Introduction This book, Jean Piaget, noted Swiss psychologist and philosopher, k nown for his pioneering work

in the field of children's intelligence, consists o f his articles and conferences. The first part presents a summary of the finding s of Piaget in the field of child psychology, demonstrating how to check his men tal development. In the second part are addressed central problems of thought, l anguage and emotion in children, through numerous examples and case studies. It is very suitable for teachers, psychologists, educators and other professionals in education. Review I. Early childhood: two to seven years According to Piaget, the intellectual and affective aspect is modified with the emergence of language. The child becomes able to reconstruct his past actions an d future for verbal representation. This leads to three main consequences for me ntal development: 1. A possible exchange between individuals, ie the beginning o f the socialization of action, 2. An internalization of the word, ie the appeara nce of thought and, 3. An internalization of the action that was once purely per ceptual and motor, from there can reconstruct the plan of images and intuitive " mind experiments". These consequences are followed by a series of parallel proce ssing, development of inter feelings, or affective (likes and dislikes, respect, etc.). Affectivity and interior organizing is more stable than in the course of the early stages. At the time of emergence of language, the child finds himself at odds not only with the physical universe as before, but with two new worlds and deeply united: the social world and the inner representations. Therefore, Pi aget examines these three modifications of the general behavior (socialization, thinking and intuition), and after their emotional impact. A. The socialization of action Piaget says that the infant gradually learns to imitate, without there being a hereditary technique of imitation. In sequence: 1. Simple excitement similar gestures from the other, visible movements of the body 1 2. Senso-motor imitation - becomes an increasingly accurate copy of movements th at resemble the movements known; 3. The child plays the most complex new moves (the models are difficult affecting parts of the body itself is not visible, like the face a nd head). Imitation of sounds has a similar evolution. When sounds are associate d with certain actions, imitation extends to language acquisition (keyword phras es elementary then differentiated nouns and verbs, and finally sentences themsel ves). As for the elementary functions of language, Piaget says that consist of t hree broad categories of evident facts. They are: 1. Factors subordination and relations of spiritual coercion exercised by the ad ult on the child. Examples from on high (adults) are models that the child will seek to copy or match, orders and warnings, respect for the little big. 2. Factors exchange, with the adult or with other children. Adjust their actions according to their individual standards, without taking care of the rules of com panion. 3. The child does not speak only to the other, one speaks for itself, without ce asing, in various monologues that accompany their games and their activity. These true mon ologues, as collectives, are more than a third of the spontaneous language of ch ildren between three and four years, decreasing by around seven years. In short,

examination of spontaneous language in children, such as the behavior of the sm all collective games, shows that the first social behavior are still half way to true socialization. Instead of leaving your own point of view to coordinate it with the other, the individual is unconsciously self-centered. B. The genesis of thought The starting point of thought, Piaget says, comes under the dual influe nce of language and socialization. The language, allowing the subject to tell th eir past actions, anticipating the future actions, and to replace them without e ver realizing it. And, socialization, allowing acts of thinking that does not be long exclusively to me that the designs, but rather a communication plan that mu ltiplies their importance. Piaget adds that during the ages of two to seven year s, are all transitions between two extreme ways of thinking, ie, the first thoug ht is that of assimilation or incorporation by pure selfishness which excludes, by implication, all 2 objectivity. The second is the thought of others and adapted to reality, prepari ng thus the logical thinking.€Between the two is the vast majority of acts of c hild thought that oscillates between these opposite directions. At the level of collective life (seven to twelve years), it is seen in children up games charact erized by certain common obligations, ie, the rules of the game. Between two chi ldren, appears a different game: the game is symbolic or imaginative play and im itation. At the other extreme is the thought form more adapted to reality that t he child knows and what can be called intuitive thought. Between these two extre me types is simply a form of verbal thought, serious opposition in the game, but more distant from reality than their own intuition: it is the current thinking of the child from two to seven years. In short, the analysis of how a child make s your questions highlights the character of his thought still egocentric in thi s new field of representation of the world, as opposed to the practical organiza tion of the universe. C. Intuition Intuition is the logic of early childhood. Th e child of four to seven years can not define the concepts used and is limited t o designate the corresponding objects or define the use ("for ...") is under the dual influence of finality and the difficulty of justification. A child this ag e does not have a sharp verbal domain, as it has in the action and manipulation. Piaget distinguishes two cases: the intelligence and the proper practice of tho ught tending to knowledge in the experimental field. A "practical intelligence" that plays an important role between two and seven years, extending on the one h and, intelligence and motor sense of pre-verbal and preparing, on the other hand , the technical knowledge that will develop into adulthood. The child was much m ore advanced in actions than in words. As for the thought tending to knowledge i n the field experiment, Piaget says about seven years until the child is pre-log ical and logical supplement to the mechanism of intuition, it is a simple intern alization of the perceptions and movements in the form of representative images and " mental experiences. " In short, while there is equivalence or corresponden ce visual optics. Therefore, it is normal for the child's thinking begins to be irreversible, especially when she internalizes perceptions and movements in the form of mental experiences, they remain less mobile and less reversible. 3 The primary intuition is only a sketch sense-engine implemented as an act of tho ught, inheriting it, of course, features articulated intuition moves in this dir ection. While the primary intuition is only a global action, intuition articulat ed surpasses the dual direction of anticipating the consequences of this action and a reconstruction of previous states. The intuition is articulated thus likel y to attain a balance more stable and mobile at the same time, the action-drivin g sense alone, living there the great progress of this stage of thought itself o n intelligence above language. D. The affective life transformations of action f rom the beginning of socialization are not important just for the intelligence a nd thought, but also reverberate deeply in love life. The three new affective es sential are:

1. The development of inter-feelings (affections, sympathies and dislikes) 2. The socialization of the shares, the emergence of intuitive moral feelings, from the relationships between adults and children 3. Adjustment of interests and values, linked to the intuitive thinking in general. Piaget sees this third aspect as more basic. He says the concern is the proper orientation to every act of mental assimilation. Thus, during infancy, a re noticeable interest through words, design, images, patterns, certain physical exercises etc.. Interests or values on the activity itself, are linked closely to feelings of self-worth: the famous "feelings of inferiority or superiority. S econdly, he says, is sympathy, which causes all the values of children are shape d in the image of his father and his mother, or who the child considers as super ior to you. Bovet agrees with Piaget that respect stems from the first moral sen timents. Finally, with respect to morality, he says the first child morality and obedience is the first criterion of goodness is a long time will depend on a po ol, which is observed or of beings from their parents. 4 II. The Childhood of Seven to Twelve Years A second childhood is marked by a decisive change in mental development.€Observ e the emergence of new forms of organization either of intelligence or emotional life, social relations or individual activity. A. Progress in behavior and soci alization After seven years, the child becomes able to cooperate because it conf uses more than their own point of view with others. The discussions are possible . The egocentric speech disappears almost entirely. In collective behavior, the child follows rules, think before you act, and reflect. Release from his self-ce nteredness for both social and intellectual intelligence (logical construction) and for the affection (cooperation and personal autonomy). B. The progress of th ought Piaget explains that appear new forms of explanation, in most cases, comin g from above, but corrected. There are new notions of permanence, conservation, and speed the construction of space. C. The rational operations Intuitions becom e operations. The shares become operative. Thus the action of gathering (plus lo gic or arithmetic addition) is an operation which can be added (meeting) or minu s (decoupling). D. The affection, will and moral sentiments Affection at this st age is characterized by the appearance of new moral feelings, the organization t hat will lead to better integration of the self. Mutual respect leads to new for ms of moral sentiments, different from the initial outward obedience which leads to a new organization of moral values. III. Adolescence Piaget says that adolescence is the stage that separates childhood from adulthoo d, he calls it a passing crisis and says that due to the maturation of the sexua l instinct adolescence is marked by momentary imbalances. A. Thought and its ope rations The teenager is an individual who builds systems and "theories". Piaget maintains that it is at around eleven to twelve years that makes a fundamental t ransformation in the thinking of 5 child. The logical operations begin to be crossed the plane of the concrete to t he manipulation of the ideas expressed in any language, but without the support

of perception, experience, or even belief. One of the key innovations that confl ict with teenage child, according to him, is the free activity of spontaneous th ought. The Adolescent egocentrism demonstrates an intellectual, finds itself str ong enough to rebuild the universe and big enough to incorporate it. B. The warm th of personality in the world of adult social life of adolescent affective stat es through two achievements: the personality and its integration into adult soci ety. The personality begins at the end of childhood with the autonomous organiza tion of the rules, values and the affirmation of the will, with the settlement h ierarchy and moral trends. The teenager, the formation of his personality, there is on par with the older, but another feeling, for his new life, try to overcom e them and drive them, transforming the world. Inside is an oscillation between feeling generous, altruistic projects and mystic fervor, disturbing megalomania and egocentricity conscious. In religious life, the teenager is like a covenant with their God, and engages to serve him without reward, but counting play, beca use of this, a major factor in causing it proposes to defend. (He needs help to decide the true God). In general, the teenager wants to insert themselves into t he society of adults through projects, program of living systems often theoretic al plans of political or social. The real adjustment to society will be done aut omatically when the teenager, a reformer, become a director. 6