MEXICO NATIONAL AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION CAMPUS SCHOOL OF MECHA NICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRICAL ARAGON Machine Design

M. in I. Emilio MARIN MARIA DE LOURDES PROJECT DESIGN OF A CORN shelling Joshua Juarez Mendoza Barajas Mario Alberto Martínez José Luis Rodríguez Abraham Rodrígu ez November 2007 INTRODUCTION The aim of our work is through the design process, sizing releasing a machine that allows the corn kernels from the cob, so that "their maximum dim ensions are 40 by 60 cm. -Has a maximum weight of 10 kg, is semi-cutting allows different sizes of ear-cutting the maximum time of two ears is 10 min. Making th e product benchmarketing we realized that existing machines using an operating p rinciple based on the submission of the corncob random tangential forces on the surface causing an uncontrolled release parameter and discontinuous. Other devic es are the property of cut crosswise on the surface of corn so it seemed indicat ed, here we have a controlled cut direction and strength, the downside: they are manual, and that's where we base our work, generating early settlement by inves tment variants we achieve this alternative. The excessive weight of commercial s hellers and the extreme inefficiency of the manual, lead us to think in differen t ways to solve this situation, besides being expensive and tend to the farming sector, there is a device that meets the needs of small business maize, which ma y have only one food business based on this product. In this paper we focus on t he analysis of the solution by applying methodologies that optimize the work and provides an option for making a corn sheller machine. As with any machine desig n would address the following points:-support structure, power supply, transmiss ion, drive-out mechanism (cutter)-control CORN Corn belongs to the grass family. Its scientific name is Zea Mays, because it is grown everywhere in the world, you can find this cereal plants with differ ent characteristics. The cultivation of corn is an annual scheme, the growing se ason ranges from 80 to 200 days from sowing to harvest. Its structure is as foll ows:-plant-stem-leaf-root system or main seminal root: provides nutrients to the seed-adventitious roots-roots support: perform photosynthesis aerial roots Corn is monoecious, male flowers are saying and female in the same plant. The flower s are staminate or apostille, staminate or male flowers are represented by the s pike. The apostille or female are the ears. The male and female flowers consist "of the male flower inflorescence is presented as a spike. Male-flower-spikes-tw o-three stamens fertile bracts, inflorescence Postil rudimentary pistil-stigma-l eaves-or corn-cob hair The fruit of the corn plant is called commercial grain is a caryopsis and botanically known as agriculturally seed. It consists of:-peric arp: cover the fruit, of maternal origin, is known as head, skin or shell. -Aleu rone: endosperm cell layer protein in nature. -Endosperm: tissue reserves of the seed that nourishes the embryo during germination. It is part of larger volume. Two regions are distinguishable in the soft and starchy endosperm and the hard or vitreous endosperm. The proportion depends on the variety. -Scutellum or coty ledon: the embryo-embryo or germ: miniature plant structure to originate a new p lant, to germinate the seed. Terminal-layer: part that joins the cob, with a spo ngy structure adapted to the rapid absorption of moisture. Between this layer an d the base of the germ is a black cloth known as spin coating, which serves as a sealant during ripening of the grain. According to the structure of its grains, corn can be divided into subspecies, Z ea mays or corn indurated crystalline, has a hard endosperm starch grains compac t. It is known in other countries such as flint corn. This hard corn is used in both food as feedstock in the production of alcohol or starch. -Zea mays amylace

a, or corn starch, has soft endosperm, their starch grains are not compact. Ever t-Zea mays or popcorn, the endosperm is hard and busting the roasting. Zea mays saccharata-or sweet corn, the endosperm is about 11% sugar is wrinkled when dry, is suitable for human consumption.€-Or corn Zea mays tunicata tunicata, is identi fied as having well-developed bracts covering the grain. Zea mays, or maize waxy waxy waxy endosperm is their no wild maize varieties, man has tamed so much tha t if left to grow disappear, in Mexico there are 30 races and 6 subraces: A popcorn-old indigenous yellow Arrocillo Toluqueño 2 3 4 Chapalote nal-tel-Columb ian exotic Cacahuacintle June 5 to July 8 Oloton starchy sweet corn in August-mo dern emerging Chalqueño 23 Celaya 22 24 25 Northern conical mountain ball-slat 26 Western Bofo August 1927 big blue 28 29 30 Apachita Prehistoric cone-mestizo September 10 exploder 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Tabloncillo Tehua Tepecintle Zapalote comiteco big guy pulls Zapalote Pepitilla Olotillo Tuxpeño Vandeño Table 0 .- varieties of maize in Mexico Figure 1 .- cut a corn kernel Figure 2 .- ear BENCHMARKETING The strippers could find on the market are not as varied and can be classified according to several criteria: - internal combustion - electric Manuals - Tractor The internal combustion shellers are named after the system us ed to operate, its construction is robust and are designed for rough work, gener ally constructed of carbon steel sheet and its structure in profile or angle. Th is type of threshers has in general the following features: Power required HP Ma rch 4 August 12 to 16 rpm rotor speed 350-450 650-750 650-750 650-750 Approximat e yield in Kg / hr 3500 5500 800 1500 Table 1 .- Characteristics of internal combustion shellers The shellers electrical energy used to achieve such purpose, its construction ma y be strong or light, being able to be used for any production volume, as the la rge variation in speed permits, similarly constructed of steel sheet and structu re angle. This type of shellers have the following general characteristics: Powe r required HP 1 1 / 2 2 3 7 1 / 2 rpm rotor speed 350-450 650-750 650-750 650-75 0 Approximate yield in kg / hr 800 1500 3500 5500 Table 2 .- Electrical characteristics shellers As you can see the performance of electric threshers is greater, the power consu med varies considerably. In addition, electric threshers can operate with single phase motor which reduces the cost. The strippers of this type have an extracto r fan and have the chaff to clean grain. The tractor shellers are coupled to the vehicle so that the freshly harvested corn enters a hopper that is attached to the thresher, and get corn without chaff. Compare the characteristics of manual threshers are interested because we are in the same utility level as us. Cutter Number 1, Capalla & Benefits Easy to transport Fitzsimmons is a single pi ece Stainless Disadvantages Court nonuniform grain cut Risk of hands were deform ed to some effort Table 2.1 Cutter number 2, Caroline Rhea Benefits can be placed in a bowl Stainless has a wide area setting Disadvantages None Machaca Blade dangerous grains move the cor n should be cut p Table 2.2

