Foundations of Social Management in the Industrial Revolution: Reading and Criti cal Assessment Author: Washington Jose de Souza

, Marcos Dias de Oliveira Summary historical bases of social management are addressed via the system of ideas and experiments of Robert Owen appeared during the Industrial Revolution. Under the criterion of the typical variety, Owen stands out in improving the quality of l ife in the design of cooperative and issues related to environment and community organization around, so the concepts that comprise the construct in question. F ollowing a summary of the thought of Owen, are highlighted weaknesses common to this construct and Social Management, for both departures from idealized assumpt ions about the present stage of the social and organizational, not an accurate r eflection of the nature of human relations with similar and with nature; articul ate organizational management strategies aimed at minimizing adverse effects fro m the type of relationship without question the prevailing social origins; give shape to aesthetic elements of management which, in essence, favor substantive r ationality to the time saving work processes and life that prevent - or delay an effective human emancipation, because of these weaknesses, display ideas and judgments fractionated and therefore, do not compose a single coherent body of t heory. 1. Introduction As a result of research developed by the International Ma nagement and Organizations Group of Birmingham Business School, University of Bi rmingham, a map of the grounds of Directors is outlined here, grouped under a cr íticoreflexiva perspective, concepts that support the theoretical discussion of the construct Social Management. The arrangement adopted is similar to that of t he organizers of the Handbook of Organizational Studies: Reflections and new dir ections (CLEGG, SR, HARDY, C. NORD, WR, 2001) when they admit that, however much they are incomplete, the maps provide essential parameters in the evolution sci entific fields for indicating the starting points and direction for innovation a nd knowledge development, albeit subject to exclusion and bias. The Social Manag ement is taken as the set of strategies and organizational policies promoting th e welfare of individuals and communities, aimed at rebuilding ties of integratio n similar to the human and the environment, joining under the ideal of human ema ncipation, elements of substantive rationality to instrumental rational action. Research undertaken departed from the understanding that not only fundamentals o f Business Administration, but also the beginnings of social management, appear linked to the Industrial Revolution. If, on the one hand, specialization, maximi zing results and integrate the division of work experience in the manufacturing of pins, narrated by Smith (1904) in 1776, on the other hand, cooperatives, disc ussions about the living conditions of the working class, the social role of eli te political and business and concern for the environment were also present at t hat time (GRATELL, 1970). In the systematization of knowledge in administration, however, there is little history of adoption as an epistemological basis, which is the space where the text is relevant and important. The aim is to contribute to the academic debate in the areas of Management Theory and Social Management, through the redemption of social innovations undertaken at a crucial period of economic and social development of mankind that precedes and defines the onset o f Science in Management twentieth century. It is a tendency in the literature in the field of administration to focus on the aesthetic elements of configuration management inhibiting, among other facts, reading and trial of a context socio-historical and ideological understanding of the actors involved. The const itution of the scientific field of administration is thus composed primarily of narratives fractionated, with typical examples the experiments undertaken by Tay lor and Ford at the beginning of the twentieth century in the United States of A merica and, later, those undertaken by the Toyoda and Ohno Japan Due to this cha racter, and Lorschak Chevallier (1980, p. 17) recognize that the constitution of Administrative Science is marked by style: [...] composite, because of the hete rogeneity of the constituted successive contributions, because the fragmented st reams that cross the study address the Board with concerns too different to be a ble to fuse spontaneously into an integrated subject.€The aspect of fragmentatio n that results is further emphasized by the diversity of national contexts in wh ich the Science of Administration and has developed guidelines which gave it var

ied depending on the traditions and circumstances of each country. Similar idea is discussed by Burrell (1999, p. 442) when it identifies, in addition to the fr agmentation of the discipline in schools of thought, two other elements: the dif fering explanations of problems designed differently - deficiency explanans shar ed - and the mobile nature of the enterprise administration. The author, adoptin g the terms and explanandum explanans to refer, respectively, the phenomenon to be explained and explanatory framework, shows that the builders theorists organi zations live in different cities and, therefore, the subject is global only in t heir redoubts production: [...] Europe's concern with ownership, servitude, with lack of land for the masses, with the aristocracy and monarchy, with the absolu te weight of tradition, the beginning was not so alive and vibrant in the U.S.. What was seen in the arena of government, when we look carefully, is the confron tation of the New World to the Old. How can they have the same views on how to m anage people in their areas? Based on different assumptions, scholars of organiz ations build propositions about an intercontinental blend, and for this reason, such as with product exchange, it invites attempts at understanding how it opera tes. Another barrier is related to the epistemological nature of knowledge itsel f systematized mobile, which prints to the attention of the Administration a sta te of permanent (re) construction, once composed of several pieces like a mosaic : And that system is constantly in motion: arise new elements that alter the und erstanding of the system, leading us to question, at least partially, the previo us convictions and beliefs, creating new insighs and moments of understanding, l eading us to compare and to seek understanding in an increasing level. (Motta & Vasconcelos, 2002, p. 2) These challenges are brought to the whole of literature in the field of Administration and in particular to Brazil. Therefore, in the w orks for the National Management Theory - Smith (2002), Chiavenato (2000), Lodi (1987), Kwasnicka (1996), Motta (1986, 1998, 2002) and two Maximian (2000) - despite the recognized academic merit and dissemination, under standing of the socio-economic factors that led to the emergence, for example, o f Taylorism-Fordism and Toyota, is inhibited. A similar