WAYTECH http://sites.uol.com.br/waytech Your Virtual Office FREEWARE - Version 1.0 1 Configuration Setup, AUTOEXEC.

BAT and CONFIG.SYS The setup is a setup program that every computer has and that is etched into mem ory the computer's ROM (which, in turn, is located on the motherboard). Usually we call for this program by pressing Del during the memory count. The configurat ion of the computer is stored within a special memory, called memory configurati on. How this memory is built with CMOS technology, many people call the memory c onfiguration of CMOS memory. As this type of memory is RAM, your data is erased when the computer shuts down. To prevent this from happening, there is a battery that is powering this memory, so that data stored on it are not lost when the c omputer shuts down. This battery is also responsible for feeding the circuit rea l time clock of the computer (RTC, Real Time Clock) for the same reason. Every c omputer has this watch and he is responsible for maintaining the current date an d time. We changed the setup parameters are stored in memory configuration, as s hown. There is a widespread confusion about the operation of the setup. As it is written into the ROM of the computer, many people think they are synonyms and B IOS setup, which is not true. Inside the computer's ROM memory for three separat e programs stored: BIOS (Basic Input Output System Basic Input / Output), which is responsible for "teach" the computer's processor to operate with basic device s such as floppy drive, the hard disk and video text mode; POST (Power On Self T est, Self Test), which is responsible for self-test program that runs all the ti me we turn on the micro (memory count, for example) and setup (configuration ), which is the program responsible for changing the parameters stored in configura tion memory (CMOS). Another common confusion is to think that changed in the con figuration are stored in the BIOS setup. As the BIOS is a ROM type memory, it do es not allow their data to be changed. All information manipulated and changed i n the setup is stored exclusively on the configuration memory (CMOS) micro. Thus , when we call the setup does not "enter" in the BIOS much less alter the values of the BIOS, as many people say erroneously. Actually went into the setup and c hanged the values of the configuration memory. 2 To enter the setup you must press the Del key during memory count. In some micro s "branded" (as IBM), is another key and you should pay attention to the instruc tions on the screen of the computer during the memory count to be able to access the setup. Within the setup, the navigation is typically done using the arrow k eys to move the keyboard, the Enter key to select a menu, Esc to return to the p revious menu and using Page Up and Page Down to modify an existing option. It is very important to note that changes made while you are in the setup are not aut omatically saved in the configuration memory (CMOS). So there is a need to save changes before exiting the setup by choosing Save and Exit. Entering the setup y ou will see a main menu with options for entry into other setup menus. These opt ions are basically as follows (do not worry, we will study in detail each of the m in the future): CPU Setup: On PCs where the motherboard has jumper setting you 'll find that menu, you used to configure the processor: multiplication clock, e xternal clock, etc.. Standard CMOS Setup: Basic Setup. In this menu set up basic options of micro, as the type of floppy drive, the date and time and the parame ters of the disk drive (HDD parameters can be configured automatically through a n option called HDD Auto Detection). Advanced CMOS Setup (or BIOS Features Setup ) Setup advanced. Here you will find some advanced configuration options, which mostly includes options for customizing your computer and can be altered accordi ng to your taste. Also there are some options here that can increase system perf ormance. Advanced Chipset Setup: Setup advanced chipset. Are options for configu

