Steel Process STEEL PROCESSING This way is called the series of sequential steps that lead us from a raw

materi al like iron ore and coking coal, up to a final product such as steel. Steel is an alloy in which involves two key components: steel (Fe) and carbon (C). Iron ore deposit to open Extraction of iron ore deposit Coking coal Miner in a coal deposit at depth. PROCESS OF STEEL RAW MATERIALS 1. Iron ore that contains iron ore (ore), mainly in oxide form, in proportion enough to be commercially viable source of that ele ment for use in steelmaking processes. Rarely found in nature in a pure state, s uch as in meteorites that contains 90%. They are abundant in natural compounds c hange or minerals Page 1 of 13 Steel Process iron, scattered on the ground or in shallow mountain sites. Most of the iron ore s are oxides, anhydrides and carbonates. Under the industrial point of view, onl y the oxides are suitable for metallurgy. The iron is bound to other components, which are not involved in the steelmaking process, generically called "bargain. " The principal ores of iron are hematite (Fe2O3), iron oxide, containing up to 70% of Fe occurs in red earthy masses. Limonite (Fe2O3.3H2O), hydrated ferric ox ide with 60% Fe, earthy mass of variable color from brown to yellow. Magnetite ( Fe3O4) magnetic oxide, 70% Fe, is called lodestone. Siderite (3FBS), ferrous car bonate, 48% Fe, white. Pyrite (SFe2) disulfide, Fe, is not used in steel product ion.

Iron ore or "ore" Pellets Iron ore or ore, where one can see the impurities in the ore Pellets or Pellas spherical agglomerates of fine particles of iron ore mixed wit h various binders and additives (limestone, dolomite, solid fuel, others), which are consolidated at high temperatures, to feed blast furnaces and direct reduct ion. Page 2 of 13 Steel Process 2. Coking Coal Coal is a type of coal that contains between 45 and 85% carbon. I t is hard and brittle, laminated, black matte and gloss or fatty. It was formed during the Carboniferous and Permian. This material is the result of the decompo sition of vegetable matter from the primeval forest, a process that has required millions of years. When coal is heated gases shows that are very useful industrially, then we are l eft with coking coal. It is light and porous. The metallurgical coke is obtained in coking plants, with product recovery, after a careful selection of coal to m

eet stringent chemical and grain size required for its use in the foundry indust ry. The process of generation of coke is only the introduction of coal into a fu rnace coking battery and let (heating / burning) for a time between 10-24 hours (depending on the size of the oven.) COKING PLANTS The coking is the distillatio n of coal in the absence of oxygen, for metallurgical coke. Coking process begin s with the transport of coal from the beach of minerals to the mills, to obtain the appropriate particle size. The different types of coal are stored in silos w here they are mixed to achieve the mix (mixture) required. The conversion is don e in ovens. The heating in the furnace is carried out indirectly through burners located between the refractory walls forming the cubicle Oven, reaching tempera tures of 1300 º C on average. When the temperature is raised to 350 º C approxim ately, coal loses its solid state resblandecerse, forming a viscous mass which a llows closer union of its molecules and the subsequent solidification, which mak es the coal loses high content of volatile to increase the concentration of fixe d carbon, giving what is called coke. Subsequently, the download of coke, by mea ns of a piston discharge crosses longitudinally the entire volume of the furnace , deriving (at a temperature of 1000 º C on average) to a car off, over which wa ter is released (33 300 liters . / min.) for cooling. The sleep time is 60 secon ds per car. The drying operation is completed by the residual heat. Then the cok e goes to a screening plant, where a classification by size, for later use in th e Blast Furnace. Page 3 of 13 Steel Process Download of coke in the cars. View of the process of production of metallurgical coke. SINTER The SINTER, which is used as a carrier of iron in the blast furnace burde n, is in part a recycled material. Hot is an agglomerate of fines (particles tha t do not comply with the appropriate particle size for the process where require d). The fine is charged to a blender along with water and then the mixture is du mped to the chain of sintering. The Sintering is the process by which the iron o re fines, the fine coke, flux and industrial recycle material through a process of fusion by the heat produced by coke fine product become porous, resistant and high concentration of iron. Leaving the chain of sintering, the product passes through a crusher and a sieve that falls into two grain size. The fines that pas s the shale is recycled, the rest of the material is sent to the blast furnace. REDUCTION: THE PROCESS OF REDUCING THE HIGH OVEN this way is called the process by which we extract the excess oxygen to the metal. The process of reduction we can define as that by which metallic iron is obtained by reduction of iron ores, provided the temperature involved in the process than the melting temperature o f any component. Reduction sector includes all processes for the production of p ig iron. Abarca Coking Plant, Sintering and blast furnace but we can also mentio n here the sectors of ports and beaches of raw material, which are closely relat ed to reduction processes. Blast Furnace Blast Furnace The furnace is a vertical, high, swollen in the bell y, whose main objective is to produce liquid iron of constant composition. Page 4 of 13 Steel Process Items that are out of the Blast Furnace: Gas blast furnace dust trap, liquid sla g and liquid pig iron pig iron produced in the Blast Furnace and consists of: Ir on Carbon containing approximately 4% to 4.6 % and other components of impuritie s such as sulfur (comes mainly from the coke ash, gangue of iron ore and fluxes)