Cutter No. 3, Krishevsky-Lundholm-Westenhoefer Security Benefits Subject to oper ate Good Good Disadvantages container cutting surface deforms enough some effort is not uniform grain Court Table 2.3 As we can see the first disadvantage of these is its reliance on manual and user cutting resulting in irregular cut. In addition to the speed with which they ma y break the grains is limited. From this we can consider parameters of the produ ct on the market. Characteristic Features to consider to improve Sure Fit nicely to operate can be placed in a good bowl cut surface Avoid excessive deformation even cut Ensure Safety Table 2.4 BRAINSTORMING Figure 4 .- Brainstorming STUDY OF THE NEEDS OF THE CUSTOMER The study was based on surveys of persons eng aged in this business, answering the question, what features should have a machi ne for shelling corn? Minimum weight need speed automatic optimization space tha t is easy to transport electrical steel Low Cost Insurance Safe to operate effic iently clean electrical parts Number of people who said this 19 20 20 20 18 20 1 6 20 17 th March 20, 1920 20 on January 20, 1920 15 December 20 1920 14 20 13 20 Table 3 .- Results of the survey of customer needs Minimum weight: we know of the restrictions that we have a maximum of 10 kg.€Autom atic: our specification is less stringent and semiautomatizacion enough, we must choose which system will be. Speed: we know that our machine restrictions must remove the kernels from two ears of different sizes in a no longer than 10 minut es. Optimization of space, we have maximum dimensions of 40 by 60 cm. That is po wer: this need is not clear, but our approach to suggest "that has a 127 will ta ke up to 2 A, single phase, which has an electric drive system Easy to transport : it is very important so the remove from the final list. Low cost: it is the mo st important consideration. Stainless: Another consideration was the final list. Safe to operate: one needs to define ambiguous: - low vibration-cutting speed-c ontrolled emergency stop, have no parts which can be in contact with the user an d jeopardize its integrity Insurance electric parts: it is easy to define this p arameter common sense, "low risk of shock and thermal-overload protection to ope rate Clean: specified according to what we, as designers believe" that the grain -mash that does not fly off the grains, which can be cleaned easily Parts in con tact with corn Efficient "not fail" to cut 80% of the surface of the ear at leas t. CUSTOMER NEEDS LIST No. of necessity 1 2 3 system control all Drive Transmission Mechanism cut all power source drive all cutting drive Transmission Mechanism D rive Transmission Control Transmission Control Mechanism drive power source cutt ing mechanism cutting drive control structure Support Mechanism Drive Transmissi on Mechanism cut all need cutting speed semiautomatic Minimum weight Relative 3 2 1b 4 May 6 July 8 Food residential space optimization Have Little Low cost electric motor vibratio n 1 5b 6b May 4

September 10, 1911 Cutting speed adjustable Emergency Stop Null user contact with parts Low risk of electric shock and thermal overload protection not crush the grain do not leave random grains Easy cleaning of parts that will not fail to clean the surface 80 % The 6th 6c 6d 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 9b 8b 7b 7c the 9th the 7th the 8th Table 4 .- list of customer needs MATRIX REQUIREMENTS - ACTION Cutting Forces Measure Dimensions Fatigue Vibration Friction coefficient Cutting Efficiency Material No. Of necessity 1 1b 2 3 4 May 6 6b 6c 6d 7a 7b 7c 8a 8b 9a 9b Need Low cost minimum weight fast semiautomatic optimization of space residentia l Food Emergency Stop Low Vibration Cutting speed adjustable Null user contact w ith items not crush the grain easy cleaning of parts that do not come clean grai n random 80% of surface not failure and thermal overload protection Low risk of electric shock * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * transmisiónRelación of * Table 5 .- An array of measures needs Weight OBJECTIVE SPECIFICATIONS No. of No. of need as a 1,3,5,6 b, 6c, 7a, 7b, 7c, 8a, 8b, 9a 1,2,3,5,6 b, 6c, 7a, 7b, 7c, 8a, 8b, 9a 1.1 b, 2,4,6 b, 6c, 7a, 7c, 8a, 8 b, 9a, 9b, 1,2,3,6 a, 6b, 6c, 7a, 7c, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b Measure A-B-coefficient of friction-force cutting forces resulting C-Efficiency-cut energy consumption, per iod and frequency DVibraciones critical speed E-3 Material Importance Value Unit s Value marginal ideal -

2 9 N 3 6 KW 4 sec. Hz rpm 8 Max. 1 4 5 6 1.1 b, 2,4,5, 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 8a, 9a, 8b, 9b 5.6 1,2,3,4 a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 7a, 7c, 8a, 9a 7 1.1 b, 4.6 b, 6d, 7b F-ratio transmission, peripheral speed-power-transmission-loss performance torqu e-o-calentamient GDimensiones protections of the machine-dimension geometry and H-fatigue-loading regime I-Weight 5 in / sec Hp W N-m% 2 meters 40 60 <40 of 60 8 1,2,4,6 b, 1,2,4,6 b 8b 7 Newton per meter kg 9

