D uke CLE and Dr. Celeste; • GENERAL OBJECTIVES: To publicize the riots that essen tially the problem of alcohol can cause a pregnancy • oject SPECIFIC: List the p hysiological effects, Psychological and social spirit, develop the psychological aspects of pregnancy especially when exacerbated by alcoholism and mention some of the consequences for the fetus when there is alcohol consumption during preg nancy. • DATE: 20/04/2004 • TIME: 14h • PLACE: Room 4 of ESSaF. • GROUP: Andreia Borges Ramos Gabriela Martinho Costa Vera Barbosa METHODOLOGY CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PRESENTATION OF WORKING GROUP AND DEVELOPMENT 1 - General 1.1-Effects of alcohol organic 1.2 - Psychological Effects 1.3 - social Effect 2 - General Pregnancy 2.1 - Psychological aspects of pregnancy 3 - Effects of alc ohol during pregnancy METHOD TECHNICAL MAE COMPUTER PROJECTOR TERM 2 'YES EXPOSU RE 3' 3 '3' 4 'COMPUTER PROJECTOR YES EXPOSURE 3 '3' CONCLUSION / REFLECTION YES EXPOSURE COMPUTER PROJECTOR COMPUTER PROJECTOR ORAL 5 ' BIBLIOGRAPHY YES EXPOSURE 1 '3' EVALUATION YES EXPOSURE • Being a chronic alcoholism, distinguishing the occasional consumption and soci al that many individuals, especially women to submit, can occur even during preg nancy; • SAF is produced abnormalities in the fetus, probably more observed, man ifested by deficiencies in growth and development as well as a range of many oth er anomalies; • Alcohol consumption in pregnant women, will also psychological i mplications hardly breakable, but it is understood if we see alcohol as a transm itter in the short term of a paradise of immediate sensations, strong and breath taking. INTRODUCTION

• Alcohol is the most consumed drug in all age groups, both sexes and in almost all social groups. "(Perez, A., 1997, p.51) • According to the same author, incr easingly affecting adolescents and the drug they consume much more than any othe r illegal drug, which causes many of these ages dependencies serious alcoholic. GENERAL ALCOHOL • Second the causes of alcoholism are: GENERAL ALCOHOL - Heredity: a child of an alcoholic has to match more likely to purchase alcohol ic habits - factors psychological factors: the emotional conflicts, low self-est eem, financial problems, depression may be linked to alcohol - Factors social: t he ease of Access to drinking, the stressful lifestyle, the social acceptance of addiction, encouraging groups of friends contribute to alcoholism. According to general consequences of an intake of alcohol abuse, are: • • • • • • • • • • Emotional instability Loss of capacity for selfcontrol incoordination Amnesia Confusion Impotence and interruptions of cycles m enstrual changes in the brain, neurological and cardiac cirrhosis Pancreatitis D iarrhea GENERAL ALCOHOL EFFECTS ORGANIC Pérez (1997) notes that only need a little time for any amount of alcohol consum ed is absorbed into the bloodstream; Once in the bloodstream are multiple organs affected, the most damaged liver, since it is what has function to transform th e alcohol into other substances and can metabolize twenty to thirty grams of alc ohol per hour, the action of alcohol is not as exciting, but as CNS depressant t hat effect, will cause a feeling of euphoria and disinhibition but quickly is tr ansformed into symptoms of "drowsiness, blurred vision, muscular incoordination, increased response time, decreased ability to listen and understand, muscle fat igue, etc.." (Perez, A., 1997) EFFECTS ORGANIC Pérez (1997) differentiates two types of alcohol consumption • O - - - - - exces sive consumption may trigger: Acidity in the stomach, decreased body temperature , polydipsia, headache, vomiting and diarrhea; In the case of very high doses may trigger - acute alcoholic poisoning - respira tory depression - Coma - Death. EFFECTS ORGANIC The chronic consumption of which caused changes can be many and various kinds in cluding: • Blood: anemia, reducing defenses, among others; • Heart: cardiac (myo carditis) • Liver: alcoholism is a major cause of liver disease that can manifes t itself in the form of hepatitis or cirrhosis;€• Intestine: disturbances in the absorption of vitamins, carbohydrates and fats that cause frame deficiencies • The habitual consumption by the pregnant woman can give rise to so-called fetal alcohol syndrome, characterized by malformations, low IQ, among others; • It of a drug can lead to tolerance and dependence, both physical and psychological. "( Perez, A., 1997, p.52) PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS • According to Pérez (1997) alcohol has enormous influence the level of the higher centers of the brain, affecting: - Feelings Emotions - Memory - The ability of attention and reflection (also interfering at the level of social control) - CNS Depressant;

