069 17.855W The time it takes to stop the mechanism should be minimal,
since that ep esents losses and ene gy consumption. The pe centage loss in the
axis W--------- 100% 42 924 25 069 XX = 58.40% W--------- ecove ing the st ike
by the flywheel. The stopping time is no stee ing wheel cutte 
WORK Wo k = Fs t = mgh P = 1.2096 E = 0.31 lbm (32.2) 12 E = 0.9737 ft
lb ⋅ ∴ t = 0.9737 job = 0.0336 P = 28.9791 sec hp WORK P = t Wo k = Fs = 1.2096
mgh E = 0.31 lbm (32.2) 12 E = 0.9737 ft lb ⋅ ∴ t = 0.9737 job = P 0.03
36 sec 28.9791 0.9737 Wo king hp lb ft ⋅ t = = = 2.82seg with flying P (0.05733
+ 0.2877)
Fo  mass flywheel
W = W =
W = 52 451 7.1414lb
(39.24) (1.3201) = 0.9876 2.2046 (32.2)
9.81

 w1 - w2
2
(
4 gE
Feb ua y 2
)
ANALYSIS OF FORCES
Figu e 10 .- f ee body diag am of the mechanism
Ps = 0.0952 as α = Pp Pp Pp = 1.8740 0.0508 Pp =-r cos ωt mprω - mpl
ω 2 cos 2ωt l = 1.9332 N N Ps = 1.9332 (1.8740) = 3.6228 minimum N
Febru ry 2
Ps = Rx = Ry = Pp N 3.6228 1.9332 N = R =
(3.6228) 2 (1.9332) 2
R = 4.1063 N
Minimum torque on the cr nk
TT = XFP so φ
For this to the cr nk, connecting rod nd sliding occupy dmir lty bronze S E =
103MP = 300MP 150Mp Sy = 10% Sn, Zn 2%, 78% Cu
= 0.09525 0.0952 (1.9332) = 0.003450 Nm 0.0508
Figure 11 .- ree-body di gr m
Torque produced by the motor = 0.6605 FOR 3100 rpm Torque Nm on the cr nk
T =
HP 63000 0.2877 (63000) 1.4482 = = 29.2340lb ⋅ in = 3.3029 N ⋅ m 39.37 rpm
620rpm
The sh t critic l speed
Wn =
187.7
st δ
= 786 903 rpm
where
st = δ
0.29 W = 17 575 K = 0.0165 K = l PID π d 4 π (0.0127) 4 I = = = 2.5539  10 -9
m 4 32 32 (207 Ma) (2.5539  10 -9 m 4) = 0.0165 K = 32
Pulley = M T = 0.6605 N ⋅ m
since n = 5: 1 0.6605 N ⋅ m M t crank ulley = 5 M = 0.1321N ⋅ m 5
The cutter can use a mild steel ith lo carbon content because their demand is
not so great. This material is M7002 and has the folloing characteristics: S S
y = 621 MPa = 486 MPa = 0.504 is Sut = 250 MPa
Σ Fy = 0 ↑ +
- F1 + R1 - F2 + R2 = 0 - 7.9461N + R1 - N + 0.7848 R2 = 0 R1 + R2 = 8.7309 N
Ma = 0 Σ
7946 (0.2747) - 0.2643R1 + 0.01035R2 = 0 2.1827 - 0.2643R1 - 0.01035 R2 = 0 - 0.
01035R2 0.2643R1 = -2.1827 + - 2.1827 + 0.01035 R2 - R1 = 8.2584 0.2643 - 0.0391
6 R1 = R2
F1 (0.2748) - R1 (0.2643) + R2 (0.01035) = 0
(8.2584 - 0.03916 R2) + R2 = 8.7309
0.9608 R2 = 0.4725 R2 = 0.4917 N R1 = 8.7309 - 0.4917 = 8.2392 N
Σ Fy = 0 ↑ +
V = 7946 N
- 7946 + V = 0
7946 (x) + Mo = Mo = 0 7946 x Mo (0.01035) = -0.0822
Mo = 0 Σ
- 7946 (x) - 8.2392 (x - 0.01035) + Mo = 0 7946 x - 8.2392 x + 0.0852 + Mo = Mo
= 0 +0.02932 x - 0.0852
Σ Fy = 0 ↑ +
Σ F (0.2643) = -0.0774 Σ Fy = 0 ↑ +
M (0.01035) = -0.08489
- 7,946 + 8.2392 + 0.04917 + 0.7849 + Vo = 0 V = 0 V = -0.7849
7946 (x) - 8.2392 (x - 0.01035) - 0.4917 (x - 0.2747) + Mo = 0 7946 x - 8.2392 x
+ 0.0852-0.4917 x + 0.1350 + Mo = 0 to 0.7849 x + 0.2202 + Mo = 0 Mo = 0.7849 x
- 0.2202 M (0.2643) = -0.0127 M (0.2747) = -0.00458
Mo = 0 Σ

