Effect of meaning produced by a particular construction of the language that dev iates from the most common usage

, figures of speech can alter the meaning of wor ds, change the order of words in the sentence and so on. Here are a few: - The f igures of substitution (expected expression is replaced by another): metaphor, u nderstatement, synecdoche, metonymy, ironically - The opposition figures (based on a contrast): antithesis oxymoron, ironically - Figures amplification (are str essed, exaggeration): hyperbole, graduation, anaphora - or instead of mitigation : euphemism, understatement - From Syntax (related to the construction of the se ntence): zeugma , anacoluthon, hypallage, asyndeton NB: Another classification d istinguishes the figures of the analogy (ie images): metaphor, comparison, perso nification, allegory ... Metaphor n. f. Figure style that brings a comparative a nd a comparison without comparison (unlike a comparison). There are two kinds of metaphors: the metaphor announced, the comparison is this: (The metaphor is announced sufficiently close to the comparison, but unlike that found in a comparison, the comparison tool ("like") is not explicitly stated) W here the comparison is not present and no remains that the comparison, the metap hor can be transformed into a kind of riddle or devienette. This is called a met aphor Direct Euphemism n. Mr. Figure of speech which is to replace an expression that might o ffend, tempered by an expression. Ex: "Job Seeker" is a euphemism for unemployed . The reverse process is hyperbole. Synecdoche n. f. This is a special case of metonymy: You take everything to the party or the part y on everything. Eg the whole for the part, Metz won the final (for "team player s football Metz »...) party for all: The sails are at the start (for" sailboats " ) Metonymy n. f. It replaces a term by another that is bound by a first logic al connection: Ex: container for content (Drink) The symbol for the thing (The l aurels for the glory) The writer for his work (See Zola) Antiphrase n. f. This f igure of speech is to say the opposite of what one thinks, while showing that th ink the opposite of what they say. This process is the backbone of the irony. Co ntext is important because it allows to discover if a sentence is ironic or not. Antithesis n. f. Figure of speech which compares words that mean the contrastin g realities. It is often reinforced by a parallel construction. Ex: Some like th e other night worship the day. The word also used to define, in an argumentative text, the refutation (used especially in the case of a dialectically) n. Oxymor on Mr. Figure of speech which involves placing one beside the other two opposite words. There are famous cases of use of this method: "This obscure clarity" (Co rneille, Le Cid), an eloquent silence, an undead ... This process creates a para dox, an astonishing picture. It is also most often a metaphor. It is also someti mes called "combination of words" or oxymoron. Amplification n. f. 1. Manufactur ed to amplify. 2. EYP. Development oratory excessive. Hyperbole n. f. This figure of speech is to amplify an idea for emphasis. It is an exaggeration. This is often the context that allows us to say whether or not hyperbole. It ma y include an indication of many as a thousand, thirty six hundred and so on. Ex: Shine a thousand lights, die of thirst, have three tons of work, being killed b y her mother returning ... Gradation n. f. This figure of speech is characterized by the use of words becom ing stronger. The statement includes terms of increasing strength. Ex: "Go, run, fly, and avenge us." (Corneille, Le Cid) Grading often used other methods, as i s the case in this sentence, in which there are also hyperbole and metaphor. Ana phora n. f. Figure of speech characterized by the repetition of a term to head, groups of words, clauses or phrases that follow and can insist on an idea. Ex: W alk fasting, walking beat, walking patient (Hugo) (Note that this statement has a parallel construction) Understatement n. f. Figure of speech which is to say little to suggest much. Th

