:: Hardware Power Supply - AT and ATX (fonteatatx.

php) Introduction Power supplies are responsible for distributing electricity to all computer components. Therefore, a source of quality is essential to maintain the proper functioning of equipment. To facilitate the choice of a source, this art icle discusses the main characteristics of this device, since the standard AT up to standard ATX. Power supplies Essentially, the power supplies are responsible for equipment supply power to devices on your computer by converting alternatin g current (AC - Alternate Current) - grossly speaking, the energy received by ge nerators as a hydroelectric power) - DC ( DC Direct Current or VDC - Voltage Dir ect Current), a voltage suitable for use in electronic devices. In computers, it uses a font known as "switching power supplies." This is a standard that makes use of capacitors and inductors in the process of energy conversion. The advanta ge is that there is less heat generation, as a mechanism of the source simply di sables the flow of energy instead of dissipating a possible excess. Moreover, th ere is less consumption, since the source can be used practically all the energy that "enters" the device. Because it is a device that generates electromagnetic field (since it is capable of working with high frequencies), the switching pow er supplies should be shielded to prevent interference with other devices and th e computer itself. The tension provided by the sources that comprise the compute r devices require different voltage levels for its functioning. Therefore, the p ower supplies provide essentially four types of voltage (in volts - V): 5 V - us ed to power chips such as processors, chipsets and memory modules - 5 V - applie d to peripheral devices such as mouse and keyboard; 12 V - used in devices that contain motors, like hard drives (whose engine is responsible for spinning the d isks) drives and CD or DVD (which has motors to open the drawer and turn the dis c) - 12 V - used to power communication buses, as the old ISA (Industry Standard Architecture). Values described above are used in standard font known as AT (Ad vanced Technology). However, the standard ATX (Advanced Technology Extended), wh en released, had a more tension: 3.3 V, which came to be used for chips (especially the processor), redu cing power consumption. The sources also brought an ATX feature that allows a co mputer shutdown software. For this, the sources of this type have a TTL (Transis tor-Transistor Logic) called Power Supply On (PS_ON). When it is connected and i n use, the motherboard keeps the PS_ON running low, as if I was leaving in a sta te considered "off." If the motherboard is in disuse, or are not receiving the t ensions, no longer generate low level and PS_ON is in high level. This signal ca n change its level when ordered activation or deactivation of the following feat ures: Soft On / Off - Used to turn on / off source software. Thanks to this feat ure that Windows and Linux can turn off the computer without the user having to press a button cabinet; Wake on LAN - allows you to turn the source for the netw ork card; Wake-on-Modem - enable on or off the source modem. The signal PS_ON de pends on the existence of another, or the signal 5VSB Standby. As the name impli es, this signal allows certain circuits to be fed when the DC voltages are suspe nded, keeping active only the voltage of 5 V. In other words, this feature is wh at allows the computer goes into sleep mode. That's why the video card or HD can be disabled and your computer stay on. Signal Power Good signal Power Good is a protection for your computer. Its funct ion is to communicate to the source machine that is presenting proper operation. If the Power Good signal does not exist or is stopped, usually the computer shu ts down automatically. This is because the interrupt signal indicates that the d evice is operating at voltages changed and this can permanently damage a compute r component. Power Good is able to prevent operation of chips while there are te nsions acceptable. Power Good is a feature already existing in the standard AT. In the case of the ATX standard, its signal is called the Power Good OK (PWR_OK) and its existence

indicates the availability of voltages of 5 V and 3.3 V. Power of the power supp lies If one day you ever had to buy or find the price of a power supply for your computer, certainly may have been in doubt about which power to choose.€In Bra zil, it is very common to find sources of 300 W (watts), however, depending on y our hardware, a more potent may be necessary. To know when this applies, you sho uld know how much each item consumed from your computer. The table below shows a n estimated value: ITEM high-end processors (like Pentium 4 HT 64 and AMD Athlon ) processors economic (as Celeron and Duron) Motherboard hard drives and CD driv es and DVD video card without instructions in 3D Video Card with instructions on 3D memory modules Expansion Cards (network card, sound card, etc.) Cooler Keybo ard and mouse CONSUMPTION 60 W - 110 W 30 W - 80 W 20 W - 100 W 25 W - 35 W 15 W - 25 W 35 W - 110 W 2W - W 5 10 W - 10 W 5 W - 10 W 1 W - 15 W Obviously these values can vary because they are not accurate. Moreover, the ene rgy consumption of certain devices may depend on model and manufacturer. It is i mportant that you review the amount of existing items on your computer and get a source that can meet this configuration in a stable manner. For example, if you have a machine with Athlon 64 FX processor, two hard drives, a CD / DVD drive, 3D video card, optical mouse, among others, a source of 250 W is not recommended . Simply add the rates of consumption of these items to note: Athlon 64 FX HD (e ach) CD / DVD Video Card 3D optical mouse + keyboard Total 100W (estimated) 25 W + 25 W (estimated) 25 W ( estimated) 80 W (estimated) 10 W (estimated) 265 W * * Without considering the other items (motherboard, memory, etc.). It is importa nt to consider though hardly a power supply provides maximum power. So it is goo d to use a source that provides some "play" in this aspect. For the configuratio n mentioned above, for example, a source of 350 W would be adequate. AT and ATX connectors connectors sources AT and ATX are shown below. Note that the only one that switches between a pattern and the other is the connector that feeds the m otherboard. In the case of the standard AT, this connector has 12 wires. In stan dard ATX, this connector has 20 channels (there are models with 24-way). Also, the ATX plug is different, because their holes have different formats to p revent your connection in reverse. In the standard TAA, there is often mistakes because the connector is divided into two parts and can put them in wrong order. The correct sequence is to fit the connectors facing the black wires leaving th e center. Below is an illustration that shows the signals and voltages of each pin connect or for motherboards and ATX AT sources: There is also a connector that feeds drives, CD / DVD drives and some types of c oolers: There is also the connector that feeds the disk drive: Finally, in some models (mainly designed for the Pentium 4) there is a 6-pin aux iliary connector (with three-way 0 V, 3.3 V and two in one at 5 V) and another w ith four pins called " 12V connector "(two 12 V and 0 V in two), whose docking i s seen below: This scheme with 3 connectors to the motherboard is called ATX12V. Finishing Whe n assembling your computer, it is important to pay special attention not only to the processor, motherboard and other items, but also to the power supply. A sou rce of quality has less risk for malfunction, can protect the machine in oscilla tions of the electric grid and has an efficient system of heat dissipation, eith er through cooler larger or better designed, whether through the presence of mor e than one such item. At least here in InfoWester, has been among the most respe cted brands Akasa (http://www.akasa.com.br), Cooler Master (http://www.coolermas ter.com.br), the Seventeam ( http://www.seventeam.com.tw/) and OCZ (http://www.o

cztechnology.com). However, certain types of marks to be intermediate, as Dr. Ha nk (http://www.dr-hank.com.br) and Leadership (http://www.leadership.com.br) also have satisfactory operation. An i nteresting tip is to browse lists and discussion forums to find reviews on a par ticular source. Written by Rosemary Emerson - Published 09/10/2005 - Updated 05/ 02/2007 Articles by InfoWester are developed under a Creative Commons License http://cre ativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.pt InfoWester 2008 - Spreading knowl edge - www.infowester.com