ring the chipset of the motherboard. These options include settings that typical ly involve access to the main system RAM, as wait states. If you make any wrong setting in this menu the computer may hang. So do not touch the options in this menu unless you are sure what you're doing.€PCI / Plug and Play Setup: Configur es the resources allocated for devices installed on your PC such as sound cards and fax / modems. Power Management Setup: In this menu you do all the configurat ion management of electricity consumption, so that the computer saves energy. Pe ripheral Setup (or Integrated Peripherals): Set integrated devices to placamãe (on-board). Auto Configuration With BIOS Defaults: Sets the default settings on all setup options. 3 Auto Configuration With Power-on Defaults: Sets the values contained in the CMOS memory in the options setup. In other words, configure the setup the same way i t was before you enter it. Password Change: Set a password that will be required when you connect your PC (or try to enter the setup, depending on the configura tion performed in advanced setup). Auto Detect Hard Disk (HDD or IDE Setup or Au to Detect): Reads the parameters of IDE hard disks of the computer and automatic ally configures the advanced setup with the readings. Hard Disk Utility (or HDD Low Level Format): Formats the hard disk at low level (physical formatting). Thi s option should never be used, under pain of you permanently damage your hard dr ive. Write to CMOS and Exit: Saves changes to the configuration memory (CMOS) an d exit setup. Do Not Write to CMOS and Exit: Exit the setup without saving any c hanges. The basic setup does not present difficulties in its configuration. Ther e you must configure: Date and time of the system by the date and time options, respectively. Types of floppy drives installed on your PC. You must configure wh ich ones (2.88 MB, 1.44 MB, 1.2 MB, 720 KB or 360 KB) are the floppy drives A an d B of your microwave. A very common mistake made by beginners is to think that to change the drive A to B (ie, the current drive to pass the call to B and vice versa) just change the setting here. This is not true. To replace the unit with A to B is necessary to open the PC and switch the position of units in the flat -cable that connects the unit to the parent (usually the motherboard). The unit installed at the end of the cable will always be the A and the unit installed in the middle, always will be the unit B. As today most PCs only have one unit (A, 1.44 MB), in most cases you must configure the unit as 1.44 MB and drive B as " not installed" (not installed). Geometry of the disk drive. This is the configur ation more difficult than basic setup, but to our luck, there is an option in th e main menu of the setup - called HDD Auto Detection, IDE Setup or similar, as w e saw last week - that reads data from the hard drive and configures automatical ly the geometry of the hard disk. So there is to worry about. Type of video card . Set as EGA / VGA. Some people get confused here. This option sets the type of video card installed inside the PC and not the type of video monitor. There is a n option called "Monochrome", which is for computers that have an MDA video card installed. If you have a computer with video card VGA or Super VGA monitor with a monochrome monitor installed, the correct option is EGA / VGA (which configur es the video card that is installed on your PC) and non Monochrome (since your v ideo card MDA is not). 4 And only. In some setups may appear some more options: Floppy 3 Mode Support: Th ere is a floppy drive in Japan that is 3 1 / 2 "and 1.2 MB (instead of 1.44 MB), and for the pc to recognize it is necessary enable this option. As you probably do not have that kind of drive in your computer, leave this option disabled (Di sabled). Halt On: This option tells the micro situation where he must stop error during the initial machine self test (POST) . The default option is "All Errors ", or any error condition is detected during the self test the computer will sto p and an error message appears. Have the "All but keyboard" will make the comput er stop all kinds error, at least for keyboard errors. And so on according to th

e other options available. Our recommendation is that you set this option in "Al l Errors." Daylight Saving: This option is not very common and you'll probably o nly find in very old computers. This option enables the automatic adjustment of daylight saving time (which in English is called daylight saving). It turns out that this adjustment is based on the U.S., where summer occurs during our winter , so this option should remain disabled (Disabled). Clearly in some PCs you can find other information on the basic setup, as the amount of RAM installed on you r PC. But the options you find in all these setups that are present today. As th e name indicates,€in advanced setup (Advanced CMOS Setup) are advanced configur ation options for the PC. However, most of the advanced setup options are set ac cording to user's taste, as you perceive. Then we present the most common option s of the advanced setup, showing the configuration of our recommendation, althou gh you do not need to follow our recommendations to the letter because, as we sa id, several options are configured according to user's taste. It is important to note that the setup of your computer may not have all the options described her e, just as there may be options that are not present here. Remember that to enab le an option, you must configure it as "enabled" and to disable, as "disabled." Typematic Rate Programming: You can set the repeat rate of keyboard keys enablin g this option, ie to keep a key pressed, it will begin to be repeated automatica lly. The setting of this rate is made through the following two options. Typemat ic Rate Delay: Sets the time that the computer will take to start repeating a ke y if you keep it pressed. The value you set this option is given in milliseconds . Typematic Rate: Sets the amount of characters per second that the automatic re petition will generate. 