Solar Energy Prepared by: Arthur Carlos de Oliveira Fernandes RA RA 970 352 971 753 Guaronghi Vinicius Mendes A key

feature of our society, at least under a practical point of view and mater ial, is the growing increase in demand for energy supplies. This is the conditio n for the existence of our industry, our transportation and even agriculture and urban life. Finally, is the condition for the existence of our society as we kn ow it. For thousands of years mankind has survived on the basis of manual labor and animal. The first inanimate sources of energy such as water wheels and windm ills, meant a significant quantitative increase of the system of work - or power - but only produced qualitative leap from the seventeenth and eighteenth centur ies. Note the magnitude of some "energy sources" (filmmakers working) quite comm on: Donkey Mule Man Power 80 W 180 W 370 W Comments Up to 300 W during periods. Boi Cavalo Watermill 500 W 750 W 1.5 to 1.8 kW power wheel with a diameter greater than 5 m. Windmill machine steam car of 1000cc steam turbine 1.5 to 6.0 kW from 5.2 to 7.5 kW 45-60 kW up to 100 MW Windmill typical. Type steady old. The development of internal combustion engines and turbines of various boosted b oth the potency of the various production units as the total number of existing units and thus increased the production capacity of man and their fuel consumpti on. The exponential growth of consumption began with the Industrial Revolution o f the eighteenth century. Today over 98% of our energy comes from fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. As important as are the fossil fuel reserves are limi ted and, as the interruption of consumption is practically impossible, the curre nt rate of exploitation of these fuels is unsustainable. The oil and carbon, in addition, are very important raw materials for the chemical industry and its was te as fuel is at least a lack of vision. Until very recently it gave discarded b y the exhaustion of energy. A common man simply unaware of the intricate network formed by the production of fuel and the industry that serves the convenience. The division of labor, pushed to the limit, was responsible for that position of pure indifference - of thought: "No matter where you come if I get" - which pre vailed in our consumer society. We did not realize the value inherent in what we have. This is one of the causes of alienation, the division between private lif e and society as a whole and the natural processes of which we depend. In recent years, however, this picture has changed significantly. Ordinary people are bet ter informed because of the increasing efficiency of the media, which leads to a strengthening of common awareness on the need of maintaining our reserves of ex haustible energy and technological development in the sector utilization of alte rnative energy sources. The Sun, plus source of life is the source of all forms of energy that man has used during its history and may be the answer to the ques tion of energy supply in the future, once we learn to take a rational way to light this star constantly spilling over our planet. Shining over 5 billion years, it is es timated that the sun still in focus for another 6 billion years, ie, it is only half of its existence and will launch on Earth, only this year, 4000 times more energy they consume. Given these realities, it would be irrational not to seek, by all means technically possible, take advantage of this clean energy source, f