• The states of irritation, insomnia and delusions, individuals are changes that consumers often suffer. • How to relate Mello, bars and Breda (2001), in the family, the high alcohol in take implies a loss of responsibility, economic difficulties, crises in family s tructure and function, causing a progressive deterioration of the home and relat ionship disorders, abuse and many other consequences; • The frequent contact of children with alcohol, affects a "child alcoholism" increasingly early; • When t he father figure is the consumer of alcohol, there is a lack of father figure an d authority, however if is the mother there is a lack of love, care and neglect. SOCIAL EFFECTS • According to Mendes (1993), "form follows as a pregnancy is the most powerful motivation, positive or negative, for a next pregnancy." (P. 82) • According to Mendes (1993), the rejection of the fetus manifested by psychological reactions of women originating in the subconscious and become notorious, such as: - Change s in mood - changes in taste and of smell (generating unusual appetites) - Chang es in family relationships; PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PREGNANCY • PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PREGNANCY The changes mentioned above are related to the fact that: - Change the short or long term professional life - ch ange in physical appearance and aesthetics related to the pregnancy itself - Rap idity with which replace the bodily changes difficult to assimilate by women - i n Oscillation libido which affects sexuality. • Thus, according Arlene Burroughs (sd), it is essential embracing them and unde rstands them during pregnancy so as not to feel inferior to other women, for the physical aspect. • Mendes (1993), mentions that in addition to all the feelings experienced durin g pregnancy are all kinds of fears that it may lead to: - Fear of the unknown be cause it is a new experience and different - The fear of having an imperfect chi ld, - I fear the pains of childbirth; • Thus, due to the sensitivity of the woma n is found to be very important to be supported by family and friends, apart fro m situations where their presence is counterproductive. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PREGNANCY EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY • According to Maria Mello, Jose Barros, Joao Breda (2001), the diffusion of alc ohol through the placental barrier is directly correlated with placental blood f low, according to the concentration gradient, since the ethanol passes through t he placental barrier without difficulty • The baby is dependent on the mother's metabolic speed to remove the alcohol; • According to Mello, bars and Breda (200 1), alcohol effects are felt right from the period of gestation and throughout t he course of life. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY According to Mello, bars and Breda (2001): "embriofetopatia alcohol or APS is a clinical entity of newborns subjected to prenatal ethanol, whose pathology is ch aracterized by disturbances of the infant (prematurity and hypotrophy, dysmorphi a craneofacial, associated malformations and adjustment disorders neo-natal) and by changes in the postnatal development. "(p.65)

EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY According to Marc Schuckit (1998) and Mello, bars and Breda (2001) FAS is a set of features like: • The multiple miscarriages; • The newborn weighing less than expected; • Malformation of the facial structure - Fissures Eyelid smaller - Can a nose flattened - thin upper lip - upper jaw widened; - facial asymmetry - Test a short and bulging. • Malformations of the hands and feet; • cardiac ventricula r septal defect. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Mello, bars and Breda (2001) add: • Malformations level renal (kidney horseshoeshaped) • Urethral Anomalies; • Hemongiomas;€• morphological abnormalities (eg m icrocephaly) • Changes in the joints. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY In the view of Aragon and Sacadura (2002), children with FAS have: • • • • • • D istraction; Excitability; Discipline problems, autism, learning disabilities, mo tor retardation, mental and social. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Mello, bars and Breda (2001) citing Lemoine (nd) describes disturbances associat ed with the offspring of women who abused alcohol during pregnancy such as: • • • • • Delays of language, learning difficulties, apathy, disinterest by the acti vities; instability with limited attention. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Beyond the neonatal period, children whose mothers had consumed various symptoms manifest as: • • • • sleep disorders; Addition of bodily activity, habituation to stimuli Minor adverse; Minor degree of obedience and attention. • According to J. Palminha (1993) "the behaviors of addicts are outward manifest ations of intrapsychic conflicts (...) and relational interaction (...) in that drugs represent a possible compromise to be in life." (P. 35). • Drugs help to h ide all the rage and frustration that women have, restoring and harmonizing an " I" weakened. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOL PREGNANT PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOL PREGNANT • As regards Eduardo Sá and J. Pitorra quoted by Ribeiro (1997), pregnancy in al coholic women have a potential high risk. • This is linked to factors of various kinds, such as: - Social factors - Psychological factors - Factors infectious. • Usually this is a group of women who hardly meet the basic schemes of surveill ance in pregnancy. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOL PREGNANT Manuel Coelho (1993) states that the personality of an addict, alcoholic particu lar features common to most of these individuals, such as: - Huge psychological difficulties - problems in the insertion, whether family or professional, as wel l as a rejection of social values established. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALCOHOL PREGNANT • They have difficulty establishing themselves professionally, and eventually em bark on paths illegal and morally reprehensible and socially; • These women had little hope of the future and hence their pregnancy, lining the future plans of anxiety and little emotion; • It is a passive person, usually with a few friends and with a negative view of herself.

