UNIVERSITY OF ALGARVE HIGHER SCHOOL OF HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY FARO V PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE Teaching students Dr.

Celeste Duque Ana Barbosa Barros Duarte Nuno Guerreiro Ver a Tavares Severine Faro Faro 2005 Overall Objective: Better understand the problem of teenage pregnancy. Specific Objectives: Meet some important factors of psychological development of adolescents; perceiv e the changes that occur in the family during adolescence and the consequences f or such an element of a teenage pregnancy; understand the importance of sexualit y in adolescence; know the dynamics of teenage pregnancy; Describe consequences of teenage pregnancy. PLAN OF SESSION CONTENTS INTRODUCTION STEPS MAE Multimedia Projector Prelector The TEMP ! Group Presentation! Goals! Theoretical aspects of psychological development in adolescence! The family and the teenager! Sexuality in adolescence! Teenage pre gnancy! Consequences of teenage pregnancy 2 min Nuno Barros DEVELOPMENT Ana Barbosa Nuno Barros 20 min Projector Multimedia Severine Vera Tavares Guerre iro SUMMARY EVALUATION Completion of content. Questionnaire Multimedia Projector Multimedia Projector 2 min Severine Warrior 1 min Duarte PREGNANCY IN adolesence ASPECTS evolutionary theorists Psychology of Adolescence Psychological evolution takes place at four levels Puberty Cognitive Social Construction of identity AMBIGUITIES PREGNANCY IN adolesence ASPECTS evolutionary theorists Psychology of Adolescence Erikson

Identity Identity / identity confusion PREGNANCY IN adolesence ASPECTS evolutionary theorists Psychology of Adolescence Freud Puberty Oedipus Complex PREGNANCY IN adolesence ASPECTS evolutionary theorists Psychology of Adolescence Piaget Cognitive stage of formal operations PREGNANCY IN adolesence THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF EVOLUTION Psychology of Adolescence TEEN Need for Autonomy Independence PREGNANCY IN adolesence ASPECTS evolutionary theorists Psychology of Adolescence Perspectives on the development of autonomy in adolescence: Erikson Freud's psychoanalytic perspective Bloss PREGNANCY IN adolesence ASPECTS evolutionary theorists Psychology of Adolescence Perspectives on the development of autonomy in adolescence: Interactionist perspective PREGNANCY IN adolesence ASPECTS evolutionary theorists Psychology of Adolescence Perspectives on the development of autonomy in adolescence: SOCIO-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE Piaget Understanding of social relations PREGNANCY IN adolesence ASPECTS evolutionary theorists Psychology of Adolescence Perspectives on the development of autonomy in adolescence: Ethological perspective Reproductive maturation and acquisition of independence from parents

PREGNANCY IN adolesence ADOLESCENT AND FAMILY Family Privileged to learn the basics of interaction that will give shape and sense of who we are and that sense of belonging and not the other family. PREGNANCY IN adolesence ADOLESCENT AND FAMILY Life cycle Sequence of transformations occurring in a family Family Development Changes of individual character in each member Change as a group PREGNANCY IN adolesence ADOLESCENT AND FAMILY Transformations occurring in a family Fulfillment of specified tasks Individual characteristics of each member Social Pressure PREGNANCY IN adolesence ADOLESCENT AND FAMILY Success of two basic tasks • Individualisation / empowerment of its elements • Creating a sense of belongin g to the group PREGNANCY IN adolesence ADOLESCENT AND FAMILY Family with teenagers Need a new equilibrium, not only by the teenager but all family members Significant enlargement of individual spaces ... ... No but lead to the destruct ion of group cohesion FLEXIBILITY IS KEY TO SUCCESS OF FAMILIES IN THIS STEP PREGNANCY IN adolesence ADOLESCENT AND FAMILY