1 10 <October machine Table 6 .- An array of target specifications maximum MEMORY OF CUTTING FORCE CALCULATION To determine the shear force necessary to ap ply to release their grain corn and apply a transverse force in the ear and meas ured with a dynamometer, we do this five times and apply a measure of dispersion . Fs max (N) 2 1857 1868 2.2 1921 max = 1.9332 Fs Figure 5 .- longitudinal section of corn Fis max - max fs Diversion Media 1.9332/9.81 = 0.1970 μ = Δx = Σx f = 1 n 1 -X n 2 + 1,857 + 1,868 + 1,921 + 2.02 m = 1.9332 N = 5 2 - 1.9332 + 1857 - 1868 + 1 .9332 - 1.9332 + 1921-1.9332 + 2.02 - 1.9332 = 0.06144 N Δm = 5 Now we apply a tangential force and repeat the experiment. Fs max (N) 2,521 2,500 2,496 2,512 2,010 max = 2.4078 Fs Fis max - max fs 0.1132 0.0922 0.0882 0.1042 0.3978 0.1591 Δfsmax = 0.0668 0.0762 0.0652 0.0122 0.0868 Δfsmax = 0.06144

Figure 6 .- tangential cut corn On this basis we have the following hypothesis: "if we make a cut on the circumf erence of the surface, the applied shear force is greater, forces us to choose a metal that has a higher elastic modulus and having sufficient rigidity The cour t, in addition to having to increase their size whereas no system could have a p ower cut. You also have to design a restraint system that supports the regime of load present at the time of the cut. This system is inappropriate because "the cutter goes in the opposite direction to the orientation of vitreous endosperm. , The cutter must release more terminal layer. -If we make a cut on the length o f the surface, the force required is lower because the court is independent of t he position of corn, besides the dimensions of the tool as a criterion dependent . The power cut can be manually or automatically if desired. This system we indu ce vibration due to the race but you can decrease the design of checks and flywh eels, this thanks to the arrangement of the elements is carried out in a tree th

at can introduce elements that absorb vibration, bearings, etc. . Therefore we c hose a cross section through a linear motion mechanism crank-handle. ANALYSIS OF SPEED In our mechanism we believe to have no taller than five inches, so the sy stem has a speed limit: VB = 20 in / sec Assuming that we have the position: Θ = 1 00 °, α = 60 °, ψ = 20 º v vC vB = CB = sen60 º sen20 º sen100 No. 20 in v sec = CB sen60 º sen20 º in 23.0940 = 2.923v CB sec in v CB = 7.8986 sec v CB vC = sen20 º sen100 º 23.0939 = 1.0154v C v C = 22.7430 in sec To size the mech nism we use f mil of curves speed of the slide-cr nk speed / position of the mech nism. For the conditions initi l nd obt ined, our requirements re ver nge: ω = 620rpm = 64.9262 net ork 2π 60 s ∴ v = 3in L = 0.4 to 0.6 R Rω We chose to 40 º - 110 º 25 in v = 0.8ω sec R = 0.8 (64.9262) R = 0.4813in L = 3R L = 3 (0.4813in) = 1.4439in PO Figure 7 .- Diagram of forces in the mechanism We can choose for the range: R = 0.4813 to 0.6048 in YL = 1.4439in Figure 8 .- velocity rigid nd we c n look for the r

olygon

ANALYSIS OF ACCELERATORS aB n 2 n 2 ACB In 7.8969 sec t 2 ACB = 682.59 aB t t am in , α e = CB = 472.74 1.4439 sec 2 sec 2 in (0.6048in) = 285.9134 in 2 = α E 0 B = 472.74 sec 2 sec n n t VCB = 43.1892 in = 1.4439in = sec 2 BC 20 sec in vB = 661 375 in = 0.6048in = sec 2 0B

 

 

 

 

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BC = B + ACB + ACB = 661,375 + 43.1892 + 472.74 = 497.7142 m 2 sec Figure 9 .- cceler tion polygon DYNAMIC ANALYSIS R = L = 1.4439in 0.6048in

σ ec 2 t = 1 and B = 285.9134 in ec 2 n aσ 2 x = CB = -43.1892 aσ in ec 2 t 2 = CB = -682.59 in ec 2 α 2 = α = 472.74 in sec 2 σ 3 = C = -497.7142 in ec 2

aσ 1x = a B = 661 375 in n

1lbm - 661.3 in 1.7116lb = - m1 = aσ 1x = in ec 2 ⋅ ⋅ lb 82.9134 in 0.7399lb - m1 = aσ 1 y = in ec 2 ⋅ ⋅ lb ec 386.41lbm 2 I σ 1α 1 = (2 ⋅ sec ⋅ 0.01lb in) sec 2 240.5 2lbm - 43.1892 in 0. = in ec 2 ⋅ ⋅ lb 386.41lbm 2 ec 2lbm - 682.59 in 3.53 ec 2 ⋅ ⋅ lb 386.41lbm 2 ec in 9.4548lb = ⋅ in - I σ 2α 2 = (2 ⋅ sec ⋅ 0.02 2 - 3 m3 = σ 3lbm - 494.7142 in =in ec 2 lb ⋅ ⋅ 38 Now: F23 x + (- m3 aσ 3) = 0 F03 + F23 and F23 = 0 x =-3.8409lb = - x F32 and F32 = - F 23 and and F32 F12 x + x + (- m 2 aσ 2 x) = 0 F12 and F32 + and + (- aσ 2 m 2) = 0 For α = 70 °, ψ = 24 º