procedure is adopted whe n they are approached management experiences developed during the Industrial Rev olution. It is indeed the applicant restricted recovery of contexts and effects of emerging technologies, or even later the implications of that phenomenon in t he formation of the Science of Administration. Such challenges and conventions, however, must increase the academic debate to allow that, gradually, to unravel the rich base shifting (CHEVALLIER; LORSCHAK, 1980) that characterizes the field of Management Science. The allusion to the merits of the nominated works is nec essary for if you want, with this theoretical exercise, record trends assumed by manufacturers known to the Administration, indicating points of reflection. Oft en, the literature restricts the possibility of seizing the cycle and the transf ormations in social structure and, in the specific context of the Administration , the general conditions of work and strategies of working class resistance. As a result of academic provision, sources of assistance in the field of social man agement, including Social Responsibility, Quality of Working Life, Environmental Management and the Third Sector, in the literature, or fashion, or otherwise, o nly poorly linked to past tenses tests. In history, it should highlight the valu e of innovations undertaken by the actors of the Industrial Revolution, especial ly in the economic-administrative, despite the recognition that the beginning of administration strategies are in command of the armies of medieval and implemen ted in the management of buildings Pyramids of Egypt and the Great Wall of China or even the organization of the Catholic Church. Facts ancient tower handling h igh volumes of resources, the rational decision regarding the purposes and hiera rchical organization and coordination and control of the performance of signific ant numbers of people in achieving results. The pioneers of the Industrial Revol ution fell, however, the challenge of bringing together diverse strategies and m ethods hitherto known,€into one. Highlights Pollard (1968) that, just as the gen erals of ancient armies, they managed a mass of people, but without having the l egal instruments of coercion. Just as the pyramid builders have achieved results from the rational decision, but went further, controlling costs and making prod

ucts competitive to the final sale. Just as the ancient merchants, capital emplo yed, however, incorporated into the job, transformed into a factor of production and technological change tool. Finally, managed adversity inherent in the socia l context of the time and resistance to the development of emerging industrial c apitalism. Starting therefore from the premise that the Industrial Revolution is privileged to rescue foundations of Directors, after exposure of the study meth odology of historical character, the text provides outline the context and natur e of the phenomenon at hand. Following is traced the path of Robert Owen, accomp anied by a synthesis of ideas that allow the linking of notions of the Social Ma nagement contemporary national agenda. Finally, the weaknesses listed theoretica l construct of thought and analysis. 2. Methodological strategy Despite the wide literature on the Industrial Revolution and the experiences of Owen, in particu lar, one can not say the same regarding the integrated approach of both taking a s object of study mapping the genesis of Social Management. Given this fact, the research undertaken at the Birmingham Business School has resumed history pione er to gather useful for the connection of ideas discussed today in the field of Administration as Social Management. It is not, however, to rescue, restore or 3 reproduce the history of inventions and the actors of the industrial revolution, or of its political, social and economic in its entirety. It is true that every generation, this phenomenon attracts a new group of scholars, with a vast liter ary output in the past and present (SERGEANT, 1860; SMITH, 1904; ENGELS, 1920; H OBSBAWN, 1962; TANN, 1970; SMITH, CHILD & Rowlinson, 1990; Mokyr, 1999). If new readings emerge, such an occurrence takes place, not because of new elements des erve clarification, or to correct errors in reads preterit, or even simply becau se a new generation to read history from a given set of assumptions. New reading s occur, yes, because at every moment are sought answers to different questions (Pollard, 1968), which, in this work included: - how emerging concepts in the fi eld of Social Management are pronounced in the midst of innovations undertaken i n Industrial Revolution, to be adopted based on the thought of Robert Owen? - Me thodological strategy that makes it possible to systematize contextual foundatio ns of the construct of social management and disseminated in terminology such as Corporate Social Responsibility, Quality of Working Life, Environmental Managem ent and the entire set of joint initiatives, generically called the Third Sector ? In order to establish a cutout to allow the one hand, upright, and, second, ob jective answer to the questions above, a first methodological challenge was set: to define the procedure for selecting pioneer of social management, considering the extension in time and legacy of innovations produced in the period. The typ ical variety - tipical Variety - previously adopted by Smith, Child and Rowlinso n (1990) Reshaping Work: The Cadbury Experience has proved useful to admit: a) t he design of profiles of individuals, b) the demarcation of spaces c ) exposure scenarios, d) the characterization and description of specific objects, e) an in dication of interfaces between the specific and generic. Based on this criterion , among social innovators of the Industrial Revolution, the name of Robert Owen (1771-1858) appears inextricably linked to the field of Administration and, in p articular, the field is today called the Social Management. It is worth noting t hat other names could be taken, since in this period, many entrepreneurs appear aligned with similar initiatives, among which, Theodosia Crowley and Richard Cra wshay (WALLACE, 1982). However, as discussed below, beyond the wit in financial management and production, the literature of the time (SERGEANT, 1860) and later (Pollard, 1968) points out, even in private social initiatives Owen in promotin g quality of life of the worker . Owen tried, too, on topics relating to the pub lic sphere, with a view closer to what today is called the Environmental Managem ent and Integrated and Sustainable Local Development - DLIS. Moreover,€designati on as typical variety is linked to the fact that Owen be referred to as Father o f Cooperatives, which approximates the Third Sector, and have applied funds from the business center in the constitution of New Educational Institution, which s imultaneously would be a private foundation without profit - Third Sector - and / or intervention of Corporate Social Responsibility. The picture painted is the refore limited to the particular experience of an innovative social revolution w

