Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture Evolution of the computer.

Abacus The first calculator that has stories is the abacus, a Chinese from the fifth ce ntury BC (before Christ) able to perform basic algebraic operations. Mechanical calculators Prior to the 40 already existing mechanical calculators, among them finds,: Charles Babbage's calculator First generation - ENIAC was in the 40s that brought the first vacuum tubes, the U.S. military needed a device t o perform calculations ballistics, was when they began their studies in this dir ection. Each valve was able to represent one bit of information (only supports two state s, on or off). The bytes were composed of eight valves. 1 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture As we do not have much confidence in the results due to the constant burning of valves, each calculation was performed by three different circuits and the resul ts compared, two of them coincide, that was considered the right result. So, for example, 2 KB of memory would be needed 16 384 and valves for three lines x 3 = 16 384 49 152 valves. Computers were real monsters electronics occupying much s pace and consume much energy. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), built in 1948 had 19,0 00 vacuum tubes and consumed 200 kilowatts, absurd for the season. Will be celebrated at the University of Pennsylvania fifty years of ENIAC, and t his was mounted the ENIAC on a chip with the same functions as the original. 2 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture CHIP ENIAC developed to celebrate its 50th anniversary of ENIAC Size: 7.44mm x 5.29mm; 174 569 transistors; Second Generation was discovered in 1947 the first transistor, produced by Bell Telephone Laboratories. This discovery revolutionized the electronics, the circu its began to consume far less energy, occupy less space, it cost a good satisfac tory. The transistors were and are much more reliable than the valves. They are made of silicon crystal, the most abundant element on Earth. In 1954, Texas Inst ruments began commercial production of transistors. Similarly transistors in dig ital circuits were used to represent the two states: on / off, or zero / one. In the 60s and 70s due to the use of transistor circuits, the explosion happened, the boom in the use of computers. Occupying less space and had a cost satisfacto ry. In 1968 came the first computer, UNICAMP, an IBM 1130, with 16KB of memory a nd a disk of 1 MB, it was an event, he worked with punch cards. Ran programs in ASSEMBLER, FORTRAN and PL1. 3 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture To start, the island was used and specially coded punch cards, called "cold star t" functions performed today by the ROM and the BIOS. Third generation In the '6

0s, began the encapsulation of more than one transistor in the same housing, eme rged as the Integrated Circuit - IC, the first numbered about 80-10 transistors per capsule (chip). Fourth Generation In November 1971, Intel introduced the first commercial microp rocessor, the 4004, invented by three Intel engineers. Primitive to today's stan dards, it contained only 2300 transistors and performed about 60,000 calculation s per second. Today, twenty-seven years later, a microprocessor is the most comp lex product mass-produced, with over 5.5 million transistors, running hundreds o f millions of calculations per second. 4 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture PCXT Operating at 4.77 MHz, progressed to 8 MHz, 10 MHz and 12 MHz slots slots k nown as ISA (Industry Standard Architeture). Microcomputers line PC XT 1981duran te produced from the eighties. They had their Motherboards based on many micropr ocessors, the Intel 8088, the NEC V20 and the 8086 Intel. These plates were orig inally to 8 bits and the plates were operating at 8 MHz PC AT PCs XTs evolved a bit and came the PC AT 286, a little more robust, already had a battery that had a chip, a small RAM, the information of computer hardware and data from the cal endar clock, even when it is turned off, the CMOS. Motherboards for the 286 alre ady operating with dual slots for 16-bit ISA cards, though still operating at 8 MHz. PC 386 The novelty in 1990 was 386 DX in PC memory banks have 32-bit chips and V LSI (Very Large Scale Integration). Memories used in modules like SIPP (Single I n-Line Package) that were quickly replaced. The cards released in 1992,€already used SIMMs (Single Inline Memory Modules) - RAM module with single row of contac ts aligned - expansion module memory (1 Mb, 4 Mb, 8 Mb, etc.). small plate on wh ich chips are mounted memory. The 30-pin modules or pathways work simultaneously with up to 8 bits. 5 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture With the 386 reaching speeds of 20 MHz, the memories have become sluggish and to compensate for this deficiency, the plates began to be