ree and inexhaustible. Discuss, from this point, the availability of energy from the sun, the methods of capturing this energy and potential uses and applicatio ns. The earth receives radiant energy of a system of 173x1015 W (*), emitting an identical amount. This is a condition of balance. The issue depends on the temp erature of the Earth, ie the temperature of the planet as we know it is the equi librium temperature at which admission is equal to the emission of radiation. Th us, if the admission changed for any reason, the equilibrium temperature would c hange too. (*) Projected area of the Earth = (6.3x106) 2 x 3.14 m2 = 124x1012; Solar Consta nt = 1395 W/m2; Energy received = 124x1012 1395 = 173x1015 x W Approximately 30% of incoming radiation reflected no change in wave amplitude. A bout 47% is absorbed by the atmosphere and the surface causes an increase in tem perature and then radiates back into space.€Only the remaining 23% penetrate the earth and become the driving force of winds, currents, waves, our climate model s and provides the water cycle. Ultimately, it will also be re-radiated to space . Only 0.02% of the total, ie 40x1012 W enters the biological system, for photos ynthesis, plants and other organisms "producers." A small proportion of the ener gy stored as chemical energy in plants and tissues of animal bodies with accumul ated over millions of years, under favorable geological conditions in the form o f coal and mineral oils, converting them into our reserves of fossil fuels. This is a fact: the rate of formation of fossil fuels (if any) is minimal compared w ith the rate of consumption. If you wish to avoid a depletion of our fossil fuel reserves, we should divert the flow of these important quantities of energy fro m the sun and redirect them to work for us before they dissipate and are re-radi ated into space, as illustrated in Figure below can distinguish basically three ways to capture solar energy: chemical conversion and thermal electric conversio n. The most important chemical conversion of solar energy are the photo-biochemical process. Biological organisms classified as producers synthesize carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide, absorbing and storing solar energy in the form of chemical bonds. This energy is dissipated through the food chain and ultimately is re-radiated to space. Direct conversion of solar energy into electrical ener gy can occur through two processes: conversion thermoelectric and photoelectric conversion, each of which can be accomplished in several ways. When it warms up a lead, some of its electrons gain enough energy to escape. Converts into an ele ctron emitter, a cathode. Another electrode placed near this cathode, it is cold enough, and receive the emitted electrons, thus becoming one anode. If the anod e connects to the cathode through a circuit containing an external load, a curre nt will circulate and may be produced action. An electric current significantly, however, can only produce very high temperatures. Circuit consisting of two dif ferent conductors, if the two unions is maintained at different temperatures, al so will generate an electric current, or potential difference, when one of the u nions remains open. These "Thermocouples" can also be used to produce useful wor k. When several of them are connected in series, form the so-called thermopile. The union hot can be heated through a solar collector flat plate. Some semicondu ctor materials can be doped with small quantities (about one part per million) i n other similar elements, but with one electron more or one less electron than t he semiconductor. The first is called N-type semiconductor and the second type P . For example: Silicon + arsenic - Type N - one electron more. Silicon + boron t ype - P - one less electron. Putting in touch thin layers of both, formed a diod e, the electrons cross the PN board when exposed to radiation, generating an ele ctric current (or potential difference) that can be used. This is the descriptio n of a photodiode or photovoltaic cell. Mono-crystalline cells have a good incom e but are very expensive. Polycrystalline cells are cheaper but have an income f our times smaller. The methods of thermal conversion of solar energy is based on the absorption of radiant energy by a black surface. This can be a complex proc ess that varies by type of absorbent material. Involves diffusion, photon absorp

