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- An issuer or vibrating body. - A transmitter elastic means those vibrations. A receiver that captures these vibrations. The sound is very different origins and characteristics: - Phenomena of Nature: A drop falling on a surface, the leaves of the trees moved by the wind, waves, e tc.. - Many animals have the ability to produce sound: the barking of a dog, a b ird, etc.. - The human voice, one of the more complex forms of communication in which verbal language is based. - Man-made devices can also produce sound: the e ngine of a car, explosion, etc. - Some devices have been created expressly for t he production of one type of sound: the sound of musical instruments. Sound prop agation. When an object vibrates, it disturbs the pressure and density of the me dium that surrounds him, transmitting the vibration to compress and expand, this requires that it is an elastic medium as a rigid body does not allow the vibrat ions are transmitted. So, without an elastic medium (air, water, solid body), th ere would be sound, as sound waves do not propagate in vacuum. Look at this mech anical analogy shown below: If we make the first mass vibrate horizontally, the other moving at the same tim e rocking back and forth, one after another, thus displacing the vibration along this chain of masses and springs. In this image we can see how the vibration of the pitch, forcing air particles falling down into vibration. The particles do not move until the end, but oscillate back and forth, before returning to their place of origin. Each particle vibration transmitted to the next, giving rise to a movement chain. Please note that there are darker areas, where the air is compressed because the particles of the medium approach each other at any given time, and lighter area s, which is more extensive, because the particles are farther apart yes. To better understand this imagine a tube filled with air, moving the piston (the red line) quickly inland, the particles are close to the piston will be pushed immediately, whereas those that are further away they will later. If piston moves continuously, we can observe more clearly, compression and expan sion of the air by the movement of particles and through it is transmitted vibra tion. Speed of sound The speed of sound depends on the characteristics of the medium, so sound travel s at different speeds depending on the medium to transmit vibration. In general, the speed is faster in solids than in liquids and in liquids is greater than in gases. Check by pressing "play" in the animation of this link, as two sounds em itted at the same time by two different means to propagate at different speeds. The speed of sound in air at a temperature of 20 º C, is 340 m / s, equivalent to about 1224 km / h. MIDDLE Air Air Carbon Dioxide Helium Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxy gen Water Sea water distilled Mercury Glass Aluminium Iron Lead Silver Gold Stai nless Steel TEMPERATURE (C °) 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 20 15 20 17-25 17-25 17-25 17 - 25 17-25 17-25 17-25 SPEED (m / s) 331.46 340 260.3 1286 970 333.64 314.84 1484 15 09.7 1451 6400 5260 3240 5930 2400 3700 5740 Soundwave We have defined the sound and the sensation produced in the ear by vibration of

particles moving in the form of sound wave through an elastic medium that propag ates. As sound travels in waves, we know that the sound wave characteristics hav e to see how it behaves. 1 .- It is a mechanical wave. Mechanical waves can not travel in a vacuum, they need to do so through a medium (air, water, solid body) . Besides that environment must be flexible and not rigid to allow transmission of sound. We have seen how the vibration spreads through the particles or molecu les that make up the environment 2 .- It is a longitudinal wave. In longitudinal waves the motion of particles moving in the same direction as the wave. While transverse waves the particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of the wave. In either case, the particles oscillate around a point of rest, either horizonta lly or vertically but not moving towards the end. That is what is transmitted or spread through half the energy or vibration, no matter. I wonder what happens to the vibrations of the strings. Yes, these are transvers e waves. But the sound comes to us from longitudinal waves than those generated. 3 .- It is a three-dimensional wave. Are waves propagating in three directions. The three-dimensional waves are also known as spherical waves, because their wav e fronts are concentric spheres emerging from the source of interference to expa nd in all directions. Characteristics of waves Size can be said to be the height of the wave. Is the maximum distance it reache s a point to the passage of the waves with respect to its equilibrium position. The amplitude is related to the loudness, at lower amplitude and wider lower int ensity greater intensity. The decibel is the primary unit of measure used for the power level or sound int ensity level. The sounds we perceive must pass the threshold of hearing (0 dB) and not reach the threshold of pain (140 dB). We call pain threshold to t he maximum intensity of sound from which the sound is heard in the sensation of pain. Above 100 dB is highly recommended whenever possible, use ear protectors. On jobs, it is considered necessary to use protective in environments with level s of 85 dB, if the exposure is protracted. The damage to the ear for loud noise exposures are cumulative and irreversible, so that must be extremely careful. Pr olonged exposure to noise are observed nervous disorders, heart and mind. Freque ncy Frequency is the number of cycles (full wave produced a unit of time. In the case of sound, the time unit is the second and the frequency is measured in her tz (Hz). Thus a frequency of 1 Hertz is the same as saying that the sound has a vibration per second (by the way, a sound of this frequency would be impossible to perceive by the human ear). The lower frequencies correspond to what we usual ly call sounds "serious", are sounds slow vibrations. The higher frequencies cor respond to what we call sounds "acute" and are very fast vibration. The audible frequency spectrum varies according to each person, age etc. No clut ch is normally accepted as the interval between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz Below find t his measure infrasound vibrations which are pressure, the frequency is lower tha n the human ear can perceive, ie between 0 and 20 Above would Hz ultrasound, whi ch are those waves whose frequency is above human hearing range, ie greater than 20,000 Hz The wavelength indicates the size of a wave, which is the distance between the b eginning and the end of a full-wave (cycle). wavelength and frequency of a wave are related, are inversely related: The more often shorter wavelength and vice versa. Waveform The waveform is the feature th