hose trajectory, for the reasons outlined above, is sufficient to obtain the fin al result. This methodological approach was employed because of the magnitude of the phenomenon in time and space and the wealth of technical innovations and so cial development. The Social Management in the form as shown in the literature, involves a diverse set of interventions funded both by private as by public and nonprofit social organizations. Thus, the attempt to define the construct or con cepts that integrate separately, is subject to obstacles. Despite this challenge , the content of the topics discussed in a later portrays the substance of thoug ht 4 Owen, summarized in Table 1, in line with the current agenda of the Social Manag ement in Brazil. Exhibition was held in the sequence of the two texts taken as a reference to Owen: A New View of Society and Report to the County of Lanark. Bo th the formulation of Owen as contemporary, not a simple task to establish bound aries between the themes of social management construct which makes possible the use of other methodological devices, without impairing the validity of the theo retical effort. Because of the immediacy of substance concepts like Corporate So cial Responsibility, Quality of Life, Third Sector and Environmental Management, the selected resource is punctual, with the understanding of its validity in th e determination of cohesion and objectivity to the exhibition. 3. Context and na ture of the Industrial Revolution in XV and XVI Centuries economic activity in t he UK focused on land, this being the area of absorption of travelers from other parts of Europe, which has boosted the flow of precious metals, rising prices s timulating industrialization and strengthening the economy in monetary terms. Su ch an expansion in business, and the simultaneous increase in currency in circul ation, led to the emergence of financial institutions and credit. Thus, in the s eventeenth century, the creation of the Bank of England (1694) grew capitalist r elations and a new type of entrepreneur emerged from the former class consists o f the merchant adventurers. Despite the existence of machines, the scanty and sm all factories, wood, water and wind energy sources were known. The term Industri al Revolution is usually used to mark social and economic changes that mark the transition to a lifestyle centered on activities in agriculture and stable trade for another focused on the mechanical speed of discovery and use of complex mac hines in large plants by subjecting the country to the city. Is between the halv es of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Earlier, five branches achieved g reater prominence (Pollard, 1968): The mineral industry, the metallurgy associat ed with the demands of engineering, procurement and investment in equipment for the armed forces, to build roads, railways, docks, ports and channels and gas su pplies, the textile activity, which takes the central role and whose growth brin gs up the first problems related to production management in largaescala in fact ories. Although the textile activity, from the mid eighteenth century, assumed a decisive role in industrial development, other activities dictated the socio-ec onomic transformation of the time. The development of plants, however, occurred for several reasons. To Gras (1930), in the case of the textile industry, the ne ed to articulate a wide range of machinery and the consequent demand for energy, determined the size. In other cases, such as that narrated by Smith (1904) conc erning the manufacture of pins, the demand for personnel to manage and maintain the discipline was the determining factor of growth. In general, the pressure of the growth came from the need to obtain competitive degree of efficiency in an expanding economy (Pollard, 1968). Among the first major British companies, foun ded in the previous period, the Mines Royal and Mineral and Battery Works, 1568, are presented as examples of businesses developed under favorable conditions of legal monopoly that, according to Pollard (1968) has used technical innovations with the help of labor-qualified foreign workers,€addition to abundant capital. In the context of facilities, a series of problems such as dishonesty, negligen ce, misappropriation of public funds and alcohol abuse by managers, occurred. Al so according to Pollard (1968) had in force two different economic patterns: the first directed to the formation of corporations in search of easy profits throu gh monopoly, with no concern for efficiency, harming the public interest; 5

another, reflecting the direction of large corporations turned to fraud and rewa rd managers, harming the interests of proprietors. Although such practices were common, the overall picture of business in the UK in the seventeenth and eightee nth century contained other initiatives. According to Unwin (1927), the fervor o f the disappointments of speculation and selfish greed of monopolies dazzled the triumph of honest endeavors. In fact, early in the eighteenth century the expan sion of population and wealth demanded more and better goods. In the productive process, the use of coal enabled the advent of steam, whose invention was crucia l to the Industrial Revolution as an energy source. As the first industrial acti vities impact, spinning and weaving of cotton were favored by a series of invent ions, among which, the water mill as an energy source by Richard Arkwright in 17 69, spinning by James Hargreaves, patented in 1770; the shuttle loom by John Kay in 1733, the bobbin for making wire by Samuel Crompton (1779) and power-loom by Edmund Cartwright, patented in 1783. The availability of vast quantities of coa l and iron in the UK and nearby was a decisive factor in the rapid development o f textile industry and later the rest. The mines of the beginning of the eightee nth century grew in importance and the Black Country - whose name is linked to t he proliferation of smoke - on the outskirts of Birmingham, has emerged in the e conomic scenario at the time that Lancashire and Yorkshire became major textile centers in the world. The number and size of plants grown demanding infrastructu re. In the transport sector, from the early eighteenth century, investments were earmarked for construction of canals and, subsequently, railroads, after the in vention of the steam locomotive engine in 1803 by Richard Trevithick. It is ther efore in this context embryo, the first challenges that arise in installations m anagement of large-scale production, and also initiatives that later led to the systematization of thought of the Administration. The fact administrative in bot h branches of mining and construction as the first industrial activities (metall urgy, chemicals and textiles), was centered in decision making on the recruitmen t, selection and training of workers, management accounting and financial and lo gistics production, involving the division of labor, efficiency, order and contr ol. Such content, discarded aesthetic transformations, today constitutes the ess ence of Administrative Science. 