produced with the use of external cache memory, equipped with up to 32K. The first 486 cards of 486, alr eady in the years 1993 and 1994, had VLS Bus (VESA Local Bus), operating with 32 bits, and can transfer up to 132 MB / s, well above the 8 MB / s of the ISA bus . (VESA - Video Electronics Standards Association). The plates produced until 19 93 which used modules of 8-bit and 30-pin needed to make up four groups of 32 bi ts required by the CPU 486.Outras cards already used blocks of 72 pins. Pentium boards for Pentium CPUs have 64-bit bus and memory modules use 32 bits, these modules are used in pairs to form the 64 bits required. For technical reas ons, the large dissipation of the CPU chip, the same has having an microfan coup led to resfriálas. As implementations, these cards have ZIF socket (Zero Inserti on Force) for the CPU chip, bus type PCI (Peripheral Component Intercinnect) ope rating with 32-bit cache SRAM up to 512 kB in COAST type modules. 6 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture COAST (Cache on a Stick), similar to memory modules RAM SIMM type. Other impleme ntations are the interface cards embedded in the motherboard are: two IDE interf aces, an interface to drives, two serial interfaces and one parallel interface. Some manufacturers even provide cards with sound interfaces and embedded SVGA. S

ocket 7 Socket 7 is the most popular of the current sockets, contains 321 pins, operates with voltages 2.5ve 3.3v. Accepts Pentium chips from 75 MHz to 200 MHz K5, K6, 6x86, 6x86MX, and Pentium MMX. The Socket 7 boards usually incorporate v oltage regulators to allow claims below 3.3V. Slot 1 Intel has totally changed the context to launch the use of socket Slot1, and housing the processors in the Pentium II line of cards. The advantage was be ing able to put on the same plate, adjacent to the CPU chip, the cache memory mo dules. This came to allow data transfers at high speeds between the CPU and cach e. The Slot1 has 242 pins and operates at voltages between 2.8 and 3.3V. Differences between the line Pentium microprocessors The first question, and ver y important is the speed, ie the internal clock frequency. Somehow, between chip s of the same line, the higher the better clock, but other factors influence the speed of the system as a whole. We can cite, the chip set, the size of the cach e and how much RAM. 7 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture Fifth Generation Pentium MMX P55C or evolution of multimedia applications involving graphics, ima ges and sounds become a necessity implementing instructions that improve their p erformance. Thus, Intel added to the Pentium, 57 new instructions designed for t his type of processing, are called MMX, or Multimedia Extentions. Are statements that include several common instructions, and are executed by hardware, making software producers in creating their programs are already taking advantage of th ese new instructions. These instructions provide a good gain in processing speed . The P55C presents an internal cache of 32 kB, double that of the P54C Pentiums . This can be translated into a performance improvement of around 10% in the socalled normal processes, not involving the functions MMX. Pentium II covers the processing power 32-bit Pentium Pro, the best performance in 16-bit programs and facilities of the Pentium MMX, working with internal clock of 266 MHz to 300 MH z and Your package with an external cache or cache 2 , which adjoins the process or, memory management easier and improves its performance. Similar to the Pentium II Celeron Pentium II, a cheaper option, also operating w ith an external clock of 66 MHz and a core clock of 300 MHz, but without the cac he 2 and the advantages derived from it. 8 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture CLOCK The clock and performance is the number of cycles each second digital run. One cycle per second is called Hertz (Hz). For example, the power of CPFL oscil lates at 60 Hz, ie 60 cycles per second.€The clocks range of microcomputers in m illions of Hertz, Mega Hertz MHz or a Pentium, for example, are around 300MHz, 3 00 million cycles per second, 300 million instructions a cycle. New technologies are enabling the execution of more than one instruction per cycle. Therefore, t he performance of a PC is quite related to the speed of your clock, but other va riables are relevant, such as memory size, cache size, bus use, and external clo ck. The clock described above, called internal clock sets the speed at which ins tructions are executed by the CPU, while the external clock it is the speed at w hich data travels between the CPU and memory and external devices. The external clock of most PCs is 66 MHz, very low compared to the internal clock. The clock generator circuit operates at 66 MHz external clock frequency. And to meet the i nternal clock multiplier is used to match the frequencies.