at will allow us to distinguish one note of the same frequency and intensity pro duced by different instruments. The waveform is determined by the harmonics. Nor mally, when vibrating a body, do not get a pure sound, but a sound composed of s ounds of different frequencies. These harmonics are called harmonics contribute to the auditory perception of sound quality or timbre When you run a note on a m usical instrument generates a pressure wave of air. This sound wave is accompani ed by a series of harmonics, all virtually inaudible, but which give the instrum ent its particular timbre. Sound Features The height or pitch Each sound is characterized by its specific rate of vibratio n, which impresses a peculiar way to the hearing. This property is called a tone . Mayor Low Frequency Frequency Shrill Deepening The height or pitch is the feature that allows us to differentiate a shrill soun d of a grave. The height is produced by the number of vibrations per second (fre quency) and a greater number of vibrations per second the sound is sharper, and smaller number of more severe vibration sound. The sequence of sounds of differe nt heights gives the melody. The height is represented in music by the musical notes: DO-RE-MI-FASOLO-LA-SI. The position of the notes on the staff depends on the key used. Clef Clef The height is determined by: size: the larger the more severe an instrument that produces sound, the smaller the sharper the sound. Length: the longer the lowes t string is the sound, the shorter more acute, so there are instruments that hav e strings of different lengths. Also the longer the pipe a wind instrument, the more severe their sound and the shorter more acute. Tension: the tenser you a ro pe, the sound is sharper and the less tense, more serious. Pressure: the greater the air pressure sharper the sound and vice versa. Other aspects to consider ar e the thickness (string), the diameter (the tube), etc. The intensity is the qua lity that allows us to distinguish between sounds strong or weak. The can be def ined as the force that produces a sound. In addition to the amplitude in the per ception of intensity, affects the distance at which is located the sound source and the listener's hearing this. Mayor Minor wave amplitude wave amplitude Loud Smooth sound Dynamics ted by a k. Terms p mp mf g strong is the element of music that measures changes in intensity, is represen dynamic signs that indicate the intensity with which we interpret a wor Mezzopiano Mezzoforte Forte Piano Pianissimo Fortissimo Abbreviation pp f ff Interpretation Very soft Soft Medium Soft Medium Strong Very stron

crescendo from lower to higher intensity duration Diminuendo From high to low intensity It is the property of sound that allows us to differentiate long sounds of beeps

. Can be defined as the residence time of a sound. The sequence of sounds of dif ferent duration gives up. Long Sound Short sound The duration is represented by the figures in music musical name for the sound R ound Figure Figure for silence White Black Quaver Semiquaver Fusa Sixty-fourth note The bell If the tone sounds to differentiate from others by its frequency, and i ntensity, loud sounds of the weak, stamp varieties complete the possibilities of musical art from the acoustic point of view, because it is the quality that dis tinguishes the sounds produced by different instruments. This quality is called physically waveform. The sounds we hear are complex, ie consist of several simul taneous waves, but we perceive as one. The timbre of individual instruments are composed of a fundamental sound, which is dominant (where its frequency that det ermines the level of sound), plus a range of sounds that are known as harmonics. Sound fundamental Complex sound The timbre is the quality of sound that can distinguish the same note produced b y two different musical instruments. Through the ring are able to distinguish tw o sounds of equal frequency (height or (tone), and intensity. The timbre depends on the material it is made an instrument (not a drum sounds l ike a metal wood or plastic), how sound is produced (blowing, banging, etc.) in the form of instrument, etc. . The bell is represented in the music telling the beginning of the staff, the name of the instrument that interprets the work. Sound reception: Hearing When an object (acting as sound transmitter) vibe, also vibrates the air that is around him. This vibration is transmitted to the distance and vibrated (resonan ce) is a membrane inside the ear, the eardrum. The vibration of the eardrum caus es the movement of three bones: the hammer, anvil and stirrup. The latter impact s the cochlea, and a small organ, located here, the encoding occurs that vibrati on into electrical information. This information is transmitted to the brain via neurons. The brain decodes this information and becomes a sensation known as sound. Parts of the ear The outer ear: is responsible for capturing and directing the sound waves to the eardrum t hrough the ear hole. The middle ear: vibration generated in the eardrum are ampl ified and transmitted through few small bones called the hammer, anvil and stirr up, to the inner ear. The inner ear: This area is made the complex conversion of vibrations into nerve impulses. From here you can transmit nerve signals to our

brain that is responsible for decoding and converting it into an auditory sensa tion. In the inner ear are the cochlea. Noise pollution Modern societies are increasingly exposed to this type of invisible pollution. T he development of industrial, transport,€construction or even derived from diff erent social habits, leisure or recreational activities, bring result in increas ed exposure to noise. Noise is considered sound all that qualified, those who su ffer as a nuisance, unwanted and irritating, which interferes with their work or rest. The effects that these exposures are a function of the intensity, the fre quencies and exposure time that we submit. Prolonged exposure to high levels of noise produces a progressive loss of sensitivity of the hearing. The permanent i ncrease in the threshold of hearing is necessary that they have to increase to p roduce auditory sensations equivalent. Each person has a different psychological and physiological limits of tolerance to noise. We can also observe other physi cal and psychological effects such as rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure and muscle tension, irritability, nervousness, aggressiveness, poor concentrati on, difficulty sleeping, etc..