4. The trajectory of the life of Robert Owen was born in May 14, 1771, childhood and youth of Owen in Newtown, Montgomeryshire, region of northern Wales, coincides with the sudden and vast expansion of the ma nufacturing processes of cotton in the United Kingdom. The son of a postal offic er who held a small business as a child had a passion for reading and for seven years, had received any education possible at the time and place. By age eight, from the familiarity of a teenager who was studying at Oxford, who used to walk through the woods of Newtown, Owen acquired sensitivity to the beauty of nature. At nine, he left school after a period acting as a monitor, and was working as a salesman in a store, without pay, as supposed Sergeant (1860). After interim p rotection of a brother at the end of six weeks lived with the family McGuffog in Stamford, to ten years. The master McGuffog, who had begun life as a street ven dor and saved some money, kept commercial shop with a wide reputation for sellin g products high standard of quality at low prices. It was an honest man, methodi cal, and good-hearted liberal. In four years, Owen was introduced to the busines s world, this experience has been of great value for your particular life trajec tory (SERGEANT, 1860). 6 At fourteen he moved to London and worked in commercial store, set to sell goods under popular prices and, therefore, had large numbers of customers. The journe y was long, started at eight o'clock, and in some periods of the year, extended until two in the morning. Shortly thereafter, by proposing a better salary, he w ent to Manchester,€there remains in the activity of the seller until eighteen. T he entrepreneurial path starts from the call to form a society, which whetted th e ambition of Owen. Immediately contracted the loan from a brother in London for the opening of a machine factory wiring under agreement for the sharing of half the profit. Forty men were hired to work in wood, iron and bronze. Owen was res ponsible for financial administration and accounting business. A year later, bro ke up the company and opened its own factory, having given up the business the n

ext year to work as an administrator for the wealthy businessman Drinkwater. It was an experimental venture in spinning cotton, with five hundred workers. Owen had the twenty years to find answers to problems involving the purchase of raw m aterials, production and spinning of cotton, salaries, product sale and final ac counting and financial management. At that moment, the experience gained in Stam ford was considered important, both for his zeal for honesty and order, as famil iarity with the factory for excellence in quality - skills now required. After a nalysis of the production system, Owen has perfected the machinery allowing the manufacture of a type of wire with a thickness hitherto unknown. A millionaire w ith satisfaction the work of young manager resulted in an invitation to the comp osition of society which would involve also two children. It was agreed that the equitable distribution of ¼ profit per partner and the use of the mark in Owen manufactured goods. Progress in the factory system, a finding of moral integrity and business acumen led the millionaire Owen Drinkwater to propose marriage to her daughter and by the rejection, the partnership was dissolved. Owen, however, had been known for innovations promoted in the spinning of cotton which, accord ing to Sergeant (1860), becomes the source of his fortune. Another reading, howe ver, indicates that different factors explain the fortunes of Owen. For Pollard (1968), as a competitive advantage Owen was able to win the cooperation of emplo yees. He paid them salaries attractions - apart from that policy in place - so t heir success can be credited to the ability to handle administrative techniques that were, at that time, completely different experiences of the pioneers of the new form of social organization. So when Owen moved from Manchester to New Lana rk, had an understanding of administrative management plant that should have bee n, in large part, only at that time. After the dismantling of society with Drink water and a period of transition - in manufacturing activities not stable - Owen had the opportunity to visit New Lanark accidental, primitive village in Scotla nd where the differential was the availability of water fall that generated ener gy for four textile units. Manufacturing activity in the place had been started by David Dale and Richard Arkwrigth in 1784 as one of the first of its kind in S cotland. The visitor was delighted with the beauty of the place and traveling co mpanion confessed to a desire to settle in there for that experience into practi ce long pondered. After being introduced to industrialist David Dale, leased the mills for twenty years. While settling in New Lanark and twenty-eight years old in January 1799, found a system of living and working in full force. Children u nder six years of age were subjected to a day of work for more than twelve hours a day - six in the morning until seven at night - sequenced by a period of inst ruction, which hampered the recruitment of manpower. The families lived undergoi ng addictions, theft, debt, disease and poverty, in extreme poverty, consuming g oods of inferior quality under high prices. Noting weaknesses in the quality of life, Owen allocated 7 efforts to inaugurate a new management system whose purpose would be to reduce t he ill-treatment, except the principle of justice and generosity, as belief itse lf. After eight months living with the family of Dale, in September 1799 he marr ied the daughter of a millionaire. Since then he dedicated himself to the ideals and social experiments that ambition, recording the content in the form of essa ys (essays). 5. The system of ideas of Robert Owen: Social gathering grounds of the Management advocate of the idea that the physical and cultural environment s hapes human character and a time not professing any religion, believing that fai th contributes to the irrational and selfish man, Owen was sponsored education. Although he attended school for a short period of time, and even then, become ed ucated man and successful,€was always identified with the working class, albeit from a perspective not revolutionary. As soon as a hit, amassing fortune, concei ved the cooperative invested in schemes of education and development of communit y life, became involved with socialism English, dealt with issues related to urb anization and implemented innovative management strategies designed to promote t he quality worker's life. They are vast, so the projects and social initiatives of Owen, which contributed so much to capture fans - fans of the cooperative, fo r example - and critics alike - the followers of Critical Theory. The core of th