e verb is usually in the negative. False mitigation. Ex: It is an understatement if we say: "The tennis player is not very good" ... (For "it is frankly no!") A s the euphemism, understatement can serve the irony ...€The most famous is the understatement that used by Chimene in Le Cid Corneille when she says to Roderig o: "Go, I hate you" (to tell him she loves him) n. Syntax f. Study the rules tha t govern the organization in the construction of sentences, word order, in a lan guage. All of these rules, the grammar. So to know a language, he will not know the meaning of words (vocabulary), he will also know in what order they are plac ed and how it connects them (syntax). Zeugma n. Mr. Figure of speech which is to link two words in the syntax or group s of words which one is logically closer to the verb. The two syntactically rela ted words can be inconsistent because one is abstract and one concrete ("A book full of charm and drawings," "he asked and his hat") or because they use differe nt meanings of the verb: "Save the date and a place in the train." The best know n example is given by Victor Hugo: "Dressed in righteousness and white linen. Th e zeugma can create a fun effect, but it can also be a serious mistake, especial ly in writing. (Also known as "Zeugma" or coupling) Anacoluthe n. f. The anacolu thon is a breakdown of construction in terms of syntax, that is to say, a transf ormation in the middle of the sentence, the grammatical construction of the begi nning of the sentence left to wait. It may be an unintentional mistake in writin g: Ex: Disappointed by his behavior, Jules apologized to Julie. Here "disappoint ed" relates to "Julia" and therefore the main subject of the verb should be "Jul ie" The anacoluthon in the writings of great writers can become a figure of spee ch and strengthen the statement, highlighting the effect of creating a Surprise: "Exiled on the ground amid the boos / His giant wings prevent him from walking" (Baudelaire, "The Albatross" in Les Fleurs du Mal) hypallages n. f. Figure of s peech which attributes to certain words in a sentence that refers to other words : Eg: "the knight raised an avenging hand" (the knight who takes revenge, not by hand). Asyndeton n. f. Figure of speech which consists in the absence of association be tween two words or groups of closely related terms. (Eg, willingly or unwillingl y) It is used to emphasize a logical connection, producing a contrast effect, ac cumulation, chaos, etc.. Analogy n. f. Links between two objects, two phenomena, two situations that belong to different domains but do think of each other beca use their conduct, appearance, have similarities. SYN: Similarity. Reasoning by analogy is seeking a conclusion from this relationship. The metaphor and compari son are figures of analogy. Image No. f. Representation of a being, a thing by the graphic or plastic. Printed representa tion of an object. The word can also mean a process that aims to make an idea a reality or more sensitive or more beautiful, giving what we are talking about fo rms that come from other objects (by analogy) the metaphor, comparison, personif ication and allegory, for example, are images. See: figure of speech. Comparison n. f. Figure of speech which is to bring a comparative and a comparison, throug h a comparison. This process establishes a parallel between two realities. Personification n. f. This figure of speech is to evoke an object, an idea or an abstraction in the guise of a human being. Ex: The practice came to take me in his arms like a little child. (Proust) (Note that this sentence also includes a comparison.) Allegory n. f. It is a figure of speech which is to represent graph ically, in the materializing, an abstract idea. We therefore appeal to (x) symbo l (s). A set of indices refers to an idea such as justice, time, death etc.. It may appeal to the personification. Ex: "Time devours life" (Baudelaire, Les Fleu rs du Mal, "The Clock") Here the time is shown by the image of a monster that de vours the life of man. Examples of allegories: - A blindfolded woman holding sca les: an allegory of Justice. - The Statue of Liberty: Allegory of Freedom. - Mar ianne allegory of the Republic: - The Dove and Olive Branch: Allegory of Peace. When she starts talking, it is a prosopopoeia Prosopopée n. f.