tion, electron acceleration, multiple collisions, but the final effect is the he ating, ie the radiant energy of all grades (all wave amplitudes) are transformed into heat. The molecules are excited surfaces, affecting an increase in tempera ture. The absorption coefficient of various types of black absorbers varies betw een 0.8 and 0.98 (the remaining 0.2 or 0.02 is reflected). Part of this molecula r motion (or of heat) is transmitted to other parts of the body part for driving and emits back to the environment by radiant and convective processes. The emis sion of heat (heat loss) depends on the difference temperature between the surface and the environment. As a result, as it warms th e surface, increases heat loss. When the arrangements for admitting radiant heat is matched to the heat loss, achieves a stable temperature. If the surface of t he absorber plate is covered with a glass plate (with an air space of 20-30mm), it reduces much heat loss,€without much reduction for acceptance of heat. This i s due to selective transmittance of the crystal, which is very transparent to so lar radiation of high temperature and short wave, but virtually opaque to infrar ed radiation range of wavelengths, emitted by the absorber plate to about 100oC. The thermal conversion of solar energy, and their applications will be more full y addressed in the course of this presentation. Before, however, expose an overv iew of the most common applications of all methods of capture above. Let us firs t heat recovery systems (which, as already mentioned, we detail below). The heat collected in the traps can be designed to meet many needs, from obtaining hot w ater for domestic or industrial use, heating homes, schools, factories, even the air conditioning of swimming pools. Another of the most promising applications of solar heat will be cooled during the hot season, precisely when more insolati on. In fact, for a cooling requires a "hot focus," which may well have its origi n in a solar collector. In Arab countries already operate air conditioners that use solar energy effectively. Agricultural applications are very extensive. Puri fication plants and water desalination, dryers and ovens can operate with a grea t saving, or even without any power consumption. Solar cells, solar panels arran ged in already producing electricity in the first space satellites and, currentl y, are a solution for rural electrification, with clear advantage over other alt ernatives. The electrical energy obtained from these cells can be used directly, as if to draw water from a well with an electric pump, or be stored in batterie s for use overnight. It is also possible to insert the excess energy in the over all network, obtaining a significant benefit. If getting the price of photovoltaic cells decreases, starting its production in large scale, it is very likely that, soon, a good portion of the energy consume d in countries rich in solar radiation comes from photovoltaic conversion. Solar cars also are in development, although its use is also uneconomical. Besides th e solar cars, which store solar energy converted into batteries, there are also hybrid cars that combine the technology of energy conversion via photovoltaic ce lls with fuel cells (fuel cells). The energy obtained could be stored in batteri es, can be used to produce hydrogen (by electrolysis of water), which feed the f uel cell, which triggers the engine. Solar homes are also very interesting applications, and architectural and a tech nological challenge, which will deal with later. From here we will make a detail ed study of methods of thermal conversion of solar energy and its uses and appli cations The pickups are the most common form of energy harvesting, convert solar energy to low-cost and convenient way. The general process used is the greenhou se effect, the name comes from the application in greenhouses, where you can cre ate exotic plants in cold climates, the best use of available solar energy. Like the colors reflect radiation, dark colors absorb them and this absorption is gr eater the closer they are the black, based on this property is that the absorber s of pickups plans are painted matte black. The property of the black surface to gether with the property that holds the glass to recover much of the radiation e mitted by the black surface when the glass sheet is placed above the absorber pl

ate, was used for the conversion of radiant energy into thermal energy in the co llector. When the temperature of the plate increases, it sends an increment of h eat in the form of infrared light. The receiver has the properties of black body black, high absorption rate, but high emission coefficient for all wavelengths. The emission increases with temperature following the law of the fourth power o f absolute temperature. The re-emitted light wavelength is progressively shorter and higher energy with increasing temperature blackbody. This is expressed by W ien's law, which can be written as: where T is the temperature of the blackbody and λ max ength in the ight emissi on peaks. The Sun emits radiation as a b ackbody whose surface temperature is ar ound 5700oC, this corresponds to a maximum emission at 0.5 μ m.€A b ackbody radi ation at room temperature with a maximum near 10 μ m, which is within the spectr um of infrared ight, invisib e. G ass re ative y transparent to visib e ight i s absorbent to infrared ight emitted by the b ack p ate when evacuates its ther ma energy. The infrared ight absorbed by the g ass is re-emitted into the b ac k p ate that absorbs again. More and more heat is accumu ated in the b ack p ate , reaches the equi ibrium when the energy gained by absorption of visib e ight is exact y ba anced by the oss of energy by infrared emission from the g ass p ate. With increasing temperature, the wave ength of infrared emission becomes sh orter. The 200oC (473 K), maximum radiation is emitted at about 6 μ m, compared with 10 μ m at room temperature. Fina y, at about 500oC (773 K), most of the ra diation wou d be emitted to 4 μ m, the wave ength whose g ass is partia y trans parent to infrared. It fo ows that an efficient greenhouse effect is possib e o n y be ow 500oC. However, un ess the concentration of so ar radiation is combine d with the greenhouse effect, temperatures are much ower than equi ibrium becau se in practice the equi ibrium temperature is reduced further by oss of heat fr om the b ack p ate, due to therma conductivity and convection in air. A variant of the greenhouse effect is shown in the figure be ow.

