TEMPERATURE DEFINITION Human beings are homeothermic, or warm-blooded, with internal mechanisms that ma intain a stable temperature

in your body, that among these are those related to the production of heat within the body, and its dissipation. The normal body tem perature of a person varies depending on gender, recent activity, consumption of food and fluids, time of day, and in women, menstrual cycle phase in which they are. Normal body temperature, according to the American Medical Association can range from 97.8 ° F (or Fahrenheit, equivalent to 36.5 ° C, or Celsius) and 99 ° F (37.2 ° C). • The temperature regulating system is one of the main mechanisms of homeostasis is preserved by the body's internal climate at an optimal level for operation. • The control center of the core body temperature is located in the hypothalamus in the lower portion of the brain. • In the body produces heat as a byproduct o f metabolism and constantly loses by evaporation, radiation, conduction and conv ection. MECHANISMS FOR THE REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE • They are located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. neurons in this reg ion respond to changes in temperature of blood flowing through there, sending im pulses to the former center of the heat loss or heat later promoted. • The body has different coping mechanisms to promote the production of heat if the tempera ture drops too much or lose too much if it rises too, that among these are: • STIMULATION OF CENTER HEAT PRODUCER. Increases alertness, causing muscle activ ation. • Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Facilitates the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the bloodstream. • Prolonged exposure to temp eratures lower than NORMAL. It stimulates the thyroid gland and increases produc tion. • STIMULATION OF HEAT LOSS CENTER. It has an inhibitory effect on the prod uction mechanisms and observed the reverse reaction. The body also has two types of mechanisms that facilitate heat loss: 5. Jade: ra pid or shallow breathing, increases heat loss by evaporation of moisture from th e airways or the tongue. 6. Sweating: facilitates significantly the heat loss th rough evaporation of moisture from the skin FACTORS AFFECTING THE BODY TEMPERATURE • Exercise: During this increases heat production by skeletal muscles. • The int ense emotions such as anger, also raised by the sympathetic nervous system stimu lation. • The alteration in the production of thyroxine by the thyroid. • A temp erature increase will stimulate the body metabolism and heat production. • The s pecific dynamic action of food also affects body temperature. • The environment has an intense effect on body temperature increases or decreas es with changes permanent and temporary. The body's ability to withstand high am bient temperatures depends on the humidity of the atmosphere. • Clothing reduces the effects of ambient temperature on body heat. AGE TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS ACCORDING TO AGE AXILLARY ORAL ORAL ORAL ORAL RECTAL UNDERARM FRONT Iceberg A37.7 36.1 37.7 37.2 37.0 37.0 36.4 37.6 34.4 37.7 36.0 AVERAGE TEMPERATURE NEWBORN 1 YEAR 2 YEARS 5 YEARS ADULT

ELDER ORAL COMMON PROBLEMS IN THE REGULATION OF THE TEMPERATURE • FEVER: can be caused by: • substances called pyrogens secreted by bacteria. • Dehydration, • Postoperativ e. • traumatic brain injury. COMMON PROBLEMS IN THE REGULATION OF TEMPERATURE • Hypothermia: its cause may be: • Prolonged exposure to cold temperature. • Art ificially can be caused to perform vascular surgery to treat some poisonings. • wet clothes. • rarefied atmospheres At the beginning of pregnancy, most women are increased body temperature, extend s more or less up to four months. During pregnancy it is important to ensure tha t the mother has a fever, because if high cause physical defects in the child wi thin the womb. • The newborn's temperature is unstable because he is still not fully developed their regulatory system. It is important therefore to maintain a suitable temper ature would be 32 ° c • During the first year of life the infant is still depend ent to a considerable extent on the ambient temperature to maintain its internal temperature, due to the immaturity of their thermal system • In fever children normally increases rapidly, especially in acute respiratory infections (ARI). • Fever in children can cause seizures, very high so it is recommended with wet hands rubbing the child, friction carries blood to the surface for cooling and e vaporation of water from the skin helps in the process, temperature Childhood bo dy is 37 º c. • In girls, the onset of menstruation, have high temperature and c yclical downturns in the early hours of the morning. • With age, basal metabolic rate will gradually decrease with age so that older people of both sexes, the body temperature is usually lower than in young adults . • Women also have variations in body temperature during menopause. • Body temperature is usually measured with a clinical thermometer, which is a l ong glass tube calibrated in degrees Celsius (centigrade) or Fahrenheit. The tub e contains a mercury column that expands in reaction to body heat. The scale of the thermometer is 34 ° c to 42 ° c. • There are thermometer temperature-sensiti ve tapes for infants and toddlers. He applied to the abdomen and changes color i f the temperature is higher or lower than normal. Disposable thermometers are al so chemicals, chemicals have points on one end that responds to body heat by cha nging color, is inserted under the league. • Today there are also electronic the rmometers are more accurate The most common site for measuring the temperature inside the mouth, the thermom eter placed under the tongue and close your mouth. For this, clean the thermomet er, shake, and placed for 7 10 minutes, the patient is instructed to hold it wit h his lips and would not bite. Then take the temperature reading and makes prope r cleaning of it. • Sometimes it is necessary to take the patient's temperature rectally. To measu re the patient lies on his side. Lubricated with petroleum jelly or other simila r material, to facilitate insertion of the thermometer into the rectum and lower the risk of irritating the mucosa. Introduces 1.5 to 4 cm. and left in place fo r 2-30 min. In neonates remains 5 minutes. When you remove the thermometer is of great importance that this is their proper disinfection.

• In patients with mental disorders is better in the armpit colocársele in the m outh. The procedure: is placed between the inner surface of the arm and keeping the patient's side arm close to the chest. Allow at least 10 minutes.