This figure of speech is to imagine the speech of a person dead or missing, or e ven a thing personified (allegory) paronomasia n. f. It is a figure of speech wh ich is to bring in a statement, the paronyms. Ex: who steals an egg steals an ox . "Egg" and "beef" are paronyms.€This proverb plays on paronomasia. We note in passing that paronyms are close parallels here with the construction. Statement No. Mr. Declaration. Formula, set of formulas expressing something. In the lingu istic sense, the word means a sentence or a set of sentences taken out of the ut terance. Leitmotiv n. Mr. Theme sentence, formula or idea came up several times in a work that plays on a recurring element. The plural of leitmotifs. Litany n. f. 1. Continued from liturgical prayers that end with identical wording, recite d or sung by the assistants. Ex: The Litany of the Virgin Mary or the Litany of the Saints. 2. Fam. Long series of repetitive and boring words expressing compla ints, criticisms, etc.. Ex: it is always the same litany! ... Maxime n. f. It is a rule of conduct, but also a brief and striking formula which states the moral principle or rule of conduct. In the seventeenth century, La Rochefoucauld wrot e a book. Ex: "Do unto others what you do not want them do unto you" ... is a ma xim. It is also a precept. Precept n. Mr. Formula which expresses an education, a rule, a recipe. It is a kind of lesson in principle to follow. Aphorism n. Mr. Concise sentence summarizing a thought, a theory, or expressing a precept (see proverb) Banality set so pompous (pej.) Moral adj. and n. f. Adjective (feminine 'moral') It means respect the customs, habits, and especially the rules of conduct recognized and practiced in a societ y. A moral position is consistent with morality, ethics. Common name, he may designate the knowledge of good and evil, or a set of princi ples, rules of conduct considered absolutely valid. The latter meaning is: prece pt, teaching, that can make a story, an event (the moral of the story) Parable n. f. This little story is designed to reach a moral, a lesson, through symbols. Proverb n. Mr. Truth of experience or advice on practical wisdom and popular, co mmon to all social groups, expressed in an ellipsis (which is the ellipse) typic ally vivid and figurative. Ex: Who steals an egg will steal a pound. The proverb may come from the moral of a fable. By extension of meaning, the word means a l ittle comedy illustrating a proverb. Ex: Proverbs of Alfred de Musset Saying n. Mr. Award formula proverbial. Palindrome n. Mr. and adj. It means so a statement that can be read either from left to right or right to left, keeping the same d irection. Ex: Elected by the villain. Aesop is resting here and You have been fl attened, Caesar, Port-Hi ... are palindromes. Paronyms n. Mr. The paronyms are w ords that are similar in terms of sounds, but not the same meaning. We must ther efore avoid confusing because paronyms ... are not synonymous. Ex: Business cycl e (situation) and conjecture (assumption) are paronyms. Similarly to drink and s ee. If the pronunciation is exactly the same, then we speak of homonyms Parallel construction n. Mr. In a sentence, parallel construction where the same constru ction is repeated several times. Eg Going to leave it all to drop everything Exit Back to start from scratch. In thi s case, the construction is repeated is: infinitive + "for all" + infinitive chi asmus n. Mr. (Pronounced [Kiasma]) In a chiasmus, unlike the parallel constructi on elements are parallel groups inversés.Autrement said, this figure of speech, of words (similar, opposed or may be related) are arranged in opposite directio ns in two segments of a sentence. The scheme is as follows: ABBA or ABB 'A' Pretermission n. f. This announcing she will not rtance of punctuality in hich is to stop a person figure of speech is to talk about something starting by talk about it. Ex: "I do not need to reconfirm the impo a business and ..." Apostrophe n. f. Figure of speech w living or dead, present or absent, or an abstract conce

pt. In the apostrophe, they go iated with the personification use! - France, mother of arts, a metaphor that extends, which ed mostly on words that belong Fantastic adj. and n. Mr.

directly to someone or something. It may be assoc if the apostrophe is for one thing. Ex: - O Toulo weapons and laws (Du Bellay) n. Conceit f. It is is developed (eg. In an entire paragraph) and bas to the same lexical network.

Register, which is characterized by the presence of an ambiguity between the rea l and the irrational: there is the intrusion€in a universe seemingly realistic, an irrational, illogical and supernatural apparitions (ghosts, incarnations), d isturbing movements of objects that appear autonomous (animated objects). It is characterized usually by the presence of a narrator involved (often tired or sic k) and who doubt their abilities (he wondered if he goes mad and so on.) Methods that are used to identify the application to objects of verbs and nouns reserve d for humans (personifications) and the expression of the irrational. You can fi nd comparisons and metaphors. This register is present in many stories and parti cularly those of Maupassant. There is also often a favorable context: the night in an old castle. Legend n. f. Traditional story where reality is distorted and embellished (related terms: fable, myth, storytelling). It contains elements of the wonderful and in some cases based on historical facts which have been transf ormed by popular beliefs. The other meaning of this word is "text that accompani es an illustration to clarify its meaning" Compared n. Mr. Part of a comparison. You can sometimes find a comparison in a metaphor. This is what we compare. Comparing n. Mr. Second part of a comparison. A metaphor also includes a compari son. It is "what we compare." Compare n. Mr. This name is an expression found in a comparison grid establish the connection between the comparative and comparing. Rem: id term or comparative tool. It may also appoint a comparative tool. few: Is like ... Is greater than ... Is smaller than ... like ... is ems ... Tel .. is used to commonly sa Here are a like ... se