5 Quick Power On Self Test: In Award BIOS, the memory test is performed three time s. With this option enabled, the test is done only once, making the boot process faster. Above 1 MB Memory Test: Enable this option to have the micro test all t he RAM in the memory count. If this option is not enabled, the computer will tes t only the first 1 MB of memory, which is not good. Memory Test Tick Sound: Enab les noise (tick) done during the memory count. The fit is personal taste. Hit <d el> Message Display: With this option enabled, the message "Hit <del> To Run Set up" is displayed during the memory count. Our recommendation is that this option remain enabled, even though you can still enter the setup normally even if that message is not displayed during the memory count. Wait For <F1> If Any Error: S imilar to the previous option, gives the message "Press <F1> To Resume" if any e rrors occur during the self test (POST). We recommend enabling this option. Syst em Boot Up Num Lock: Sets the state of the Num Lock key to turn on the computer. Our suggestion is to enable this option. Floppy Drive Seek at Boot: It is a tes t, after the memory count to see if the floppy disk drives configured in the bas ic setup are actually installed. Our recommendation is that you disable this opt ion so that the boot process becomes faster. System Boot Up Sequence: Set the bo ot sequence, ie which unit will be given the boot. Our recommendation is that yo u set this option as "C Only" (or "B," if this option does not exist). This will cause the boot is faster (since the micro will read directly from the operating system hard drive) and will prevent your PC is infected by a virus boot (since the boot from floppy will be disabled). Bootsector Virus Protection (or Anti-vir us or Virus Warning): Be careful, as the name of this option leads to an error. With this option enabled, the computer will not allow any program to update the boot sector of hard disk, a task that a virus may try to perform. The big proble m is that some disk utilities (such as Norton Utilities) and the program itself to install the operating system data alter the boot sector, making the micro fal sely accuse an error when this option is enabled. Incidentally, this is why many coaches can not install the operating system when this option is enabled. There fore, our recommendation is that you leave this option disabled. If you want to protect yourself from viruses, use a good antivirus program. 6

Configuring the Autoexec.bat Autoexec.bat is a batch (BAT extension). This means that it contains all the commands can be executed directly in the MS-DOS prompt , unlike what occurs in the CONFIG.SYS, which has its own commands that only exi st there. Figure 1: Traditional AUTOEXEC.BAT file. His editing can be done through the EDI T command C: \ AUTOEXEC.BAT. Just as occurs in the Config.sys, Autoexec.bat carr y through the drivers, controls and memory-resident programs. We try to keep the AUTOEXEC.BAT file as organized as possible. Let's see some tips on how to leave your AUTOEXEC.BAT micro "point": Get the AUTOEXEC.BAT command "@ ECHO OFF". Thi s will cause fewer messages are displayed on the screen,€giving a better visual appearance to boot your computer. Add the full path and file extension in all c ommands, drivers and memory-resident programs that are loaded via the AUTOEXEC.B AT. See our example we carry SHARE.EXE with the command C: \ DOS \ SHARE.EXE ins tead of simply "SHARE". In other words, load the file telling the system directo ry and its extension. Rather than load a mouse driver by simply adding the comma nd "MOUSE" on AUTOEXEC, change to C: \ MOUSE \ MOUSE.COM, for example. Of course this is a hypothetical example and you should change your PC according to the e xisting file. For all files that are loaded into memory, add the command LOADHIG H LH or simply the beginning of the line. Take a look at our example. Group your commands "SET" at the beginning of AUTOEXEC, below the line "@ ECHO OFF" (see f igure). An important tip: the line SET TEMP = must be