Internal Clock External Clock 166 MHz 66 MHz 66 MHz 66 MHz 200 MHz 233 MHz 266 M Hz 66 MHz 66 MHz 300 MHz 100 MHz 300 MHz Multiplier 2.5 x 3. x 3.5 x 4. x 4.5 x 3. x Most cards have special keys to set the configuration of this multiplication fac tor. 9 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture The voltage with the voltage concern relates only to those who intend to upgrade their equipment, tensions ranging between 2.1 volts and 3.5 volts. Before buyin g a new CPU, it is good to have a look in the manual of your CPU card to verify compatibility and settings. As the multiplication factor of the clock, the volta ge can be set through keys. Primary cache or a cache level with the evolution of the speed of microprocessors in relation to the external memories, since the ti me of the 486 detected the need to implement something to solve the problem. The solution was to install a small amount of RAM for high-speed microprocessor chi p, thus accelerating the performance of the external memories. In this memory ga ve the name of CACHE. The cache 8kB was a 486, that of a Pentium MMX is 32 kB. T he gain in speed is not proportional to the increase in cache memory. Besides th e secondary cache memory cache implemented in the microprocessor chips such as l ine 386, 486 and Pentium from Intel, most cards have memory cache, which is call ed "external cache, consisting of chip-type synchronous SRAM. The use of externa l caches makes the performance of microprocessors. 10 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture Standard AT CPU boards The spread of computers has meant that standards were defined size and arrangeme nt of components in CPU boards, which came to be known as: BABY AT or TA 486 and used by the Pentium's. ATX Today, in light of the new microprocessors came the standard ATX boards, used fo r Pentium II. Fixing holes in the fixing of the plates is made using metal screws and plastic spacers. It's always good to check if it is not touching anything. 11 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture Memory sockets Memories Memories of the computers are a very important part in its functioning and performance. They are intimately connected to the processor, chipset, mother board and cache. Main factors of importance: • Performance: how much memory it u ses dramatically affects the performance of an entire system; • Integrity: bad m emories can produce mysterious problems; • Expansion: most software require more and more memories and the fact able to exchange them for others of greater capa city is quite substantial. RAM: memory type writes - reads: A RAM (Random Access

Memory), random access memory. Random means that access is straightforward, for example to bring information from the memory number 7934233 is not necessary to first read all it has on July 1 million earlier positions, but that goes instan tly to the position indicated as if this was the first. In the operations of rea ding and writing, each memory location is addressable, ie each time a memory loc ation to be filled, erased or read, its address must be provided in the 'address input of memory. " Electrically RAMs are volatile memories (when off, they lose all the information). 12 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture There are memory cards organized according to different word lengths. This organ ization is usually symbolized by an X sign.€For example a 1M x 32 RAM is a memor y that has 32 bits for input and output data, in parallel work on one of 1M word s stored, this word chosen by the entry of addresses. Thus, programs must necess arily be stored on disks, tapes, etc.. The CPU uses RAM to store and execute pro grams contained on the disks to read and write data being processed in its main property is its speed. Identification of memory modules with parity: It's almost always possible to visually recognize parity memory modules, the modules of 72 pins, the pins are responsible for parity pins number 35, 36, 37 and 38, those l ocated near the central groove module. When you inspect these pins, you can see if there is a connection between them and the rest of the module, if there is a module with parity. It is necessary to make connections to the pins on both side s of the modules. ROM: read-only memory: ROM type memories are used in situation s where data must be kept permanently and your data can not be corrupted. The RO M (Read Only Memory) that strictly speaking should be called RAM Read Only, bein g a random access memory but not volatile. The information contained in them are written by the manufacturer through a mask, according to customer's request. On one hand, a ROM does not lose their records when there is lack of energy, on th e other side is not alterable. This is a permanent memory. These memories are pl aced for example the basic programs of the OS, because at the time the machine i s turned on, these programs are implemented. 13 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture Types of ROM: • Programmable ROM (PROM): memories "blank" but that through speci al circuitry to be written only once, like CD-R • EPROM erasable programmable th rough the use of ultra violet in a small window chip, which can be rewritten; • EEPROM programmable and electrically erasable, and can also be rewritten, making it easier to update their programs; • Flash BIOS operate the same way as EEPROM , making it easier for users to update BIOS of your computers. CD-ROM also gives the name of the ROM to CD-ROMs because they can not change your information, bu t the nature of the environment is totally different between the pads ROM and CD -ROMS, since the first store information in electronic form within the silicon c ircuits, and the second guard in the form of microscopic holes on a rotating dis c to be read by a laser beam. Secondary cache memory with the evolution, the primary cache was no longer being sufficient to match the speed between the memories and microprocessors, and the overall performance was being compromised. As a result began to use an external cache, the current boards have a cache of 512 kB. 14 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture

In the near future with new technologies and low cost, external caches are likel y to be used with greater capacity. Normally the cache memories is soldered dire ctly on the CPU. Some cards come with special socket for an external cache memor y are installed, are the memories Intel COAST (Cache on a stick). LSI chips, MSI , SSI classification of integrated circuits (integration means clustering) is gi ven by the number of transistors on a single circuit. SSI Small Scale Integration technology MSI Medium Scale Integration LSI Large Sc ale Integration VLSI Very Large Scale Integration UHSI Ultra High Scale Integrat ion of transistor 1 a number 100100-1000 1000 1.0.000 10000-1000000 1000000-1000 000000 time developmental Years 60 Years 70 Years 80 Top 90s Final 90's The batteries used in battery CPU boards usually last between two and three year s, being responsible for keeping the hardware configuration data in CMOS chip an d run the clock permanently. Are currently used lithium batteries, smaller and m ore reliable. The CMOS chip called CMOS is composed of an electric clock and mem ory 64 bytes of RAM, this memory is that information stored on the hardware conf iguration of the computer. There is a special program to update these data, call ed CMOS Setup. In the current equipment, the functions are embedded in the CMOS chip of a chip set. BIOS The BIOS (Basic Input-Output System) is a small program stored on a ROM chip from the CPU card. He is responsible for "wake up" the 15 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture computer.€Once a computer is connected to the BIOS begins its activities, count and verify the RAM, boot devices, and the principal, to initiate the boot proces s. Boot is the operation of transit operating system disk to find the correct co mputer memory. Even after the boot, the BIOS will still work, providing paramete rs and settings to the operating system stored in the CMOS when the CMOS Setup. UPGRADE BIOS On newer computers the BIOS is stored in a memory-type Flash EPROM. These devices can run a utility to perform the BIOS upgrade. This is a fairly s imple operation, the software performs all for you. However, the instructions mu st be very well understood and followed. Any mistake can be fatal and the comput er will not boot anymore. CHIPSET Just as important as the CPUs, and perhaps more that memories are the "C HIPSET". These circuits, which are connected directly to the CPU chip, are respo nsible for most of the exchanges of information between the CPU and memory bus: IDE interface control RAMs control of the external cache memory control ISA bus and PCI control DMA and interrupts Chipsets are designed by the manufacturer to operate with certain sets of processors. Most of them were designed to operate w ith the 486 line of processors, Pentium class. Pentium Pro or Pentium II. 16 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture For example, the Pentium Pro and Pentium II have level 2 cache inside the CPU, i t is obvious that they will require different circuit design than the Pentium, w hich has level 2 cache on the motherboard. Many motherboards that support Pentiu m processors also support their counterparts from AMD and Cyrix. But the setting s of both the bus speed, the voltages should be adjusted. The chipsets in the sa me class of CPU chip technology, technology VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). Some chipsets are popularly known as "Triton". Intel chipsets line i430FX - Triton, i430HX - Triton II i430VX - Triton III i430 TtX - Triton IV Buses Buses are called "bus", or connections to transport data through which all

major units of the computer are interconnected. By BUS, these units receive dat a, memory addresses, control signals and power Expansion Cards Expansion cards are small cards connected to the motherboard and that lend thems elves to the most varied purposes. The most common are the video cards, modem ca rd, network card, etc.. 17 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture I430 chipset TX 1. 82439TX The chip is connected directly to the FSB of the Pentium. In this con nection the 66MHz data travels, the external clock, 2. The chip 83439TX controls the external processor cache and manages data transfers between the processor a nd external cache, and vice versa. 3. 83439TX The chip also controls the data fl ow in both directions between the external cache and DRAM memory, 4. 