F21x F12 = F32 x = x - (m 2 σ 2 x) = (m3 aσ 3) - (m 2 aσ 2 x) REPLACE - (- 3.8409) 3.5330 = 0.3079lb y = F03 and F12 - (m 2 aσ 2) = 1.1307 - 0.2235 = 0.9072lb F01x + F21x + (m1 aσ 1x) = 0 F01x = - F21x (- m1 aσ 1x) = -0.3079 - 1.7116 =-2.0195lb F01 and F21 + and + (m1 aσ 1 y) = 0 y = F01 - F21 and (- m1 aσ 1) = -0.9072 - 0.2235 =-1 .1307lb Finally we determine the nece ary tor ue to need - 3.8409 (1.4439) en24 º -3.8409 (0.6048) en24 º -3.5030 (0.6048) +9.4548 1.4439 c o 24 ° co 24 ° = 1.1307lb ∴ y = 1.1307lb F03

T1 - F21 and F21x R enφ + R cos φ - (- m1 σ 1x) enφ rσ + (m1 aσ 1) rσ co φ + (- I σ 1α 1 = F21x Rsenφ - F21 nd cos φ + R (m1 σ 1x) rσ enφ - (m1 σ 1) rσ co φ + (I σ 1α 1) T1 = in ≈ ⋅ ⋅ 4lb in T1 = (0.3079) (0.6048) sen70 º - (0.9072) (0.6048) sen70 º + (1.7116) (1) sen70 º - (0.7399) (1) cos 70 º +2.4 ANALYSIS OF TRANSMISSION PARAMETERS I nom ≅ 1.3 generic or sm ll univers l motor

Vnom = 127V RPM = 3100rpm no lo d po er consumption P = I 2 V = (1.3 A) (127V) = 214.63W

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Lsenθ X F32 + F32 and L co θ + (- m 2 aσ 2 x) Lσ = F32 nd F32

enθ + (- m 2 aσ 2) Lσ co θ + (- I σ 2α

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For the inertial force For our load

and couple

1lbm m1 = m2 = m3 = 3lbm 2lbm

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2 214.63W 1HP = 0.2877 HP 746W i T ⋅ ⋅ rpm 63 000 0.2877 63 000 HP HP ∴ T = = = 8lb ⋅ 63 000 rpm in Tsu min 3100rpm = 5.8468lb ⋅ tered in Around the tree h s to rot te t 620 rpm it is me n v lue bet een the r nge o h t e discussed shellers h ndled in benchm rketing. 3100rpm 3100rpm = 620 X = 5620 X = "The tr nsmission r tio is 5:1 to consider M x. = 20cm 39.37in 1m = 7.87in 100cm 1m

We chose m ximum idth o 8 " or the dimensions o the r me so e decided th t the driven pulley, not exceeding 5 cm. M x. = 15 748 in the r me, s the corn is cut in h l so e c n optimize the m chine. We h ve service ctor o 1.6 or c rs. FS = HPnom HPre l HPre l = 0.2877 (1.6) = 0.46032 HP drive pulley di m eter = 5in 3100rpm = 1in pulleys must be o c st steel ith the ollo ing ch r teristics S Sy = 380 MP = 225 MP Se = Sut 0504 Length = 297 MP e ective ste p C should not be gre ter th n 3 in it prevent us rom restrictions on dimension s. 620rpm (D - d) 2 L = 2C + 1.57 (D + d) + 4C (5-1) 2 L = 2 (3) + 1.57 (5-1) + Peripher l speed o movement 4 (3) = 16.7533in

π ⋅ π ⋅ d ⋅ r m 620r m ft 5in ⋅ December 1912 = 811 578 ft min 1 min sec 1 ft = 162.31 sec min V =

12in in V = 8

Under revious alo choose a rubber band ith the follo ing features Gear Limit t ensile strength 20 MPa Elongation at break 10% E = 150 MPa ρ = 9.8 N/dm3 Section A t apezoidal Wo king speed 50-250 ft / min φ = 0.7 Tr ction P = 2φF1 P1 = φ = 0.7 2 (0.7) (31.4721) = 44,060 lb Axle lo d due to belt tension sin σ = 3P α2 2

HP =

 

33000 33000 HP 33000 (0.4632 HP) F1 - F2 = = = 18.8344lb ft min 811 578 F1 Vp = e fα I = 0.3 F2 = e1.33 18.8344 18.8344 (0.3) ∴ F2 = 1.33 (0.3) = F2 12.6377lb d F1 - F2 = 18.8344lb F1 = (18.8344 + 12.6377) F1 = 31.4721lb lb Cl mping ngle

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α 2 = 120 º σ = 3 (44 060) Ten ion in the band

in 60 º σ = 144 471 p i

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(F1 - F2) Vp senα = rc R-5 in - 1 in 3 Use ul e ort K = 2φσ 0 K = 2 (0.7) (261,070 p i) = 61 685 p i Effort by centrifugal force σ 0 max = 261 070 p i σV = ρ v2 10 g = = 1.33 º in

746w 5.8468 lb ⋅ in = 0.05753 hp 1hp Ideal cutting powe w 746 3.4147 (620) = 0.0336 hp =

= 42 924 63 000 w 1hp 25.069w 63 000

The flywheel abso bs W-42 924 214.63 171 706 W = W The loss in the 42 924 axis W - W = 25 069 17.855W The time it takes to stop the mechanism should be minimal, since that ep esents losses and ene gy consumption. The pe centage loss in the axis W--------- 100% 42 924 25 069 XX = 58.40% W--------- ecove ing the st ike by the flywheel. The stopping time is no stee ing wheel cutte