e thought of Owen is in two pieces, having been used as a source for the synthes is below, editing Gatrell (1970). A New View of Society has four tests. The firs t, On the Formation of Character, was written in 1812 and published in early 181 3. The second, The Principles of the Former Essay Continued in Part and Applied to Practice, was written and published in late 1813. The third and fourth tests - The Principles of the Former Essay Applied to a Personal Situation and The Pri nciples of the Former Essay Applied to Government - both were written and publis hed for sale as a second edition in 1816, reaching a wide circulation among both the main political leaders, literary and religious traditions of Great Britain, and among the rulers of Europe and the United States. The other text, Report to the County of Lanark, written in 1820, is considered the first statement of soc ialist principles published in the UK, which provides the condition of Owen pion eer theorist of socialism (SERGEANT, 1860). As the previous record, for mapping fundamentals of Social Management, from the thought of Owen, the sequence of exp osure of the two texts was maintained. Social action linked to economic results The idea of social intervention in the form as it appears in A New View of Socie ty, An Address in the introduction, is directly tied to principles such as maxim ization of results and order. In addressing that makes the superintendents of fa ctories, Owen questions the loss of time and financial resources resulting from management schemes in place, ensuring that capital returns of up to 100% can be achieved by not only investments in machinery and tools clean and well-care, but also in people: a) trained, with energy and determination at work, b) treated g enerously, so that the mental challenges do not cause conflict; c) dedicated to performance, the most perfect possible, the charge d) fed with enough healthy fo od and other necessities of life, and e) physically preserved in good working co nditions, to avoid the absence or premature deterioration. Educational scheme fo r the formation of character in the first test, whose central theme is the descr iption of two general principles, Owen tackles poverty, addictions, crime and la ck of educational opportunities for 8 workers, mostly children. Then says he portrayed the content is based on over tw enty years of experience, during which the truth and importance of what he write s has been proven in multiple experiments. The first principle asserts that the character, from best to worst, the most ignorant to the most enlightened, may be shaped in any community, through the application of appropriate media largely u nder the command and control of those who have influence on human relationships . The central idea put forward is that the procedures for training of character, once implemented, provide for the welfare of society. Thus, children could be t rained to acquire language, feelings and beliefs, or habits and customs, not con trary to human nature. Instead of punishing crimes from the type of character so cially shared, could be adopted to prevent, therefore, irritating and angry temp ers, consequences of ignorance, would gradually be replaced by the more impartia l and conciliatory trust and goodwill. It would be unfair, therefore, ensure tha t a small group of individuals - the ruling elite - the right to enforce laws an d punish when they deny training tools. Cooperation of the privileged class welf are The second principle holds that individual happiness can only occur through behavior patterns that ensure collective happiness. Moving from stage to stage o f ignorance of intelligence, the man discovers that individual happiness expands only to the extent that it actively strives to expand the happiness of everyone around her. This principle€which does not admit or exclusion or limits, is base d on the assumption that the extraordinary events of the time were contributing to set the stage. Considering the fact that the essence of the wisdom of the pri vileged classes would be in cooperation with the other, a little reflection on t he part of the privileged ensure a line of conduct - no revolution without war o r bloodshed - necessary for the preparation of the World to receive principles f or the construction of a system of happiness. The governments of all countries s hould, therefore, establish rational plans of education - training general chara cter of the public - training children in good habits of all species. To the ske ptics, who consider this charming and beautiful idea in theory, but visionary to be put into practice, Owen shows practical example - the experience of three th

ousand inhabitants of New Lanark, in the early nineteenth century. Philanthropy and charity The content of the second test is an explanation of the benefits ari sing from the application of the principles presented in the first test. One of the most important benefits, when put into practice the two principles, it would be inducing the belief that every man should have charity - charity - for all m en. The collective field arises, again, linked to the defense of the ordinary ci rcumstances of life can be modeled by means of the particular organization of th e individual and, moreover, the assertion that children can be trained together. The principles presented, according to Owen, they are instruments for creating feelings - without the use of force or the production of any contrary action - a ble to lead the owners of a resource allocation, not just for friends and citize ns, but also for the inhabitants of all parts of the earth. The irrational ideas and practices of the time would be partial reflection of ignorance of ancestors and contemporaries formed under the previous prescription. New rules for social interaction The practical benefits of implementing the principles appear in the narratives of the trajectory of the founding of New Lanark and overcoming adver se circumstances, by the pioneer 9 David Dale, and further improvement of general condition of life of the village after the implementation of social innovations by Owen himself. As stated, the i nnovations implemented in the study left the full extent of the evils and charac terization of the true causes and effects. For the thefts were not instituted le gal instruments of punishment or prison, and yes, regular checks and standards f or prevention. The child labor control scheme for absorption of child learners f rom six years, received the public houses of charity, was discontinued, having b een established the minimum age of ten to work. The children were studying in sc hool in the village, from five to ten years of full age, without cost to parents . Were taught in an environment of complete pleasure and delight, says Owen, bef ore engaging in employment. Urbanization and health care collective investments in children were monitored simultaneously by other care of basic needs, health c are and urbanization of the village. The houses have become comfortable and plea sant streets, with alleys and gardens. Supplies of better quality were available for consumption at low prices. The gradual social change that advocates applyin g the principles, Owen suggests, should start from detailed and comprehensive vi ew of the stage of society. The causes