Phosphorus (comes from iron ore) Silicon (comes from the gangue and ash coke) a nd manganese (comes from the manganese ore is charged to the furnace) slag produ ced in the blast furnaces, is intended to protect iron from oxidation, floating in the pot because it is lighter than iron. Once cooled, is used in the cement i ndustry as fertilizer and agrichemicals. Its key attributes are: vitrification r ate, sulfur content, rate of slag and metal content. The process starts with loa ding the blast furnace. This is done with two skip trucks carrying raw materials to the top (mouth of the blast furnace). By means of nozzles is injected into t he oven air at 1150 º C, inside and in contact with coke, a carbon monoxide (CO) , which in its ascent through the load, it removes oxygen to mineral (reduction phenomenon) forming carbon dioxide gas (CO2) emitted from the top. Not all carbo n monoxide gas is converted into carbon dioxide gas, only 50%. The oxygen and co ke produced the heat necessary for iron ore is based, helped by the high convect ion caused by the movement of gases. The operation of the blast furnace is conti nuous, but the load and wash are carried out intermittently. Once the merger of Page 5 of 13 Steel Process components, they are drained of the blast furnace tapping on it in two places: a n upper one where we extract the slag, called escoriero, and another less known where to dump the iron tap hole. The transport of iron to the steel plant is car ried out in thermo wagons, which are specially designed (refractory materials) t o maintain and withstand the high temperatures. Puncture of the Blast Furnace Another view of the process ACERACION: LD converter steel works in cast iron becomes steel by a series of pr ocesses that function as heat and adjust the composition of the elements it cont ains. The aceración in the LD process is based on the exothermic reaction that p roduces oxygen injection on elements of liquid iron at high temperature such as silicon, carbon, etc. By reducing the percentage of these elements become the pi g iron into steel. PROCESS IN LD CONVERTER afraid When the car reaches the tippi ng station, download the iron liquid in a container called a ladle. Then, the sp oon goes desulphurized station where sulfur is removed which is an element that adversely affects the properties of steel. Desulphurized station turns the spoon inside the drive,€is tilting, ie can be tilted to the side, after entry of scra p that is entered prior to the iron to protect the refractory converter and to a void violent reactions that can generate fire iron and slag. They are loaded wit h scrap and pig iron and then added fluxes (lime) to achieve an active metallurg ical slag and capture sulfur and other impurities in the bath. The process start s when you Converter introduces an oxygen injection lance at the mouth of the co nverter. The nozzle is a tube 21 meter long and 30 cm. head diameter high purity copper. The converter uses oxygen to oxidize unwanted constituents of pig iron in steel, such as carbon, silicon, phosphorus, etc., While to remove sulfur, act ive metallurgical slag generated by the addition of fluxes (presence calcium oxi de and magnesium). These oxidations are chemical reactions that raise the temper ature of the liquid bath. To regulate the heat that is released into the bath, i s charged about 20% of scrap solid, which melts in the bath liquid. The low carb on level from the 4 / 4, 6% to values below 1%. Page 6 of 13 Steel Process Blowing the converter and ferroalloys added Liquid pig iron dump converter The process takes between 40 and 45 minutes but the blowing about 18 minutes. On