Fi m So ar absorptance α Sol r emitt nce ε P rformanc factor ε 3.7 12 D ntítrico Tungst n Nick l Silv r on Black Silicon 0.96 0.76

 

As for what concerns the infrared emission, p astic behaves simi ar y to the g a ss, the infrared emission is absorbed by the hive and partia y radiated back. T he performance of this design is re ated to the diameter of the ce s of the hiv e and its height. Another kind of greenhouse effect exists and can be used indep endent y or combined with the type of p ate g ass b ack / g ass. This effect is based on se ective surfaces. Such surfaces have a high absorption coefficient in the visib e and infrared spectrum. Un ike the b ack body, however, have a ow e mission coefficient, ε = 0.02 for th infrar d, and a wav l ngth of 2 μ m, appro ximate y. Therefore, a se ective surface a one, without a g ass p ate wi be he at in the sun ight ike a g ass p ate b ack / g ass. The coatings are obtained b y se ective deposition of fi ms of various meta s, eg nicke e ectro yte b ack o r bery ium; meta oxides, for examp e copper oxide obtained chemica y on po is hed a uminum, coba t oxide or nicke oxide, or ayers: Fe2O3, MgF2, SiO, SiN, de posited by steam in order to obtain an interference effect in the ight. The si icon and other semiconductors, with its high absorptance in the visib e range an d infrared transmission spectroscopy, materia s are a so se ective. It is import ant to combine a high absorptivity with a high ratio of absorptance / emittance. Be ow we show some properties of some se ective coatings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

   

  

  

 

    

 

 

   

   

  

 

 

 

   

  

 

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0.26 0.06 (773 K) 0.90 0.08 (573 K) 11 Black Chrom 0.98 0.19 (573 K) 5.1 Black chrom 0.93 0.85 0.19 (573 K) 0.03 (600 K) 4.8 24 on silv r Th m chanism in s l ctiv surfac s is th following: s tting up tub s on th pl at , which ar incorporat d in it. A liquid circulat d through th tub s and car ri s th h at to th consum r. Th plat s r c iving th tub s ar mount d on a m at rial with low th rmal conductivity. In practic this d sign is v ry in ffici nt, b caus of loss of h at to th ambi nt air in contact with th h at d plat . So a glass plat is always us d, b caus not only radiat s back half of th th rmal radiation, but also isolat s th plat h at d conv ction air. Th n w d vic r ach s 150oC, if no h at is xtract d from it. Its p rformanc can b improv d furth r by liminating most of th loss s du to air conv ction, th air b tw n th glass plat and th plat absorption is vacuat d, th constant t mp ratu r r gim can ris v n mor . on nick l silv r Zr Ny

That ffici ncy could b achi v d with flat plat coll ctors? Th r is no simpl answ r to this qu stion, b caus th r ar a whol rang of incom s, d p nding not only on th param t rs of th proj ct, but also th int nsity of light and w ath r conditions, t mp ratur minimum d mand, rat of xtraction of h at, and o th rs. Anoth r complication is that th yi ld of a particular coll ctor is not c onstant throughout th day: as an unh at d room that initially r quir s an xtra h at b for r aching a constant t mp ratur , th ntir coll ctor, that is, gla ss, absorb r m tal and insulation around it and air it contains, must b h at d by th sun in th morning,€aft r a cold night. Th r for , all solar coll ctors o p rat at maximum output in th aft rnoon wh n th th rmal in rtia of th syst m was unsucc ssful.

In normal op ration, th ov rall ffici ncy of a flat plat coll ctor, η c, ny sol r t erm l collector c n be expressed s t e product of n optic l yield η oe yield of t erm l ccumul tion, η t. T e optic l perform nce is in first ppro xim tion, independent of oper ting temper ture of t e system nd t e intensity o f lig t but depends on t e ngle of incidence of lig t. T e yield of t erm l cc umul tion, on t e ot er nd, is function of system temper ture nd lig t inte nsity. T e perform nce of given e t sink is ig ly dependent on your loc tion . In regions w ere most of t e time t e sol r intensity is dversely ffected by clouds, fog, nd ot er types of tmosp eric bsorption, t e ver ge yield c n b