indicating a temporary dir ectory such as C: \ WINDOWS \ TEMP. This will cause temporary files are created and maintained in a directory-draft, where they may cause more data. You may eve n erase the contents of this directory. Yet it is very common to find this line incorrectly configured, usually referring to a directory where important data is stored - as SET TEMP = C: \ DOS - which is not 7 recommended. If this is your case, create a directory-draft and change (or add) the line in AUTOEXEC.BAT SET TEMP. The PATH command is responsible for the searc h path the operating system. When a file that you called is not found in the cur rent directory, the system looks in the directories pointed to by the PATH comma nd. As the search path is traversed from left to right, you should put the most used directories on the left and the least used on the right. If in a particular micro directory C: \ WINDOWS is the right of the PATH command, when you enter " win" at the DOS prompt, it will go all the other directories looking for the com mand WIN.COM, until you find it in last indicated in the PATH. Conversely, if th e directory C: \ WINDOWS was the most left at the PATH command, the entry would be almost immediate, because the system would find the command in the first dire ctory that would have procurar.Alguns AUTOEXECs SET PATH =, the which is the sam e as PATH =. This command should preferably be the last of the AUTOEXEC.BAT, sin ce this will make her run faster. Place a CLS command at the end of AUTOEXEC to clear the screen. If you ever need to create a AUTOEXEC.BAT and do not know what it should contain, use the example of the figure. In AUTOEXEC.BAT can also enjo y the idea of menus CONFIG.SYS. You can instruct the AUTOEXEC.BAT to run only a stretch, according to the chosen menu in CONFIG.SYS. There are many uses for thi s idea, how to upload a particular file that is required only for a very specifi c application. We give an example with a very interesting idea: Many people put the command "win" at the end of AUTOEXEC.BAT so that the micro between straight into Windows. Can we create a menu in CONFIG.SYS for the user to choose whether he will want to enter directly into Windows or if you will want to work at the D OS prompt. The trick is in creating a system variable called% CONFIG%, in an amo unt equal to the name of the menu selected in the CONFIG.SYS. Suppose the follow ing Config.sys: [menu] menuitem = windows, Windows 3.11 menuitem = dos, prompt M S-DOS 6.2 menudefault = windows, 20 [common] (all commands CONFIG enter here) [w indows] 8

[Of] a CONFIG We where all commands are under "common" (ie, will always run), an d the sections [windows] and [the] vaziam. What is the advantage of this? AUTOEX EC When running, the system will have such variable% config% with value equal to the chosen menu at startup of the computer. Suffice now to change the AUTOEXEC. BAT so that Windows runs automatically every time config%% is equal to "windows" . Otherwise, just go to the DOS prompt. For this, the AUTOEXEC would be as follo ws: (all commands AUTOEXEC enter here) goto% config%: windows win: in other word s, if% config% is equal to "windows", the AUTOEXEC calls the command "win" . Whe n% config% equals "of" the AUTOEXEC "jumps" to the end of the file, ending its e xecution. Configuring the Config.sys Every operating system has a configuration file calle d CONFIG.SYS in the root directory. It is through this file that the operating s ystem is configured in its most basic form. In Windows 95, Windows NT and OS / 2 , the configuration of this file is not so problematic, because they rarely requ ire the user to change its contents. The same, however, does not occur in MS-DOS .€As the MS-DOS is an operating system extremely rudimentary, he alone knows no modern peripherals - such as CD-ROMs and sound cards. You should "teach" the sy stem how to deal with these resources "extras." This is the role of the driver, a small program loaded into memory that "teaches" the system how to work with a specific peripheral. In MS-DOS, the drivers are usually loaded by the config.sys . They can also be loaded by the AUTOEXEC.BAT, but we'll see it later in the day to talk about this. In CONFIG.SYS, drivers are loaded via the command Device = or =. DEVICEHIGH Moreover, MS-DOS has another major drawback that should be clea r to all who followed the series on memory configuration: it works in real mode and therefore recognizes only 640 KB of RAM. Another problem: every time a drive r is loaded into memory, less conventional memory (the area that the MS-DOS "see ") will be available for programs. The solution to this is to make the driver is loaded into memory area above 640 9 KB, called upper memory, making