WORK Wo k = Fs t = mgh P = 1.2096 E = 0.31 lbm (32.2) 12 E = 0.9737 ft lb ⋅ ∴ t 9737 job = 0.0336 P = 28.9791 sec hp WORK P = t Wo k = Fs = 1.2096 mgh E = 0.31 lbm (32.2) 12 E = 0.9737 ft lb ⋅ ∴ t = 0.9737 job = P 0.0336 sec 28.9791 0.9737 Wo ing hp lb ft ⋅ t = = = 2.82seg with flying P (0.05733 + 0.2877) Fo mass flywheel W = W = W = 52 451 7.1414lb (39.24) (1.3201) = 0.9876 9.81 w1 - w2 2 ( 4 gE Feb ua y 2 ) ANALYSIS OF FORCES Figu e 10 .- f ee body diag am of the mechanism 2.2046 (32.2)

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ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE Powe output = 214.63 W Powe y axis

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t ansmitted f om the pulle

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Ps = 0.0952 as α = Pp Pp Pp = 1.8740 0.0508 2 N N Ps = 1.9332 (1.8740) = 3.6228 minimum N Febru ry 2 Ps = Rx = Ry = Pp N 3.6228 1.9332 N = R = (3.6228) 2 (1.9332) 2 R = 4.1063 N Minimum torque on the cr nk TT = XFP so φ

Pp =-r cos ωt mprω - mpl

ω

For this to the cr nk, connecting rod nd sliding occupy dmir lty bronze S E = 103MP = 300MP 150Mp Sy = 10% Sn, Zn 2%, 78% Cu = 0.09525 0.0952 (1.9332) = 0.003450 Nm

0.0508

Torque produced by the motor = 0.6605 FOR 3100 rpm Torque Nm on the cr nk T = HP 63000 0.2877 (63000) 1.4482 The sh t critic l speed Wn = 187.7 st δ = 786 903 rpm where st = δ = = 29.2340lb ⋅ in = 3.3029 N ⋅ m 39.37 rpm 620rpm

Pulley = M T = 0.6605 N ⋅ m since n = 5: 1 0.6605 N ⋅ m M t crank ulley = 5 M = 0.1321N ⋅ m 5 The cutter can use a mild steel ith lo carbon content because their demand is not so great. This material is M7002 and has the follo ing characteristics: S S y = 621 MPa = 486 MPa = 0.504 is Sut = 250 MPa Σ Fy = 0 ↑ + - F1 + R1 - F2 + R2 = 0 - 7.9461N + R1 - N + 0.7848 R2 = 0 R1 + R2 = 8.7309 N Ma = 0 Σ 7946 (0.2747) - 0.2643R1 + 0.01035R2 = 0 2.1827 - 0.2643R1 - 0.01035 R2 = 0 - 0. 01035R2 0.2643R1 = -2.1827 + - 2.1827 + 0.01035 R2 - R1 = 8.2584 0.2643 - 0.0391 6 R1 = R2

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0.29 W = 17 575 K = 0.0165 K = l PID π d 4 π (0.0127) 4 I 32 (207 M a) (2.5539 10 -9 m 4) = 0.0165 K = 32

= = = 2.5539

 

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Figure 11 .-

ree-body di gr m

10 -9 m 4 32

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F1 (0.2748) - R1 (0.2643) + R2 (0.01035) = 0 (8.2584 - 0.03916 R2) + R2 = 8.7309 0.9608 R2 = 0.4725 R2 = 0.4917 N R1 = 8.7309 - 0.4917 = 8.2392 N Σ Fy = 0 ↑ + V = 7946 N - 7946 + V = 0 7946 (x) + Mo = Mo = 0 7946 x Mo (0.01035) = -0.0822 Mo = 0 Σ - 7946 (x) - 8.2392 (x - 0.01035) + Mo = 0 7946 x - 8.2392 x + 0.0852 + Mo = Mo = 0 +0.02932 x - 0.0852 Σ Fy = 0 ↑ + Σ F (0.2643) = -0.0774 Σ Fy = 0 ↑ + M (0.01035) = -0.08489 - 7,946 + 8.2392 + 0.04917 + 0.7849 + Vo = 0 V = 0 V = -0.7849 7946 (x) - 8.2392 (x - 0.01035) - 0.4917 (x - 0.2747) + Mo = 0 7946 x - 8.2392 x + 0.0852-0.4917 x + 0.1350 + Mo = 0 to 0.7849 x + 0.2202 + Mo = 0 Mo = 0.7849 x - 0.2202 M (0.2643) = -0.0127 M (0.2747) = -0.00458 Mo = 0 Σ Figure 12 .- Diagram of moments an shear ANALY I OF EFFORT Effort maximum allowable = 6.8947 55.1576 KPa MPa s = 8000 psi 1 psi Applying the equation of maximum shear stress 16 (KBM) 2 + (Kt Mt) 2 π Ss (0.75) 16 [(1.4571) (0.0882)] 2 + [(1.5) (0.6605)] 2 2 .5d 3 = π (55.1576 MPa) (0.75) here Kb Kt = 1.5 = 1.4571 3 = 2.5d Bending moment M = 0.0882 Nm Torque M t = T = 0.6605 Nm

Bending stress σx = M Z Π 1 π 2 Z d3 = 32 32 () 3

¨

1m 3 -6 3

=

3

0.02484in 3 (39.37) in

= 0.4021

¨

¨

d 3 = 123 112 0.4894in 1m

10 -9 (0.99905) 2.5d 3 = 0.11299

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¢  



10 -6 39.37

0.004973m 2.5d =

10 m

σx =

Shear ten ion XY T = T Zp 3 πd π 12 = 16 16 = Z XY T = () 3

Figure 13 .- main efforts Princi al stresses σ1 = X + σ and σ 2 ΣY 2 σ + X 2 + + Txy 2