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e subst nti lly lower t n t e sunny clim tes nd m y even prove to be impr ctic l t e use of sol r e ting during p rt t e ye r. In ny c se, t e use of sol r collectors requires c reful design, t king into ccount det ils of t e clim ti c conditions of t e loc l user. T is requires precise me surements of t e profil e of sol r intensity over d ys, weeks nd ye rs. T e domestic pplic tion of t e pickups were present in s nit ry w ter e ting, e ting of pools nd environments. T e e ting of s nit ry w ter is quite simple , usu lly consisting of tubes t roug w ic w ter p sses, next to t e collector.

T e circul tion of w ter t roug t e collector is gu r nteed by t e effect of t ermo-sip on, c used by convection by gr vity, ie, wit t e sun, t e e ted fluid in t e collector moves upw rds, bec use its density is lower t n for non- e te d fluid. At circuit being closed, t e ot fluid in turn is repl ced by cold, w ic t en is e ted in t e collector nd moves upw rd. T e movement continues to sp rk t t co ntinues to sink under t e ction of r di tion from t e sun T e speed of movement incre ses wit t e intensity of insol tion. To ensure perm nent production of ot w ter, even in periods "wit out t e Sun ', you must ssoci te convention l w ter e ter to t e sol r system, ie t e pi ckup lone is not r di tor full, you must dd to it pipe circul tion pump nd especi lly system of uxili ry e ting, convention l. T e w rm pool is giv en by sep r te sol r collector. T e collector is inst lled round t e pool lik e grid. T e collector itself c n be very simple, consisting of s eet p inted bl ck, enc sed in pl stic. T e pool w ter is fed to t e collector by pump, m y be t e s me filter pump, nd t en p sses cross t e front nd b ck of t e pl t e before returning to t e pool. An re pproxim tely equ l to t e pool in t e s ink, it needs to r ise t e w ter temper ture of 1 o C. W en we spe k of sp ce e ting, sol r omes remember, t ey re not new ide . T e first w s built in t e 30s in t e U.S. (sol r ouses of t e M ss c usetts Institute of Tec nology) nd from t e 60s in Europe, being t e first in Odeillo. Well, s wit t e e ting o f s nit ry w ter, we ve t e problem of storing e t t ll during t e d y, w e n energy is c ptured, t e period is less need, unless we ve system t t s ve s t is energy s e t in Our fluid, t e system is useless w en we need im most e meets us. T e process by w ic t e fluid keeps t e power is not ing more t n t t given by t e simple equ tion of c lorimetry ve le rned in ig sc ool.

Our Q is me sured t C l (c lories), m g (gr ms), Δ θ is our variation of temper ature (K) and c is the specific heat, it gives the ability to store energy as he at of the substance, so is given in Cal / gK, water this value is 1. In addition to the collectors, we need other means that allow us to store this energy at ni ght. These systems include: 1. A system of heat transfer to evacuate the solar heat sink (pipe). 2. A therma l storage. 3. A regulation system. In temperate climates, in any case it is possible to dispense with conventional heating an integrated support to the solar heating system. Without storage, as m entioned above, the solar system provide heating only at times of peak radiation , when there is no real need. The objective of this therefore is, lagged the tra nsfer of solar energy, to ensure their distribution in the mornings and at night cloudy, when heating is needed. We can store this in two ways: one is to heat a convenient mass of any substance,€the amount of heat stored below the e uation described above, depending on the mass, temperature variation and the substance was isolated from the storage is sufficient, the heat can be used later when the storage material in contact with the fluid so as water or air, acting as a tran sfer medium, the second way is to exploit the phase changes that occur in every substance. To take the example of water when the ice to 0 o C is transformed int