Teenage pregnancy Crisis no normative DOUBLE CRISIS PREGNANCY IN adolesence SEXUALITY Sexuality is an integral part of the human person from birth to death BIOLOGICAL SEXUALITY SOCIAL PSICOLOGICA (Piscalho and Leal, ????) PREGNANCY IN adolesence SEXUALITY Sexuality involves multiple learning processes Individual experiences or collective beliefs and conceptions Knowledges PREGNANCY IN adolesence SEXUALITY Freud Human sexuality is governed by instincts and impulses. Erickson The socialized human being can control their instincts and their impulses. The r ole of fathers is important in modeling of sexual behavior Bancroft PREGNANCY IN adolesence Sexual stimuli SEXUALITY Preprogrammed Acquired Is influenced by all its dimensions fascination Desire Attraction The Human Being Internal mediating processes Cognitive affective Biological PREGNANCY IN adolesence

SEXUALITY It is in dating relationships that young people will live their sexuality The eroticism and sexuality are the basic elements of the relations of affection among teenagers (Vilar and Gaspar, 1999) increase in sexual desire Early sexual activity early menarche Girls Boys PREGNANCY IN adolesence SEXUALITY Parents They fear that sex education and provision of contraceptives are a way to enable and encourage sexual activity of their children. Not have adequate knowledge; They feel uncomfortable about the topic; Teens feel uncomfortable to talk with parents. PREGNANCY IN adolesence SEXUALITY The adolescent is aware of a possible pregnancy by having sexual contact with pa rtner (Vilar and Gaspar, 1999) Gauderer (1996) states that adolescents do not make proper use of contraceptives because: Do not believe they will become pregnant, are considered a safe period; See cont raceptives as cumbersome or difficult to obtain, "will not happen to me" They th ink oral contraceptives unnatural and dangerous, the boys believe that condoms r educe sexual pleasure; can have an unconscious desire to become pregnant or get someone pregnant, confirming its ability to reproduce; afraid that parents find contraceptives. PREGNANCY IN adolesence Teenage pregnancy Varies by culture Blacks and Gypsies Western industrialized societies Well accepted and desired It is seen as a problem PREGNANCY IN adolesence Pregnant teen Dual developmental crisis Maturational crisis of adolescence Situational crisis pregnancy The psychological burden can lead to depression and delay in reaching adulthood.

PREGNANCY IN adolesence Indicators of risk factors in adolescent pregnancy: Factors Individual Factors Family Relational Factors PREGNANCY IN adolesence The most common causes for the occurrence of teenage pregnancy are: Unconscious desire to become pregnant to prove that Will is a woman and see if t he body works, need to have someone to love, for his son: Attempt to marry the m an she loves; Will contradict their parents, Alternative to exit home, school or city where you live; satisfy a hidden desire of parents; Relieve a feeling of d epression or isolation. PREGNANCY IN adolesence The pregnant adolescents may take one of five options: Continue the pregnancy and marry the father of the child and raise the child at home, continue the pregnancy and raise the child with the help of family members ; Continue the pregnancy and give the child up for adoption; Continue the pregna ncy and raise the child , remaining unmarried; Stop pregnancy. PREGNANCY IN adolesence Developmental tasks of pregnancy: Accept the biological reality of pregnancy Accept the reality of a child not yet born. Accept the reality of motherhood. The quantity and type of support system s can significantly influence the implementation of these tasks. PREGNANCY IN adolesence Preventing teen pregnancy: Comprehensive sexuality education, contraceptive methods and their accessibility ; Correction of unequal opportunities for women from ethnic minorities, health c are services available to young people, family planning, antenatal care with eas y access and follow-up care for infants and children adolescents. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE Consequences for the girl Fear Consequences Initial Stress Anxiety PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE Consequences for the girl Initial consequences What to do? Multiple questions arise As your partner react? How to communicate to their parents and how to accept it? What will happen to your life? PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE

Consequences The consequences for the girl in the short to medium term: If the teenager decides to have her son, is subject to consequences: Organic, Ps ychological, Educational, Socio-economic, relational, repeat pregnancy. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE Consequences The consequences for the girl in the short to medium term: If the teenager decides to abort, can occur: Serious consequences organic; effec ts on future fertility, psychological consequences, social rejection, Legal Issu es. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE Consequences for the girl long-term consequences: The consequences tend to atenuarse (but not disappear) after about 10-15 years. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE Consequences for the boy Depend on the way to assume their role and responsibility in pregnancy. If your involvement is high, may be subject to many of the psychological, social, econom ic and educational described for girls. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE The consequences for the adolescent boy may feel: Anxiety, Guilt, Rejection emot ional. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE Consequences for the couple The teenage couple will have to take several important decisions: The relationship will continue or not? Where they will live? How should the preg nancy? PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE Consequences for the couple in our culture, it is common that the couple is more or less "forced" to marry. These marriages tend to, sooner or later, fail. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONCLUSION The psychological development of adolescents are not linear and equal for all, c an be approached in several ways. Anyway, the adolescent must overcome many chal

lenges and acquire some skills. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONCLUSION Given the changes of adolescence, it is imperative to consider the dynamics of t he family system. At this stage of life cycle emerges, with origins in the devel opmental tasks of adolescents, the need for a balance between family, individual and social. Flexibility is the key to success in this phase. The teenage pregna ncy of an element is added to the usual source of stress for families with teena ge children, a factor in the crisis alone, creating a double crisis in the famil y system. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONCLUSION It is during adolescence that most young people experience the first sexual inte rcourse. This new experience is not generally well accepted by parents or teache rs, which are not always available to show details. The teenage pregnancy interr upts the development of training procedures for structuring identity. PREGNANCY IN adolesence CONCLUSION A pregnant young woman living a double crisis, trying to succeed in the passage from childhood to adulthood and is faced with a situation that evokes necessaril y its maturity. Pregnancy has an impact on the girl, boy and teen couple. PREGNANCY IN adolesence EVALUATION Why can one say that there is a double family crisis when there is an element of teen pregnancy? That nature are the factors involved in teenage pregnancy? Why do not parents talk to their children about sexuality? PREGNANCY IN adolesence BIBLIOGRAPHY • Alarcão, Magdalena - (Un) family balance - Coimbra: Quarteto Editora. January 2000. • ALMEIDA, José M. Sectors - Adolescence and motherhood. Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. October, 1987. • Bobak, Irene; Lowdermilk, Deitra; JENSEN, Margaret - Maternity Nursing. Loures. Lusociência: 4th. Edition. 1999. • Canavar ro, Maria C. - Psychology of pregnancy and motherhood. Coimbra: Quarteto Editora , May 2001. • Carter, Betty; MCGOLDRICK, Monica - The Changing Family Life Cycle . A framework for family therapy. 2nd Edition, Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas, 1995 . • FLEMING, Manuela - Adolescence and autonomy: Psychological development and t he relationship with parents. 2nd ed. Porto: Edições confrontation. December, 19 97. • Gauderer, Ernest Christian - Gender and Sexuality in children and adolesce nts. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Rosa dos Tempos. In 1996. • LORENZO, Maria M. C. Texts and contexts of Teenage Pregnancy. The Adolescent, family and school. Lisb

on: Fim de Século Edições Lda, 1998. PREGNANCY IN adolesence BIBLIOGRAPHY • Naldino, Manuela; SARACENO, Chiara - Sociology of family - 2nd Edition. Lisbon : Editorial Estampa Ltd. 2003. • PISCALHO, Isabel Leal, Isabel - promotion and h ealth education: Education in sexuality in schools. A draft action research with teenagers who attend the 10th grade in the 4th National Congress of Health Psyc hology - A health perspective of life cycle. Lisbon, Institute of Applied Psycho logy, 2-5 October 2002 • GRASS, Ana Paula - The Family Life Cycle - Systemic Per spective - Porto: Edições Afrontamento, 1996. • ROQUE, Otilia - Semiotics of the Stork: Youth, sexuality and risk of unwanted pregnancy. Évora: APF collection s tudies. October, 2001. • ROQUE, Otilia (et al) - Moms inch and a half: pregnancy and teenage motherhood. London: Association for family planning.€2003. END