Minimum σ2 = X + σ and σ 2

2 compre ion Sen e of the principal action φσ = =

¨

¨

2 (821 313

10 3 Pa) tan -1

a (204 426

¨

ΣY

σ + 2 3 +

+ Txy X = 744 155 Pa 2

¨

¨

σ 1 = 102 213 + 1011 = 7.1634

948 584

10 3 Pa

10

10 3 Pa) = 41.4529 º

¨

¨

¨

ima max 204 426 2

10 3

10 3 204 426 + 821 313

¨

¨

N ⋅ m = 0.6605

10 3 Pa 821 313 -6 3 0.8042

10 m

¨

1m 3 -6 3

0.04908in 3 = (39 373) in

¨

£

¨

0.0822 = 204 426

10 3 0.4021

10 -6 Pa

¤

= 0.8042

10 m

¤¤

£

10 3 σ1 =

+ February 2

¤

2

Τxy

2

1 tan -1 (σx - σy)

2

204 426 × 10 3 y φr = φr =

2

+ (821 313 × 10 3) = 827 648 × 10 3 Pa =

- (204 426 × 10 3 Pa) tan -1 1

=

3.54 º 2 February 3 (821 313 × 10 Pa)

σ = (Σ x + Σ y) 2 204 426 × 10 3 102 213 σ = 2 × 10 3 Pa Mohr Circle

(Σ -Σ y) = R = a2 + b2 = (102,213) 2 + (821,313) 2 = 827.648Pa

204.426x σx = 103 Pa / 2 = a-σ 0 to b xy = 82 + Σ 

+ 

204 426 3 = 102 213 × 10 × 10 3 Pa 2 2 3 b = x

¤ ¤¤

¤

Normal

tre e

x = 821 313 × 10 Pa a =  

¤¤

¤

en ion maximum hear February 2

tre

max

σ x-σ y = 2

+ xy 2

¤

¤  

2 - (σ x - σ y)

Figure 14 .- Mohr Circle

σ 2 = 102 213 × 10 3 Pa - 827 648 × 10 3 Pa = 725 435 × 10 3 Pa σ 2 = 102 213 × 10 3 Pa + 8 7 648 × 10 3 Pa = 929 861 × 10 3 Pa max = R = 827 648 Pa × 10 3 821 313 2φσ b = tan -1 tan -1 = 102 213 × 10 3 - 82.9 = 3.55 º = 41.45 º ANALY I OF FA IGUE σmax = max = 103 Pa 204.426x 821.313x103Pa U ing the criterio n o maximum hear tre N =

N =

(370 × 10) (0.0822) 6 π (0.0254) 3370 × 10 6 32 - (0.6605) 2 2 N = (0.2747)

9250 × 1014 = 112.2846 × 10 3 Pa 3 (73 367 × 10) We take the tree and the cu o 1018 teel cutter with the ollowing characteri tic w y = 440 MPa = 370 MPa = 0.504 i ut = 222 MPa iece ur ace actor co rrected utb Ka = a = 1.58 (440) -0085 = 0942 ize actor Kb = d -. 0113 0.2747 -0.1133 = 1.4571 = 7.62 7.62

σ '= σ 12 - σ 1 + σ ⋅ σ 2 February 2 = (948 584 × 10 3) - (948 584 × 10 3) (- × 10 3 744 155) (744 155 × 10 3) σ '= 1469 MPa [ ( ) 1 / 2

¤¤

¤ ¤ ¤¤

Load Factor = 1 Factor = 1 Ke tem erature = 1 Occu ying the Von Mi e

¦

¦ ¤

¦

£

¦

£

¤ 

¤

¤ 

( and M) 2 y π 2 d 3 32 x 2

-

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¦¦ 

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¦  

 

   ¤

tre

2 ] 1 2

112.2846 x 103 = (3D - 112.2846 x 103) + 112.2846 x 103 = 6D 9D-9D = 112.2846 x 103 224596.2 D = 24.9521 x 103 C = 3 (24.9521 x 103) - 112.2846 x 103 C = -37428 .2 uration in cycles

ω = 2π (620r m) = 64 926 rad rev 60 sec 60 min ω = 620 Duration in hours H = N 1000018.456 26.882hrs ω = 37.200 ANALYSIS OF VIBRATIONS This can carry out using a model forced dam ed vibration, the dam ed motion is driven by a eriodic external force (T = π / 2 sec.) From t = 0, even ith the buffer system maintains motion until the handle sto s turning . 1 d 2x dx + 1.2 + 2 x = 5 cos 4t 5 dt 1 dx x (0) =, = 0 2 dt t = 0 m1 = -3 + i, m 2 = -3 - i xc (t) = e - 3t (C1 cos t + c 2 sin t) Five times the original equation for CI, ostulating an equation of the form x (t) = A cos 4t + B cos 4t e have x ' = A cos 4t - 16 B sen4t = (- 6 A + 24 B) cos t the system of equations is - 6 A + 24 B = 2 50 51 25 50 x ( t) = e-3t (c1 cos 2 sin t - 4 A sin B cos 4t + 4t 4' x 4t + (- 24 A - 6 B) = 25 cos 25 to 24 A - 6 B = 0 A = - B + c t) - cos 4t + sin 4t 102 ' = 16 4t sen4 = 25 10 51

= 37.200 rev min

£

£

£

¨

£

£

£

¢

¨

©

N - CD 112.2846 CLE The maximum spee

10 3 - (-37428.2) 24.9521 N = 10

10 3 N = 1000018.456 N = 10 CY  

¢

£

£ 

Curve

- N

N = C + D log (N) For N = 103 = 106 CYCLE YN 

¨

e = (0,942) (1.4571) (1) (1) (1) (222

10 6)