83439TX The chip also generates the digital signals of the PCI bus, this bus operates at ha lf the speed of the external clock, ie 33 MHz 5. Are connected to the PCI bus th e PCI slots. This bus is also the connection to the docking stations in the case of portable equipment, the laptop's 6. The third member of this chipset is the 82371AB, which is connected to the PCI bus 7. The 82371AB has two IDE interfaces with the ability to operate in Ultra DMA 33 8. Moreover, the 82371AB also has t wo USB interfaces (Universal Serial Bus) 18 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture chipset i440L 1. The chip can be 82443LX is linked to the FSB of up to two Pentium II processo rs (depending on the capacity of the plate), operating at 66 MHz, 2. 82443LX The chip controls accesses to DRAM, or SDRAM EDORAS MOLLY, accessing them with a 66 MHz clock. Can operate with 72 bits if the modules are of type DIMM/168, and 36bit if the type SIMM/72. 3. The chip 82443LX makes the control of an AGP bus ope rating at 66MHz, but as two transfers are executed each cycle, everything happen s as if you were clocked at 133MHz, is the so called 2x AGP. This bus can be ins talled several graphics devices. All AGP video cards have 3D accelerators. 4. Th e chip 82443LX are the links to the PCI bus, and as is known, operates at 50% of the external clock, or a clock of 33MHz. 5. PCI slots are connected to the chip via the PCI bus 82443LX .. 6. The PCI bus. Is connected to the 82371SB chip. 7. 82 371 chip is capable of operating at 33MB / s Ultra DMA Mode 33. 8.€The chip 82 371 also has two USB interfaces (Universal Serial Bus), 9. The chip controls a walk 82 371 ISA bus, which are connected to the ISA slots and the BIOS of the Mother 19 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture Slots Slots are connectors to fit expansion cards of a PC, connecting physically to where buses travel data and signals. We can cite, video cards, cards, fax / modem, sound cards, network interface cards, etc.. The ISA slots ISA slots, connected to ISA bus (Industry Standard Architeture) we re created in 1981, even in times of 486DX, operate with 16 bits and a clock 8MH

z. Each data transfer in an ISA bus, legacy of the past must be used a cycle of Wait State, resulting in a transfer rate of 8MB / s, the speed of the plates of the time. VESA slots slots VESA (Video Electronics Standard Association) connect ed to buses veas. Are a very fast interface, designed primarily to receive video cards. Are linked directly to the internal bus of the CPU, hence the name VESAL OCAL BUS. Can transfer up to 132MB / s PCI slots more current than the ISA bus, PCI bus (Peripheral Component Interconnect), and therefore the PCI slots operate at 32 bits. Transfer data at a frequency of 33 MHz, resulting in transfers of u p to 132 MB / s. Being able to operate and come with 64 and even 128 20 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture AGP Slot The AGP bus (Acelerated Graphics Port) was released with the special vi sor INTEL goal of improving the performance of video cards of computers using th e Pentium II. Physically the AGP slot is slightly different from the others on t he dock, to avoid ambiguity, only supports AGP cards. The AGP bus transfers data at 133 MHz, ie four times faster than PCI. The AGP was developed by Intel, has incorporated a feature called DIME (Direct Memory Execution). This growth allows the textures to be applied to images generated by 3D cards can be stored in RAM on a motherboard and CPU are automatically transferred into the video card. Onl y chipsets i440LX i440BX and are able to support AGP. Some chips SVGA AGP cards can be used in X2 mode, and with this, operating at a data transfer rate of 532 Comparison of performance on the transfer rates: AGP PCI ISA bus X1 X2 AGP one. Bit 16 32 66 32 8 MHz clock 33 MHz 133 MHz 133 MHz rate 8 MB / s 132 MB / s 266 MB / s 532 MB / s Plug and Play cards First, it requires both the operating system installed on th e equipment is geared to plug and play, as the hardware and BIOS. Even the cards and devices to be installed should be compatible with PnP, but will not be reco gnized by the operating system. The system came up PnP 21st Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture in early 1995, the drivers of the devices require 32 bits. The PCI bus was desig ned with the PNP as one of its facilities. Operation of the PnP - Plug and play is a specification. A PnP operating system scans the entire microcomputer system every time you run the boot, and determines the needs of each device. Then it s earches for devices not PnP (legacy devices) which may not have its configuratio n modified by software. The operating system tries to configure PnP devices prim arily considering the settings of PnP devices not installed, does not always wor k. How is: 1. The operating system creates a table of available resources, inclu ding IRQs, addresses DMA'se I / O, but not including those required by the devic es of system 2. The operating system then determines which devices are PnP and P nP and not identifying them. 3. Loads the last ESCD or Extended System Configura tion Data. 4. Compare the latest ESCD with the current configuration, if equal, all good, but still. 5. Resets the ESCD. Checks the table of resources created i n step one, ignore the alerts being used by devices previously installed (the pr evious legacy), and highlights the resources available to the PnP devices 6. ESC D nine saves and writes the message "Updating ESCD ... Successful" Voltage Regulators The majority of circuits in a CPU card current, ie the type u sed ATX 3.3 volts, but some microprocessors require other voltages, hence the CP U boards to continue to have circuit voltage regulators. 22 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture

Dip Dip switches are small switches configurable keys used for the configuration of circuit boards.€Jumpers Jumpers are small pins with a plastic-coated metal p iece called "bridge" or bridge that is placed on pins, connecting any two of the m. Currently jumpers are more common than switches. To configure the jumpers on both the switches is necessary to have the board manual at hand. An example is t he definition of multiplication factor of the clock used on the boards that acce pt various types of CPU chips Hard Drives - HD Basically, tracks sectors and cylinders are divisions of one of the "plates" of a HD. A track is a concentric ring along the "dish" containing the information. Each HD is composed of two or more dishes, storing data on both sides of a dish, a set of tracks concentrically aligned to give the name of the cylinder. As the tracks of the hard drives are large, each is divided into sectors, the sectors are slices of a track. Different drives have different numbers of tracks. Each s ector is given an identification card during formatting to help the parent to fi nd the appropriate sector that is looking for. 23 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture The number of sectors is written at the beginning and end of each section, calle d prefix and suffix of the sector. This identification demand space in HD, so th e difference between capacity, unformatted and formatted. The formatting of the HD's are two ways to format a hard disk, or formatting low-level physical and lo gical formatting or high level. Both are performed for the preparation of a hard drive for use. The formatting logic defines data areas, creates the tracks, sep arating the sectors and places the numbers of the sectors, the ID numbers. Setup Manual drives if the BIOS of your computer does not support auto detection, or for another reason you want to do it yourself, carefully read the manual for inf ormation from the HD You should know at least the following information: Number of Number of cylinder heads After this, sectors per track should record the data in the ROM of your computer, noting in a secure place to record these settings in case the battery runs out and corrupts the data, preventing access to data fr om the disk. Static components of computers are becoming increasingly compact, w ith "nano components. Mainly in the driest months of the year where the humidity is below 50%, the possibility of having electrostatic discharge is quite large, reaching hundreds and even thousands of volts. Such discharges cause irreversib le damage to electronic components. Just a touch can cause permanent damage or p artial damage, responsible for intermittent runs. You must avoid touching the co mponents, circuits or contacts a metal plate or device, seeking safe housing for them or on their edges. Most recommended is the use of straps connected to the housing of equipment, thus discharging the static electricity. Another expedient , is to hold a palliative 24 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture for a time frame of the equipment before you handle the cards or devices, which should be repeated every 15 minutes. It is important that the cable is connected to the network equipment to ensure electrical grounding when we are making the electrostatic discharge. Installing Drives Modern motherboards of PCs have two I DE interfaces, each comprising two devices. Installing new drives, in a way an o peration is quite easy provided they take due care. Among them, first and foremo st it is necessary to check the availability of a vacant connector cables for co nnection. The computers usually come with a cable comprising only one device. Th

erefore it is necessary to provide a cable with two connectors. If the computer has only one disk drive and you want to replace it, it is necessary to have a fl oppy disk with the operating system to boot. Also, and this is very important, y ou need to know if the floppy works. It is with him that will set the new drive, in fact, it's always good to have a floppy disk "system" for any emergency, do not take much time and saves many disappointments. Steps to create a good system disk: 1. Format a floppy disk using Windows Explorer: full format and copy syst em files 2. The floppy disk "system" should contain the following programs: Comm and.com, Drvspace.bin, IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS and 3. Copy to floppy the following pro grams: fdisk.exe, format.com, edit.com, QBASIC.EXE, regedit.exe, Uninstall.exe s ys.com, Scandisk.ini, and chkdsk.exe attrib.exe 4. May also be copied and config .sys autoexec.bat 5. Be sure the QBasic.exe is on the disk because the edit does not work without the QBasic 6. Not all programs are required, but will be of gr eat value if it happens an unexpected situation. 7. Place the diskette write-pro tect mode. 25 Computer Center - UNICAMP Computer Architecture 8. Test its operation by running a boot floppy. The Future Gordon Moore, one of three founders of Intel and one of the inventors of the first microprocessor in 1964 formulated a law known as "Moore's Law:" Th e power and complexity of a chip would double every eighteen months, with reduct ion proportion of their costs "This has been confirmed, both the time touted as the costs tend to reduce. In 1997 a California company launched the first BioChi p for commercial purposes, is increasingly looking to technology that can produc e and provide "intelligence" computers. The future is TODAY'S HAPPENING NOW, WHILE YOU'RE READING THIS 26