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o the same water temperature, the heat supplied is e uivalent to what was necess ary at this same body of water to raise its temperature from 0 to 80oC. Below we show some characteristics of substances which are particularly suited to heat s torage. Substance Melting point Specific Heat (Cal / g K) Density (kg/m3) Thermal storage capacity (KWh/m3) (Sensible Heat Water kWh/103Kg Steel 1 0.12 1000 7900 58 (± 50 o C) 54 (± 50 o C) 58 (5 ± 6.9 (± Basalt Latent Heat Paraffin wax Na2S2O2. 5H2O molten salts (NaNO3) 38oC 49oC 0.2 0.7 0.4 2960 890 1460 35 (± 50 o C) 53 (± 0 o C) 115 (± 0 o) 12 (± 5 60 (± 0 68 (± 0 265oC heat dissociation MgClH2O ↔ MgCl + H2O Reaction Reversible PbO2 Pb0 ↔ +1 / 2O 0.38 2250 496 (± 360oC) 190 220 (± 640 Paraffin wax and Glauber's salt (Na2SO4.10 H2O) are substances whose usual phase change provides a possibility of thermal storage in general the advantage of th is process using the latent heat (temperature change) is the volume of savings s torage, for example for the same heat capacity, a store with Glauber's salt woul d have a volume twice that of a water, but there are also disadvantages: a price , Glauber's salt is infinitely more expensive than water, other than storage for it presents serious difficulties because of their strong predisposition to segr egation. Escolhese therefore preferably a water system. Account is currently 0.0 6 to 0.12 m3 of water storage per m2 of collector installed. A great approach this subject in this way to integrate different components to a

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n operating system. This issue involves several aspects, not all technical in na ture. Start integrate thermal collectors to the homes, which raises problems in the architectural, technical and social. In industrialized countries and develop ing countries, there is resistance against the construction of a concrete home, geometric, outside of urban areas. The solar collectors should then be integrate d harmoniously in an acceptable style of architecture, even at the cost of reduc ed performance. In practice, this is not always easy, particularly if the collec tor is black and should be used on the south side (ie in the northern hemisphere ) or north (southern hemisphere) of a solar house, the south face - at least in cold climates - is where most of the windows is usually placed. This would cause an aesthetic problem and would cause people to avoid such a house. To minimize these problems, the trends are collecting colored collectors installed on roof a nd extensive, thus avoiding partial or complete obstruction of the south walls o f the buildings. Closely related to the architectural problem is the choice of technical concept, design and dimensioning of the heating system environment. The house with solar heating can be drawn to many different concepts originating in all possible com binations of the basic components. The figure above shows the principle of solar houses the oldest, built in Washin gton in 1959. The southern is almost entirely taken by a solar collector attache d to a water circuit. Cold water is pumped to the entry at the top of the collec tor. After heating, the water flows into the storage tank or foundation, which i s surrounded by 50 tons of stone. In a second circuit, a fan forces air into the storage tank, where it circulates around heated stones and is then released int o the habitable space. An auxiliary heating system is arranged to inject hot wat er, where sunlight is inade uate. You can make modifications in the design of so lar home made. For example, the storage tank could be insulated, and the seconda ry circuit of air removed. Instead, the living space would be heated by a second ary water circuit connected to the water tank, as in a conventional system of ce ntral heating. The primary circuit of water can not be used directly, because th e water is cooled in the collector where radiation is insufficient water flow in the primary circuit must of course be disrupted at these times. In a second mod ification of the basic design,€the phase change materials could be integrated in to the storage tank, to reduce its volume and heat loss. A more fundamental chan ge could be achieved through eliminandose water, changing the air as the transfe r medium circuit primary, ie, the circuit of the collector. The heat could be stored in rocks or phase change substances such as Glauber's salt. There are certain problems with the solar houses, the climate, the isolation factor. During the three summer mon ths, when demand is almost zero, radiation is highest, while in winter, the situ ation is reversed. Occurs immediately the idea of a store in the summer portion of the excess heat to use it during the winter months. More than half of global demand on space heating is produced during the winter months: December, January and February in the northern hemisphere. To store this amount of heat in the sum mer, would re uire a storage volume of 500 m3, where storage is done with water. 500 m3 represent, for example taking a house in Havre in 1975, with a volume of 290 m3 (116 m2 area), nearly double the volume of the house! And what is worse, it would take a perfectly insulated container, which can not run today. The onl y possible solution is to capture heat during the winter months, for immediate u se. But in the area in uestion, receiving only 6.5% of annual radiation, becaus e in winter, heat stroke is fre uently altered by an overcast sky. A reduction i n solar radiation decreases the yield of the collector. In the month the worst s olar heating system of the house chosen as an example supplied only 3% of the de mand for heating. Would theoretically have an area of 1500 m2 of collectors to p rovide the energy re uired for that month. One such area is virtually impossible for a single residence and would be too expensive. We must therefore abandon th e idea of relying entirely on solar energy for space heating, at least in unfavo