¨  

Ka Kb e = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Kc K Ke ⋅ ⋅

'an

©

©  

©

¤

I

304.71 × 10 6 n = = = 2.07 σ '1469 × 10 6 e = 304.71 10 6 Pa

¦

¦ ¦

¦ ¤ ¦

a ety actor o

a ety o

atigue ailure

¦

¦  £  

hr 1hr

If e t = 0, C1 = 38/51 'X' + 6 x ' + 10 = 16 A cos4t x - BSEN 4t 16 - 24 Asen cos 4t + 24 B 10 A co s 4t + 4t + 10 Bsen4t Therefore the equation of motion 38 86 50 25 x (t) = e-t cos 3t sin t - cos 4t + sin 4t 51 51 102 51

Tabulated t 0 1 2 3 4 · · 93 902 93 903 38 86 50 25 x = e-t cos 3t sent - cos 4t + sin 4t 57 57 57 e -3 (0) cos (0) - sin 4 (0) - cos 4 (0) + sin4 (0) 57 57 57 = e -3 (1) cos (1) - sin4 (1) - cos 4 (1) + sin 4 (1) 57 57 57 = e -3 (2) cos (2) - sin4 (2) - cos 4 (2) + sin 4 ( 2) 57 57 102 · · · · · · -. 4215 -. 11 911 -. 15 144 -. 00 005 05 729 006 187 000 016 ≈ 0 ≈ 0 We see that the shift is negligible, so not orth using the equation of deformat ion. ANSWERS No e can define essential to our design questions: - What is semi -automatic system? - What role ill the o erator? - What role ill the machine? - What ty e of control is carried out? A One of the needs that had been occu yin g o er for use on your machine, this issue clearance alone but others are not s o sim le. B With regard to automation sub-question arises hich refers to the a y in hich the tool ill contact the cutting surface. As e kno hen a lying a ushing force to an area the size that e ill be interested to kno the result of the cutting force, e kno that the cutting force is al ays orthogonal, ther efore:. Automation de end on you each one, as designers o ted for the second set of cutting€having to automate the movement of the cutting tool. C The o erator i ll lace the corn in the lace here the cutting tool to achieve the rotation of corn ill have to be manual as ell as the cob and remove the kernels from the machine. Also initiate and com lete its o eration in addition to regulating the cutting s eed. D The machine ill transfer o er to the system E slitting machin e control is manual and ill be electric CONCEPT SELECTION MATRIX Mechanical longitudinal tangential friction universal Without induction motor By Email Selection Criteria Electrical chain Im eller o er-source transmission-out ut mechanism (cutter)-control * / * / / / * * / Electric Gear mesh * Table 7 .- Conce t Selection Matrix

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102 38 86 50 2 102 38 86 50 25 x 102 38 86 50 25 57

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/ * GOOD / BAD - NI THINK CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELEMENTS OF MECHANISMS element-motor-bracket universal mo tor-bracket- ulley machine- ulley driven solid-solid conductive material band-ax le Steel 1018 features 1.3 A, 127 V, 3100 RPM, HP 0.2877, 0.6655 Nm , round lat e ith t o slots for non-ta ing scre . 8-32 by ½ for attachment to the frame, t o ½ -20 hex nuts for securing the motor to the late 6 in by 15 ½ in thick and 5 cubi c high in 3750 of larger diameter hole in ½ center, 1-1/2 "thick, ith slot band i n Keystone in 0210 more basic and less basic in 0115, eight of 7.1414 lb. Of 0. 750 in OD, ¼ hole in center, ith the same characteristics of slot hole 1 / 32 in for the o ressor. Tra ezoidal notched in 0215 in 0125 in idth and thickness, i n total length of 16.7533. From 10 815 in length / 2 holes of 0.150 in a 0150 in its ends to ta er ins in ¼ er foot to fasten a ca for cou ling the ulley on one side and the crank of constant cylindrical section otro.De and ½ in. in diame ter. ¾ ½ in diameter and diameter of ay, mineral oil lubrication. From 1725 in 1350 in high and ide ith ½ in diameter hole clam ing ste and 0.150 in, 0.475 in id th and 80 g of eight, ½ eccentric hole in the center of the center hole of ¼ in dia meter. T o of a hole in bond length ith sleeves by 1 / 8 in, one for the crank and one for the frame. 2 in length, a ¼-in hole for cou ling the crank by cuff, an other hole to hold the sleeve as the slide in 3.5 ith t o guides for the cutter and sleeve ½ holes in the frame to hold . 1 in length, ith nails ½ in and attachme nt hole for in 1 / 8 in ood steel casting Stainless steel casting rubber 1018

Contact-bearing flat-crank counter eight Admiralty bronze -Link-crank Mild steel Steel Bronze M7002 admiralty bronze admiralty -Sliding-cutter Table 4 .- characteristics of the elements of the corn sheller FINAL SPECIFICATIONS No. of measure 1 2 Measure Forces Friction coefficient cutR-P -Ps-cutting efficiency energy-frequency vibration- eriod-lateral critical s eed-torque six-s eed transmission ratio- o er eri heral transmission-loss-torqu e-out ut-driver- rotection units sec KW R m NNN Value 0.1970 4.1063 1.9332 3.622 8 25.06 2.82 -0.1514 to -0.0572 786 903 A ril 3 in / sec HP W N-m% A 17 855 58.4 0.6605 0.4603 162.31 Cal February 12 7 Dimensions of the machine- ide-over-tension fatigue maximum flexion-maximum-shea r-stress rinci al stresses Von Misses-limit fatigue strength-safety factor agai nst fatigue failure cycle-length eight com onent the machine Table 5 .- Final s ecifications in in K a cycles kPa M a M a kg hos hor bronze