conventional memory is not too busy. This is don e through the command DEVICEHIGH =. Editing the CONFIG.SYS is not that hard, jus t use the EDIT command of MS-DOS. In MS-DOS prompt, enter: EDIT C: \ Config.sys. Existing commands in CONFIG.SYS are unique. This means that you can not enter a command in the CONFIG.SYS directly from MS-DOS prompt. Moreover, you have a min d that is only read CONFIG.SYS only once, when the operating system is loaded. F or this reason, after making any changes that you must restart the system. Ah! D o not forget to save the changes you make! Use the "Save" command present in the "File" menu command EDIT. In general, so your PC becomes the "point", you must edit the CONFIG.SYS as follows: CONFIG.SYS All commands must start with the DEVI CE = C: \ DOS \ HIMEM.SYS DEVICE = C: \ DOS \ NOEMS EMM386.EXE DOS = HIGH, UMB I f you have any program that requires the technique of expanded memory (old games and systems based on dBase / Clipper), just change the parameter "NOEMS" presen t in the second line by "RAM." Replace all commands "DEVICE" by "DEVICEHIGH, les s the lines that carry the HIMEM.SYS and EMM386. It is important to note that no t all drivers can be loaded with DEVICEHIGH - especially the manager of the new Plug and Play Kits Multimedia. To determine which drivers can be loaded or not w ith DEVICEHIGH, replace all commands "DEVICE" by "DEVICEHIGH," not caring about this detail. Save the Config.sys and give a "reset" on your PC. If it hangs duri ng the boot, take a "reset" again and press the [F8] when the message "Starting MSDOS ..." on the screen. This will cause the CONFIG.SYS is executed step by ste p. Confirming go line by line of CONFIG.SYS. When the computer crashes, the last line executed will be printed on screen. It is precisely this line that is maki ng your computer crash. Just to give you a "reset" button now pressing [F5] when the message "Starting MS-DOS ...". Edit the Config.sys and replace the command "DEVICEHIGH" to "DEVICE" line problem. Keep your CONFIG.SYS arranged as illustra ted below. Make sure there is no command.

If you ever need to create a basic Config.sys but do not know how it should be, use the example below. 10 device = c: \ dos \ HIMEM.SYS device = c: \ dos \, and, 386.exe noems dos = high , umb stacks = 9.256 files = 40 buffers = 20 country = 055, c: \ dos \ country. DEVICEHIGH sys = c: \ dos \ DISPLAY.SYS con = (, 850) devicehigh-c: \ windows \ Ifshlp.sys MS-DOS 6 allows you to create a menu of configuration options during boot. This procedure is called multi-config and is used when you need more than a CONFIG.SYS on the same PC. Imagine the situation: you have in your PC a game y ou love and you need the technique of expanded memory. So, as I have learned, si mply replace the parameter "NOEMS" with "RAM" in line with the EMM386 in CONFIG. SYS. Then you just play, you should replace the parameter back "NOEMS," so that other programs do not accuse any error. After a while you will run out of patien ce to stay in this switching of parties. The solution may be the Multi-Config. W e could then create a Multi-Config to present a menu with two options: normal bo ot and boot with expanded memory, you'll use when you want to play this little g ame. For this example, the micro CONFIG.SYS would be: [menu] menuitem = normal, Normal Boot menuitem = expand, Boot with Expanded Memory menudefault = normal, 1 0 [common] device = c: \ dos \ himem.sys of = high, umb stacks = 9.256 files = 4 0 buffers = 20 coutry = 055, c: \ dos \ coutry.sys [normal] device = c: \ dos \ emm386.exe noems [expand] device = c: \ dos \ EMM386.EXE ram What will happen wh en the computer goes boot? The operating system will notice that there is a menu to appear and present. All there is in the [menu] set menu for 11 will be presented. In our case, if chosen the first option screen ("Normal Boot" ), the [normal] is performed. If you choose the second option ("Boot with Expand ed Memory"), the [expand] is to be performed. This is defined by MENUITEM = comm and and options are presented on screen in the same order they are arranged in C ONFIG.SYS. If the user does not choose any option within 10 seconds, the [normal ] is performed. This is defined via the command MENUDEFAULT =. The section [Comm on] is executed regardless of which option the user choose at boot time. This sa ves time because you do not need to be writing the parts that are equal sections exist. The remaining sections are executed in accordance with the option chosen by the user during boot. Tai solved the problem of who has a little game instal led on your PC that requires expanded memory and does not want to be wasting tim e by editing the CONFIG.SYS to make it work. 12