Figure 12 .- Diagram of moments an shear
ANALY
I
OF EFFORT
Effort maximum allowable
= 6.8947 55.1576 KPa MPa
s = 8000 psi 1 psi
Applying the equation of maximum shear stress
16 (KBM) 2 + (Kt Mt) 2 π Ss (0.75) 16 [(1.4571) (0.0882)] 2 + [(1.5) (0.6605)] 2
2.5d 3 = π (55.1576 MPa) (0.75) here Kb Kt = 1.5 = 1.4571 3 = 2.5d
Bending moment M = 0.0882 Nm Torque M t = T = 0.6605 Nm
d 3 = 123 112  10 -9 (0.99905) 2.5d 3 = 0.11299  10 -6 39.37 0.004973m 2.5d
= d = 0.4894in 1m
Bending stress
σx =
M Z
Π 1 π 2 Z d3 = 32 32
()
3
1m 3 -6 3 = 3 0.02484in 3 (39.37) in = 0.4021  10 m
σx =
0.0822 = 204 426  10 3 0.4021  10 -6 Pa
Shear ten ion
XY T =
T Zp
3
πd π 12 = 16 16 = Z
XY T =
()
3
1m 3 -6 0.04908in 3 = (39 373) in = 0.8042  10 m
3
N ⋅ m = 0.6605  10 3 Pa 821 313 -6 3 0.8042  10 m
Figure 13 .- main efforts
Princial stresses
σ1 =
X + σ and σ
2
ΣY σ + X 2 + + Txy 2
2
ima max 204 426  10 3  10 3 204 426 + 821 313  10 3 σ1 = + February
2
2
σ 1 = 102 213 + 1011 = 7.1634  948 584  10 3 Pa
Minimum
σ2 =
X + σ and σ
2
ΣY σ + 2 3 + + Txy X = 744 155 Pa 2  10
2
compre ion
Sen e of the principal action
φσ =
=
2 (821 313  10 3 Pa) tan -1 a (204 426  10 3 Pa) = 41.4529 º 2
Τxy 2 1 tan -1 (σx - σy) 2
en ion maximum hear tre  max σ x-σ y = 2 + xy 2
February 2
204 426 × 10 3 2 + (821 313 × 10 3) = 827 648 × 10 3 Pa = 2 - (σ x
- σ y) tan -1 1 2 2 xy
φr = φr =
- (204 426 × 10 3 Pa) tan -1 1 = 3.54 º 2 February 3 (821 313 × 10 Pa)
Normal tre e 
σ =

x
+ Σ y)
2 204 426 × 10 3 102 213 σ = 2 × 10 3 Pa
Mohr Circle
204 426 3 = 102 213 × 10 × 10 3 Pa 2 2 3 b = x = 821 313 × 10 Pa a =
x

-Σ y)
=
R = a2 + b2 =
(102,213) 2 + (821,313) 2
= 827.648Pa

+
204.426x σx = 103 Pa / 2 = a-σ
0 to b
xy = 82

+ Σ

-
Figure 14 .- Mohr Circle
σ 2 = 102 213 × 10 3 Pa - 827 648 × 10 3 Pa = 725 435 × 10 3 Pa σ 2 = 102 213 ×
10 3 Pa + 827 648 × 10 3 Pa = 929 861 × 10 3 Pa
max = R = 827 648 Pa × 10 3 821 313 2φσ b = tan -1 tan -1 = 102 2
13 × 10 3 to 2φσ = 90 º-2φσ = 90 - 82.9 = 3.55 º = 41.45 º
ANALY
I
OF FA IGUE σmax = max = 103 Pa 204.426x 821.313x103Pa U ing the criter
ion o  maximum hear tre 