of the evils must be drawn with precision and means easier and simpler to be implemented immediately to remove it. To pro duce better results, all the desired changes should be implemented gradually so as seemingly imperceptible, because then the slope resistance is removed and to be given time for reason to undermine the strength of existing harmful damage. R emoval of the first ill prepares the way for the removal of the second and in ge ometric progression, the leaders of the system will soon be graced by the magnit ude of the benefits envisioned. National systems of employment and education is, however, the need for government measures. In suggesting the government to crea te a national system of training of character, Owen records that the government should provide a source of employment to meet the demands of the working class. These jobs should be linked to the national interest, so the public can take adv antage in equal proportion to the costs required. Early childhood education in t he third experiment are no comments about the New Institution€center intended pr imarily to early childhood education, equipped with playground, whose creation w as directed, among other reasons, to get children out of the customs and incorre ct treatment of the parents (nãoeducados) putting them in safe situation in the acquired better habits and principles. Leisure and weekly rest The human being n eeds rest because of the daily occupation. All those who wish to provide happine ss to humanity, not to fail in stemming entertainment and recreation. The design of a day of rest per week - the Sabbath - has originally this purpose, and to r emedy undue exploitation would require the introduction, on the other days of th e week, measures innocent entertainment and recreation. Innocent, is 10 feasible to deduce the implied exclusion of entertainment involving drinking and gambling, a topic on the agenda for the British at that time as well today. Amo

ng the measures of innocent pleasure, the villagers were available areas of gard ening and planting of potatoes, to grow during periods of summer, in addition to public tours. The beautiful natural scenery of New Lanark is described not only as the most economical, but also as the most rewarding pleasure which the indiv idual can enjoy and therefore all men can easily be versed to do so. Human emanc ipation is easier to lead mankind to virtue, or to conduct rational, by offering entertainment innocent than by way of unnecessary controls, which may be disgus ted harming good qualities. According to Owen, in all times and territories the man seems to have blindly conspired against the happiness and remain ignorant of himself, as it was in relation to the solar system at times before Copernicus a nd Galileo. The time for the emancipation of the human mind had not arrived by t hen and the world was not prepared for this. However, from the great changes tha t were processed, Owen believed that man made important steps towards another le vel of intelligence that nature itself provided. Gender relations and definition of social roles Pedagogy of the New Institution involved a conception of societ y set the definition of social roles by gender. For the boys, teaching goal was to read well, understand the writing, write legibly and understand and use the f undamental rules of arithmetic. It was teaching the girls, too, to sew and make costumes relatives. After mastering these skills, should attend the public kitch en and dining rooms, and also learn to prepare food sparingly and keep the house clean and well cared for. Education (and indoctrination) of youth and adults in the evening occurred in the preparation of lessons for adults: a) on appropriat e methods for raising children, making rational creatures, b) in how to allocate the resources from the work, c) on how to reserve the leftovers. All were asked about the progress in useful knowledge and had consented to questions and discu ssions. The New Institution worked also as a temple, spreading an ideology by Ow en considered factual. While critical of the Church, in answer to skeptics, drew a primer of principles whose content would lift a religion vital - vital religi on - able to bring peace and happiness to man operation via pragmatic character formation. Volunteer Since not all act rationally, being taught the art of war f rom childhood, the men of New Lanark were trained in defense tactics to use them when attacked the community. Thus, the New Institution provided training in han dling firearms that contribute to health and mood, giving proper posture for you ng people, and habits of attention and order. Although Owen did not mention, it is important to emphasize that this initiative was in line with a massive nation al training for voluntary military associations, theme portrayed by Gee (2003) T he British Volunteer Movement 1794-1814. Preventative health and pension fund Th ere was expedient to ensure the individuals of a village gathering insurance in retirement, under the provision and refuge in comfortable conditions. All employ ees in 11 site contributed to a fund that supported the worker away by disease or when the re was fulfilled life for industrial tasks. Fund housing Ensuring comfort in ret irement involved the construction of houses whose possession by the employee, oc curred without coercion by the monthly savings amount so that the end of a given number of years, pay the full amount of property.€The community development fun d set was also a kind of savings that financed the comfort of homes, surrounded by gardens and sheltered by plantations and sidewalks. Once occupying the reside nce, the worker would receive a financial value sufficient to support. This poli cy aimed to increase the taxation of families in the village. Public policies to combat poverty Owen discussed poverty, alcohol consumption, crime and gambling among the poor, which led him to write letter of recommendations to the British government, the object of the fourth test. Table 1: Summary of interfaces between ideas and experiences of Owen and agenda for the Social Management Agenda in contemporary Brazil Quality of Life in the e ducational scheme for the formation of character education continued attention t o basic needs and health aid transportation, food, housing and health fund Fundi ng for the purchase or renovate the house itself Leisure and weekly rest Flexibi lity of working hours and occupational health and preventive health fund pension plan business health and pension fund Corporate Social Responsibility Social ac