ce finished blowing, is poured into a pot the first layer of slag is supernatant . After the converter slag turned, turns to the other side (for a small hole) st eel to a ladle, which will be sent to the refining station, where steel composit ions adjusted to meet the desired properties. TUNER OF STEEL liquid steel from t he converter, must be improved or upgraded in their chemical composition. This p rocess is called "refined" steel. It can reduce the rate of carbon (C) introduci ng pure oxygen (O2). Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (C O2) are discharg ed as waste. You can add other elements such as chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) to modify some properties of steel. These steels, which are other elements besides iron (Fe) and carbon Page 7 of 13 Steel Process (C), are called alloy steels. The steel at this stage is subjected to quality co ntrol and temperature that allow very precise dosing the steel composition, adap ted to the conditions you want to achieve. CONTINUOUS CASTING steel from the ladle is poured into a bottomless molds, calle d "ingot", through which flows by gravity. These molds are made of copper to avo id hitting the liquid steel in them, and is strongly cooled with pressurized wat er jets on the outside, to start the solidification of steel. As it descends, so lidifies first on the outside, taking the shape of the mold, which can be square , called a "billet" or rectangular section, taking the name of "slabs." Due to t he shape of the mold, the bars emerge in a curve, and must be straightened by st raightening rollers. At the end of the process, are sprayed with water to solidi fy the core that remained liquid, and cut by torches oxipropano, attached to the bars in their displacement, of variable lengths. In the end, motorized rollers leading to the bars to the beaches of cooling. Page 8 of 13 Steel Process ROLLING. HOT ROLLED The slabs or billets are taken to a railway rolling cylinders that hot will redu ce its thickness and shape to a particular profile. Earlier in the oven are heat ed to about 800 - 1200 º C, and passed through cylindrical roller assemblies, wh ich are decreasing the wheelbase, so go tuning the bars. The same, that flatten as they widen, so that should also have rollers Page 9 of 13 Steel Process containing side across the width. This causes its final speed is greater than wh en they enter the train. According to the profile you have the grooves in the ro ller mill, we obtain products of different format. Page 10 of 13 Steel Process ROLLING - COLD ROLLED At this stage of the process, from sheet metal coils of hot-rolled, go through a sulfuric acid pickling to detach the oxide formed and subsequent washing, to be introduced in a rolling mill, without raising the temperature of the steel, com pressed to reduce its thickness dramatically, gaining up to 0.1 mm sheets. When the thickness is very thin,€it requires a softening treatment called annealed to

tune it with a mild back to retrieve the mechanical conditions of the plate. Ha ving achieved this, sprayed with cooking spray or sliced winders. Page 11 of 13 Steel Process These sheets may be necessary to go through another process which is the final e lectrolytic treatment to preserve them from oxidation, such as tin, zinc, nickel , etc.. But that is another subject of study. General Process Summary The process begins with obtaining raw materials: iron ore and coking coal. c ontinuing to coking coal. The coke obtained is then used in the blast furnace to reduce iron ore and pig iron to obtain fluid, which is a solution of iron wit h high carbon and impurities. The pig is sent to the steel thermos cars to low er carbon concentration and remove impurities of sulfur and phosphorus. In a s ubsequent refinement process, add minerals and ferro-alloys which are necessary to get the type of steel that is needed. The molten steel is obtained in acera ción solidifies in the continuous casting machine. At the exit of the machine are obtained flat products, called blanks, of various sizes and weights that are exported or shipped directly to the hot rolling process (LAC) or cold rolling ( LAF). Page 12 of 13 Steel Process Bibliography: Magazine "Steel" (Internal Publication Somis) Brochures number. We b: www.ternium.com (Siderar) www.acindar.com.ar www.otua.org/v3/documentation/ou til-pedagogique.htm www.apta.com.es / otua / otuaesp.html www.tecnotic . com www .infoacero.cl http://es.wikipedia.org Report Flensborg Roy Alan De Napoli, for t he Faculty of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Author: Julio Alb erto Correa - March 2008 Page 13 of 13