N =

(
and M) 2

y π 2 d 3 32 x -
2

N =
(370 × 10) (0.0822)
6
π (0.0254) 3370 × 10 6 32 (0.2747)
- (0.6605) 2
2

N =
9250 × 1014 = 112.2846 × 10 3 Pa 3 (73 367 × 10)
We take the tree and the cu  o  1018 teel cutter with the ollowing characteri
tic 
w
y = 440 MPa = 370 MPa = 0.504 i 
ut = 222 MPa iece ur ace actor co
rrected
utb Ka = a = 1.58 (440) -0085 = 0942 ize actor
Kb = d 7.62
-. 0113
0.2747 = 7.62
-0.1133
= 1.4571
Load Factor = 1 Factor = 1 Ke temerature = 1 Occuying the Von Mi e  tre 
σ '= σ 12 - σ 1 + σ ⋅ σ 2 February 2
= (948 584 × 10 3) - (948 584 × 10 3) (- × 10 3 744 155) (744 155 × 10 3) σ '= 1
469 MPa
[
(
)
1 / 2
2
]
1
2

a ety actor o  a ety o  atigue ailure


I  304.71 × 10 6 n = = = 2.07 σ '1469 × 10 6

Ka Kb
e = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Kc K Ke ⋅ ⋅
'an
e = 304.71  10 6 Pa

e = (0,942) (1.4571) (1) (1) (1) (222  10 6)

Curve
- N
N = C + D log (N) For N = 103 = 106 CYCLE
YN
112.2846 x 103 = (3D - 112.2846 x 103) + 112.2846 x 103 = 6D 9D-9D = 112.2846 x
103 224596.2 D = 24.9521 x 103 C = 3 (24.9521 x 103) - 112.2846 x 103 C = -37428
.2 uration in cycles

N - CD 112.2846  10 3 - (-37428.2) 24.9521 N = 10  10 3 N = 1000018.456 N = 1


0 CYCLE

The maximum spee
ω =
2π (620rm) = 64 926 rad rev 60 sec 60 min = 37.200 rev min hr 1hr
ω = 620
Duration in hours
H =
N 1000018.456 26.882hrs ω = 37.200
ANALYSIS OF VIBRATIONS This can carry out using a model forced damed vibration,
the damed motion is driven by a eriodic external force (T = π / 2 sec.) From
t = 0, even ith the buffer system maintains motion until the handle stos turni
ng.
1 d 2x dx + 1.2 + 2 x = 5 cos 4t 5 dt 1 dx x (0) =, = 0 2 dt t = 0 m1 = -3 + i,
m 2 = -3 - i
xc (t) = e
- 3t
(C1 cos t + c 2
sin t)
Five times the original equation for CI, ostulating an equation of the form
x (t) = A cos 4t + B cos 4t e have x ' = - 4 A sin B cos 4t + 4t 4' x ' = 16
A cos 4t - 16 B sen4t = (- 6 A + 24 B) cos 4t + (- 24 A - 6 B) = 25 cos 4t sen4
t the system of equations is - 6 A + 24 B = 25 to 24 A - 6 B = 0 A = - B = 25 10
2 50 51 25 50 x ( t) = e-3t (c1 cos 2 sin t + c t) - cos 4t + sin 4t 102 51
If e t = 0, C1 = 38/51
'X'  + 6 x ' + 10 = 16 A cos4t x - BSEN 4t 16 - 24 Asen cos 4t + 24 B 10 A co
s 4t + 4t + 10 Bsen4t
Therefore the equation of motion
38 86 50 25 x (t) = e-t cos 3t - sin t - cos 4t + sin 4t 51 51 102 51
Tabulated t 0 1 2 3 4 · · 93 902 93 903
38 86 50 25 x = e-t cos 3t - sent - cos 4t + sin 4t 57 57 57 102 38
86 50 25 x = e -3 (0) cos (0) - sin 4 (0) - cos 4 (0) + sin4 (0) 57 57 57
102 38 86 50 25 x = e -3 (1) cos (1) - sin4 (1) - cos 4 (1) + sin 4 (1) 57
57 57 102 38 86 50 25 x = e -3 (2) cos (2) - sin4 (2) - cos 4 (2) + si
n 4 ( 2) 57 57 102 57
· · · · · ·
-. 4215 -. 11 911 -. 15 144 -. 00 005 05 729 006 187 000 016 ≈ 0 ≈ 0
We see that the shift is negligible, so not orth using the equation of deformat
ion. ANSWERS No e can define essential to our design questions: - What is semi
-automatic system? - What role ill the oerator? - What role ill the machine?
- What tye of control is carried out? A One of the needs that had been occuyin
g oer for use on your machine, this issue clearance alone but others are not s
o simle. B With regard to automation sub-question arises hich refers to the a
y in hich the tool ill contact the cutting surface. As e kno hen alying a
ushing force to an area the size that e ill be interested to kno the result
of the cutting force, e kno that the cutting force is alays orthogonal, ther
efore:. Automation deend on you each one, as designers oted for the second set
of cutting€having to automate the movement of the cutting tool. C The oerator
ill lace the corn in the lace here the cutting tool to achieve the rotation
of corn ill have to be manual as ell as the cob and remove the kernels from th
e machine. Also initiate and comlete its oeration in addition to regulating th
e cutting seed. D The machine ill transfer oer to the system E slitting mach
ine control is manual and ill be electric
CONCEPT SELECTION MATRIX
Mechanical longitudinal tangential friction universal Without induction motor By
Email
Selection Criteria
Electrical
chain
Imeller oer-source transmission-outut mechanism (cutter)-control
*
/ * / / / * * /
Electric
Gear
mesh
*
Table 7 .- Concet Selection Matrix
/
* GOOD / BAD - NI THINK
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELEMENTS OF MECHANISMS element-motor-bracket universal mo
tor-bracket-ulley machine-ulley driven solid-solid conductive material band-ax
le Steel 1018 features 1.3 A, 127 V, 3100 RPM, HP 0.2877, 0.6655 Nm , round lat
e ith to slots for non-taing scre. 8-32 by ½ for attachment to the frame, t
o ½ -20 hex nuts for securing the motor to the late 6 in by 15 ½ in thick and
5 cubic high in 3750 of larger diameter hole in ½ center, 1-1/2 "thick, ith slo
t band in Keystone in 0210 more basic and less basic in 0115, eight of 7.1414 l
b. Of 0.750 in OD, ¼ hole in center, ith the same characteristics of slot hole
1 / 32 in for the oressor. Traezoidal notched in 0215 in 0125 in idth and th
ickness, in total length of 16.7533. From 10 815 in length  / 2 holes of 0.150
in a 0150 in its ends to taer ins in ¼ er foot to fasten a ca for couling t
he ulley on one side and the crank of constant cylindrical section otro.De and
½ in. in diameter. ¾ ½ in diameter and diameter of ay, mineral oil lubrication.
From 1725 in 1350 in high and ide ith ½ in diameter hole claming ste and 0.
150 in, 0.475 in idth and 80 g of eight, ½ eccentric hole in the center of the
center hole of ¼ in diameter. To of a hole in bond length ith sleeves by 1 /
8 in, one for the crank and one for the frame. 2 in length, a ¼-in hole for cou
ling the crank by cuff, another hole to hold the sleeve as the slide in 3.5 ith
to guides for the cutter and sleeve ½ holes in the frame to hold . 1 in length
, ith nails ½ in and attachment hole for in 1 / 8 in
ood steel casting Stainless steel casting rubber 1018