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rable climates in winter months. All home have already built a solar installatio n auxiliary electric or oil for heating. It follows, then, that attempts to buil d houses 'superinsulation' or 'zero energy' resulted in failure, because it show s warming is impossible to 100% by solar energy in winter. Given the high cost of traditional solar homes, the experts felt the need to aba ndon the parties attached to an active solar house, circulation pump, pipeline, storage net, which significantly increase its cost. The figure below shows the p rinciple of passive solar house. A south façade serves time for absorption and storage. It consists of a thick wa ll of glass and a pitch so placed as to leave space for air circulation. The air is heated by the sun and placed inside the house by thermosiphon effect. Heat a c uitted by air is available for immediate use. A portion of the heat penetrates the wall where it is stored, although the interior surface of the wall re-emit some heat. The time to heat the heat needed to cross the wall depends on the the rmal conductivity of the rock, the temperature difference between exterior and i nterior surfaces of the wall and the wall thickness. The thermal conductivity of the stone is nearby 2Wm-1K-1. This means that if a meter thick, it takes an hou r to 100 Wh passing through a wall of 1 m2 of surface with the 50 ° C temperatur e difference between the two sides of the wall. The wall thickness can be chosen so that most of the heat reaches the inside wall after sunset of the Sun's simp licity and therefore its relatively low cost give interest to what is called, in Anglo-Saxon literature , 'Trombe wall'. Finally, the term 'passive solar house' means an overall architectural concept well engineered. You can say you have to assemble the house its natural environment solar optimally in the energy plan a nd aesthetic. Thus, it is the windows let in a maximum amount of light in cold climates, and l east in hot climates, have a storage capacity inherent to the walls and other bu ilding elements, involving, where possible, plants, a greenhouse or garden winte r to the wall where there is heat to the exterior. The Sun took the most differe nt positions - the god of the center of our planetary system - the history of ma nkind, but man has always acknowledged its undeniable importance and beauty. The end of this millennium, we again turn our gaze to the sun and watching for one of his imminent positions: an alternative source of energy for our future.€We kn ow that our fossil fuel reserves will be depleted and we should prepare for this , learning to handle the energy that the Sun launches free on our planet. The me thods of capturing and converting solar energy currently have an income much les s than theoretically possible. The prices of e uipment needed to replace a conve ntional system of obtaining energy for a system that transforms the radiant ener gy from the sun has become, in most cases, this option impractical or uninterest ing. We must work to reverse this reality, developing the technology of this sec tor in order to achieve the maximum performance in their e uipment, making its u se feasible. Currently there are several applications, some dais which we present in this exh ibition, albeit very briefly, because of the variety and complexity of the issue s. We hope to encourage use and improvement of these methods, as well as researc h on new ways of harnessing solar energy. Bibliography 1. Solar Energy EDIFICACION y; Szokolay, S. See, Editorial Blume, 1978. 2. Solar and Alternative Energy Sources; Palz, Wolfgang, Hemus Livraria Editora Limited, 1981. Images • •

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Figures: digitized from the figures of reference [2] Photos:-Comptons Interactiv e Encyclopedia, 1995 - New Grolier Multimedia Encycloedia, Release 6, 1993 - Int ernet.