tion linked to economic results linked to the Social Action class corporate imag e Cooperation inside the welfare contribution to business alleviating social exc lusion institution of social norms and ethical codes of conduct in organizations control of child labor fight against child labor gradual social change social p olicy articulation Third Sector Philanthropy and charitable organizations and ph ilanthropic charities national systems of employment and education alternatives for employment and income and training Education for children, youth and adults Youth and Adult Education - Basic adult education and volunteer work volunteer w ork and corporate volunteering Emancipation human organizations protect and defe nd the rights of minorities Relations definition of gender roles and social cond ition and women's rights public policy to combat poverty Zero Hunger regulation, labor and public-private partnership wealth and income concentration Environmen tal Management Urbanization and health care collective use of urban space, sanit ation and public health Local Integrated Development Community Development and S ustainable - DLIS Source: elaborated by the authors agenda Owen Regulation, labor and wealth The content of the text Report to the County of Lan ark has also públicogovernamental appeal with focus on the regulatory role of th e state and the presentation of draft plan 12 action aimed at overcoming problems relating to employment of manpower in the fi eld and in the city. Owen says that the availability of jobs, with earnings suff icient to maintain a working family, and general aspiration is that this goal ca n not be achieved until the government and the legislature to adopt measures to remove obstacles that would otherwise keep the working class in poverty and unha ppy, gradually contributing to the deterioration of the resources of the Empire. The work is acknowledged as the source of all wealth. The markets, in turn, gro w as a result of pay and the working class are more or less extended in proporti on as this class is well or poorly paid. Evaluate, then, that the existing arran gements would not be adequately remunerating the worker, and, consequently, the markets would fail. We proposed the intervention of the government and legislatu re, which is detailed in the form of a sketch plan. Here there is an attempt at theorizing. Owen speaks in Social Sciences, Economics and Politics in the power of knowledge, questioning the value system adjusted to gold and silver, to defen d the work as a natural pattern of human value. Recourse, once again, the defens e of education as a device to overcome poverty, political advising the legislatu re and the government, the theoretical effort gets overshadowed. 6. Critical app raisal and final reflections Considering the fact that was not the object of res earch the theoretical justification of the construct and Social Management, yes, a historical review of initiatives that are approaching this conception, the de bate portrayed deserves counterpoints. It is pertinent to resume, the initial bo undaries of the study. The reading and criticism, focusing on initiatives to Rob ert Owen for reasons already mentioned, did not address other social innovators of the industrial age and is limited to a period of time, the socio-economic and political spaces-specific legal and physical. So do not try to erase the value of innovations above narrated,€occurred in the distant past from the perspective of Management Science. In particular trajectory of life, Owen introduced himsel f as an entrepreneur successful, educational theorist and social reformer so tha t readings about their initiatives invited to adopt caution. This is not an acad emic or theoretical and perhaps this explains the lack of accuracy both in asses sing the social context that has experienced both the assertions and alternative s presented. The language employed is strong on the defense of an ideal system a nd appealing on the explanation of personal examples to convince. The core of th e work can be taken, as well as rhetoric, insufficient to the constitution of a theory. If, on the one hand, criticized the greed and the accumulation of wealth , on the other hand, took advantage of the situation and made a fortune through the exploitation and appropriation of the result of the work of others. If, on t he one hand, criticized the general conditions of living and working at the time , otherwise termed as an act of benevolence concessions and innovations of the o wners of the search for manpower - including those developed by himself . In the

first test of A New View of Society, when addressing the British public support s the idea that evil which he portrayed comes from errors of ancestors and that once identified the causes, measures - the term he used is remedy - must be impl emented so as to generate benefits and produce the least possible inconvenience. In a message that addresses the superintendents of factories, describes corpora te governance as a system composed of several parts where the hands are linked t o equipment and machinery to produce the highest gain for the owners. The questi oning about the ethical content of this social system of exploitation of man by man, resulting from the revolution in the process - and not the past - is theref ore neglected. 13 Owen's social policies were masterminded answer or at least shaped by opposition movements. You put in the second test of A New View of Society that, just as in other countries, had by the lower classes of Scotland intense prejudice to the foreign authority, especially in English. With previous business in Manchester, Owen faced strong aversions, compounded by having succeeded David Dale - under w hose tutelage the workers acted in the way desired - by professing different rel igious beliefs and that workers began to think that mechanisms of oppression wou ld be imposed for extract more work results. The events of attacks and defenses, according to states, lasted two years, are narrated not as mechanisms of resist ance encountered that required the adoption of social measures, but rather as an adverse circumvented by professional merit from abroad - a particular temperame nt, patience and confidence in the validity of the principles underpinning the c onduct itself. Owen advocates values - valuable principles - which, in essence, starting from a peculiar point of view of changes occurred in British society be tween the mid-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and personal preferences, idea lizing and producing instruments that would cure the social ills of the time. Fo r being taken off the investigation surrounding the effective causes that determ ine the social, political and economic criticized for it, the work does not aris e, even as a paradigm consistent among the concerns addressed and the answers Remedies - recommended. Words addressed to His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of the British Empire in the first assay of A New View of Society, suggest other weaknesses, as illustrated by the following statements: - the tests were writte n to show that the source of misery can be located at ignorance of those who gov ern and those who are governed - the principles revealed are qualified to develo p a practice that, without much apparent change, and without any public disorder , gradually remove the difficulties of those who in future will rule and the dis content of those who should be governed . By shifting the origin of the problems from the Industrial Revolution of the kind of socio-economic relationship estab lished by locating it either in ignorance of rulers and ruled and now the blame to the ancestors, Owen weakens the system of ideas drawn especially to defend th at right appliance formation of human character happiness would spread throughou t the social environment. Is poor defense that disease, poverty, crime and abuse are the result of ignorance and that can be overcome through training.