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June 15 821 426 204 426 Max. Min 948 584-744,155 1,469 304.71 2.07 1000018,456 5 8 9 CONCLUSIONS During the design rocess of the corn sheller machine e found that the ro er detachment of the grains is related to t o factors: the direction of the court and the o er ith hich the o eration is erformed, the caryo sis by their nature, tend to be harder in a direction tangential to the tool in the lon gitudinal direction, the resultant force has the same address but in this case i s not a factor hich determines the characteristics that ould hel the smooth e volution of the grain. Energy consum tion is directly ro ortional to the force P , for this reason the alternative movement is an o tion for directly can be el iminated if there is an adequate o er in ut.€The restraint system is a roblem th at need solution for something like this ould give a more uniform cut. 18 requi rements are met, (a = good, b = regular, c = no achievement) Minimum eight o ti mization Fast semiautomatic Po er residential s ace Have Lo Lo cost electric m otor vibration Cutting s eed adjustable Emergency Sto Contact user Null Parts L o risk of electric shock and thermal overload rotection not crush the grain do not leave random grains Easy cleaning of arts that ill not fail to clean the surface 80% met A ril 12 in a regular t o ere not fulfilled e say that the goa l as achieved because the needs are met the requirements. b a a a a a b a a a a a b c a b c a BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) ORTHWEIN, W., machine com onent design, Ne York, CECSA, 1986, 432 . 2) CHIRONIS, N., Mechanism Linkages and mechanical controls, Ne Gra -Hill, 1965.355 .

York, Mc

3) Baumeister, T., Manual of Mechanical Engineering, Mexico, Mc Gra -Hill, 1977, 534 . 4) BOLTON, N., mechatronics, electrical control systems engineering electrical mechanics, Ne York, al ha omega, 2006.578 . 5) CONSTANCE, J., Mechanical engineering for York, Mc Gra -Hill, 1962, 595 . rofessional engineers, Ne

6) KOSHEVNIKOV, S., Y. I. Yesi enko., Y. M. Raskin., Mechanisms, Barcelona, Gustavo Gili, 1975, 1120 . 7) COLLINS, J., Mechanical design of machine elements and machines, a failure Prevention ers ective, Phoenix, John Wiley & sons, 2003, 780 . 8) Hall, A., Hallo enko A., Laughlin H., Theory and design issues machines, Mexico, Mc Gra -Hill, 1988, 342 . 9) MOTT, R., Design of machine elements, Ne 750 .

York, Prentice Hall, 1992 . 11) PARR, R., Princi

10) ECAC Elements of machines, Mexico, CEAC, 1976, 298 les of mechanical design, Ne York, Mc Gra -Hill, 1994 219 .

12) Doughtie, V., A. Vallance, Kreisker L., Design of machine members, Ne

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York, Mc Gra -Hill, 1964, 594

13) ERLIJ, L., Rachkik, Zablonski, Dobrovolski. , Elements of Machines, Mosco , MIR, 1980, 345 . 14) Shigley, D., C. Mischke, Standard Handbook machine design, Ne York, Mc Gra -Hill, 1983, 700 . 15) HAUG, E., Com uter-aided Kinematics and dynamics of mechanical systems, Massachusetts, Allyn & Bacon, 1989, 489 . 16) SONI, A., Mechanism Synthesis and Analysis, Washington, Mc Gra -Hill, 1974, 475 . 17) NIKRARESH, P., Com uter-aided analysis of mechanical systems, Engle ood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1988, 363 . 18) WILSON, C., Kinematics and dynamics of machinery, Ne Jersey, Mc Gra Hill, 1 967, 287 . 19) ARANZETA, C., Introduction to ex erimental methodology, Mexico, Limusa, 2001, 210 . 20) ESIME Zacatenco, Introduction to measurement, Mexico, IPN, 2002, 153 KUO, B., Automatic Control Systems, Mexico, Prentice-Hall, 1995, 453 . 22) JOHN, V., Kno ledge of engineering materials, Barcelona, Gustavo Gili, 1972, 234 . 23) ELLIS, W., Engineering Materials, Mexico, resentations and services Engineering, 1968, 136 . 24) HIGGINS, R., The ro erties of engineering materials, London, Ed ard Arnold, 1977, 435 . 25) Pahl & Beitz, Engineering Design, A systematic a roach, London, S ringer Verlag, 1996. 26) ROOZENBURG H, Eekels V., Product design, fundamentals and methods, Chichecker, John Wiley & sons, 1992. 27) ROMEVA, C. R., Concurrent Design, Barcelona, UPC, 2002, 206 R, F., Valero F., Problems of machine com onents, Valencia, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 1997, 230 .

. 21)

. 28) FUENMAYO

29) Bortolini, R., Maize, Barcelona, Agro multi rensa guides, 1984, 278 . 30) PLAINS, M., Corn, Barcelona, Oxford University Press, 1984, 315 . 31) Jugenhei m R, M., Maize, Mexico, Limusa, 1985, 841 . 32) DE SILVA, C., Vibration, Clare nce, CRC Press, 1999, 443 . 33) INMAN, D., Engineering vibration, Ne Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1994, 560 . 34) DIMAROGONA S, A., Vibration for engineers, Ne Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1976 398 . 35) Finders, S., System dynamics and mechanical vibrations, Berlin, S ringer, 2000, 600 . 36) HAM, C. W., Mechanics of machines, Mexico, Mc Gra -Hill, 1970, 496

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