CONCLUSION • Upon permanent contact with alcoholic relatives and all his surroundings, the child has more predisponência for both alcoholism and childhood to adulthood; • There is the pregnant woman may be psychologically disturbed and present fears a nd anxieties in particular fear of the unknown, of having an imperfect child or the pains of childbirth; • There are multiple organic and physiological effects produced by alcohol in both the fetus and the mother. For all of this is mandato ry not drinking alcohol during pregnancy, as well as the monitoring of a multidi sciplinary team throughout pregnancy. BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • • • • • Neto, D., Singh, A. (1999). What you should know about alcohol . Lisbon: Centro Regional de Alcoologia Lisbon. Ramos, S., Bertolote, J. (1990). Alcoholism today. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas. Schuckit, M. (1998). Abuse of al cohol and drugs. Lisbon: Climepsi editors. Aragon, M., Sacadura, R. (2002). Gene ral Guide of drugs. Lisboa: Terramar. Perez, A. (1997). General information for the prevention of toxicodepências. Madrid: Regional Directorate of the Algarve S PTT. Cole, M. (1993). Addiction - freedom begins in the body. London: End of the Century Editions, Ltd. Palminha, J. (1992). The children of drug addicts. - New risk group biopsico-social. : Grand Prix of Medicine. Clinical Medicine Prize 1 1. Ribeiro, J. (1997). 2nd National Congress of Health Psychology .- Portuguese society of health psychology. Braga: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada. Mello, M., et al. (1998). Manual alcoologia to the general practitioner. Coimbra : Delagrange. Papienik, E. (1990). Practical guide pregnancy - day after day to participate in the formation of his son. Terramar. BIBLIOGRAPHY Mendes • •, M. (1993). Course obstetrics. Coimbra: Livraria Almedina. Kelly, R., et al. (2003). The detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders and drug us e in pregnant women cared for in obstetrics. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecolog y, No. 5, pp. 233, 234. Chasnoff, I., et al. (1993).€The use of cocaine and othe r drugs during pregnancy, a follow-up done for two years. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, No. 4, pp. 128-130. Lamb, J. (2002). Manual of clinical psychiat ry. Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Rosa, A. (1993). The sons of alcoholic and school failure. Journal of Portuguese society of alcoologia, No. 2, pp. 7794. Roussaux, J., Kreiter, B., Hers, D. (2002). The alcoholic family - family di mensions of alcoholism and therapeutic implications. Collection-modern alcoholis m and drug addictions 7. Climepsi editors. Fonseca, A. (1997). Psychiatry and Ps ychopathology. Lisbon: education service - Calouste Gulbenkian. Ernest, M. (1991 ). Taking a drink already in the womb. • • • • • • BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • • • • • Kohatsu, M. (Undated). Seminar on alcoholism and HIV / AIDS amon g the indigenous peoples - Article 11. Castelões, L. (Un dated). With science - drugs. Roquette, J. (Undated). Grand Orient of Brazil. FAQ obstetrician - Drugs and Pr egnancy - Ask the doctor - Getting the baby. An e vil spirit in pregnancy. Bear, M. (Sd) Alcoholism - The way back is much more difficult. http://www.pastoraldacrianç VH L Adolec - news. Alcoholism: Vice or Disease?. http://www