Contact-bearing flat-crank countereight


Admiralty bronze hoshor bronze
-Link-crank
Mild steel Steel Bronze M7002 admiralty bronze admiralty
-Sliding-cutter
Table 4 .- characteristics of the elements of the corn sheller
FINAL SPECIFICATIONS No. of measure 1 2 Measure Forces Friction coefficient cut-
R-P-Ps-cutting efficiency energy-frequency vibration-eriod-lateral critical s
eed-torque six-seed transmission ratio-oer eriheral transmission-loss-torqu
e-outut-driver-rotection units sec KW Rm NNN Value 0.1970 4.1063 1.9332 3.622
8 25.06 2.82 -0.1514 to -0.0572 786 903
Aril 3
in / sec HP W N-m% A
17 855 58.4 0.6605 0.4603 162.31 Cal February 12
7
Dimensions of the machine-ide-over-tension fatigue maximum flexion-maximum-shea
r-stress rincial stresses Von Misses-limit fatigue strength-safety factor agai
nst fatigue failure cycle-length eight comonent the machine
Table 5 .- Final secifications
in in Ka cycles kPa Ma Ma kg
June 15 821 426 204 426 Max. Min 948 584-744,155 1,469 304.71 2.07 1000018,456 5
8
9
CONCLUSIONS During the design rocess of the corn sheller machine e found that
the roer detachment of the grains is related to to factors: the direction of
the court and the oer ith hich the oeration is erformed, the caryosis by
their nature, tend to be harder in a direction tangential to the tool in the lon
gitudinal direction, the resultant force has the same address but in this case i
s not a factor hich determines the characteristics that ould hel the smooth e
volution of the grain. Energy consumtion is directly roortional to the force
P, for this reason the alternative movement is an otion for directly can be el
iminated if there is an adequate oer inut.€The restraint system is a roblem
that need solution for something like this ould give a more uniform cut. 18 req
uirements are met, (a = good, b = regular, c = no achievement) Minimum eight o
timization Fast semiautomatic Poer residential sace Have Lo Lo cost electric
motor vibration Cutting seed adjustable Emergency Sto Contact user Null Parts
Lo risk of electric shock and thermal overload rotection not crush the grain
do not leave random grains Easy cleaning of arts that ill not fail to clean th
e surface 80% met Aril 12 in a regular to ere not fulfilled e say that the g
oal as achieved because the needs are met the requirements. b a a a a a b a a a
a a b c a b c a
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