€It is al so precarious the statement of faith that a given educational unit makes it poss ible - without conflicts, without bloodshed and without war - a new social confo rmation, through the dissemination of ideas such as cooperation, kindness and ch arity and a peculiar conception of justice and equity, maintaining the operating system. Owen does not discuss the need to overcome the prevailing economic orde r and even questions the legitimacy of profit. Moreover, by proposing measures o utside the system, both failed to formulate a critical theory as a theory of cha nge in the legitimating process. By navigating between objections to the effects of social economic model in force without opposing the main contents of the sys tem, namely, the exploitation and appropriation of the objective result of the w ork of others, from a certain type of social relationship, becomes an integral p art of critical Engels (1920). Moreover, in the third test of A New View of Soci ety and the knowledge and training of human character appear as a result of a na tural development, deeply influenced by ideas and habits of ancestors, and only subtly derived from the relation of man to the material world. The weaknesses id entified in Owen did not differ, however, those that can be credited to construc

t social management, leading to the following observations: a) both start from i dealized assumptions about the present stage of the social and organizational, n ot 14 a rigorous reflection on the nature of the relations of man with nature and with similar b) articulate organizational management strategies aimed at minimizing adverse effects from the type of relationship without question the prevailing so cial origins, c) give aesthetic form the management elements that, in essence, f avor substantive rationality to the time saving and work processes of life that prevent - or delay - an effective human emancipation d) because of the weaknesse s above, appear in the form of fragments and not compose a single coherent body of theory. In summary, both experiments preterit as those of Owen today clumped around the construct social management, can be read as organizational innovation s from which capitalism disseminates any awards, the time when individualism sed iments itself as a belief, including for do not possess property (Gatrell, 1970) . Dialectically, are also social gains achieved through technological progress i n synchrony with movements of resistance and gradual recovery of human conscious ness around the general conditions of the environment and life-like. Finally, it is feasible to assert that the composition of the bases of the Administration, regardless of theoretical perspective, should be located in time and space, in t he political and legal contours - ideologies, resistance and work systems and va lues in force - and conformation of the socio-economic development. It is also i mportant for the design of biographies that can identify system and conventional ideas of the actors involved. This provision has proved useful here, in general terms, the reflection on the epistemology of Management Science and in specific terms, the marking points of thought and study of the construct analyzed. Other wise, the weaknesses do not override or theoretical relevance of the pioneering work of Owen, in the way of thinking and conduct business, nor the attempt of sc holars of organizations in the conformation of Social Management. Instead, it is part of the commitment to consolidation of Science, showing the limits of admin istrative reforms readings when detached from the analysis of the scenario in wh ich they give. Are worthy of consideration, therefore, the issues discussed by O wen and before today's corporate agenda, because, even if taken as hanger ideolo gical influence the lives of several segments - revolutionary theorists, reforme rs, entrepreneurs, workers, trade unionists, academics, legislators and rulers. References BURRELL, G. Normal science, paradigms, metaphors, discourses and gene alogies of analysis. In: CLEGG, S. R; HARDY, C. NORD, W. R. Handbook of Organiza tional Studies: Reflections and new directions. São Paulo: Atlas, 1999. CLEGG, S . R; HARDY, C. NORD, W. R. Handbook of Organizational Studies: Reflections and n ew directions. São Paulo: Atlas, 1999. CHIAVENATO, I. Introduction to the Theory of General Administration [The book sold more of Administration in Brazil]. 6. ed. rev. ampl. Rio de Janeiro: Campus, 2000. CHEVALLIER, J; LORSCHAK, D. Adminis trative Science. Lisbon: EuropaAmérica Publications, 1980. Gatrell, V. A. C. Rob ert Owen: Report to the County of Lanark;€A New View of Society. Middlesex (UK): Penguin Books, 1970. GEE, A. The British Volunteer Movement 1794-1814. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003. 15 GRAS, N. S. B. Industrial Evolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 19 30. KWASNICKA, E. L. General Theory of Administration: a synthesis. São Paulo: A tlas, 1996. HOBSBAWN, E. J. The Age of Revolution 1789-1848. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1962. LODI, J. B. History of the Administration. 9. ed. Thompson Lea rning, 1987. ENGELS, F. Socialism: Utopian and scientific. 5. ed. London: Allen and Unwin, 1920. MAXIMIANO, A. C. A. General Theory of Administration: School of Classical to competitiveness in the globalized economy. 2. ed. São Paulo: Atlas , 2000. Mokyr, J. The British Industrial Revolution: an Economic Perspectives. O xford: Westview Press, 1999. MOTTA, F. C. P, Vasconcelos, I. F. G. de. General T heory of Administration. Thompson Learning, 2002. MOTTA, F. C. P. General Theory of Administration: an introduction. 22. ed. ampl. Thompson Learning, 1998. MOTT A, F. C. P. Organization Theory: Evolution and criticism. Thompson Learning, 198 6. Pollard, S. The genesis of the modern management: A Study of the Industrial R

evolution in Great Britain. Harmondsworth (UK): Penguin Books. 1968. SERGEANT, W . L. Robert Owen and his social philosophy. London: Smith, Elder and Co. 1860. S MITH, A. An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 5. ed. London: Edwin Cannan, 1904. SMITH, C; CHILD., J, Rowlinson, M. Reshaping work: T he Cadbury experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. SILVA, R. O. da. Theories of Administration. Thompson Learning, 2002. TANN, J. The developme nt of the factory. London: Cornmarket Press, 1970. UNWIN, G. Studies in Economic History. London: RH Tawney, 1927. WALLACE, A. F. C. The Social Context of Innov ation: bureaucrats, families and heroes in the early Industrial Revolution, the Foreseen in Bacon's "New Atlantis". Guilford: Princeton University Press, 1982. 16