COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL abdominal exercises ELECTROESTIMU LACIÓ N VOLUNTEERS AND AUTHOR: M ª Isabel Rodríguez of the

Church DIRECTOR: Piti Pinsach Ametller ABSTRACT This study compares the effect it can have on the reduction of waist ci rcumference with electrical stimulation is supposed to provide the traditional a bdominal exercises. The study was conducted in 16 sessions spread over eight wee ks at two sessions per week, separated by a minimum of 48 hours. He took 28 subj ects divided into four groups. All of them were taken to the waist circumference , prior and subsequent to the investigation. The first group did not perform phy sical activity, electrical stimulation used in the abdominals. The second group performed traditional abdominal exercises only volunteers. The third group perfo rmed moderate physical activity immediately after the use of electrostimulation in the abdominals. The fourth group, the control, had no abdominal or used elect rical stimulation, nor did any other kind of physical exercise. The study showed that the groups that used electrical stimulation had a significant reduction in waist circumference. The group that performed traditional abdominal exercises d id not obtain significant results, but in some cases, it was found that there wa s a slight increase in waist circumference. KEY WORDS - Electro, abdominal circu mference, waist. INTRODUCCIÓN El estudio tiene especial interés porque se trata un tema que preoc upa mucho a nuestra sociedad. The standards of beauty set make individuals pendi ng their overall physical and extrusion of their abdomen in particular. It is co mmonly seen in gyms, fitness centers, sports clubs and even in their own homes t o people doing endless series of abdominal exercises. Think of fitness, particul arly in the abdomen, usually directly related to abdominal exercises. It is asso ciated with the abdominal exercises with reduced waist circumference. However, t here is no research to confirm this reduction, and yes, on the contrary, there a re publications that cited the harmful effects that can have the practice of abd ominal exercises. 1 According to recent research, performing abdominal exercises aimed at strengthen ing the rectus abdominis, lead to increased pressure within the abdomen and are able to bulge the transversus, the abdominal fascia. Practitioners provide a str ong stomach and a little bulky (1). According to different literature sources, i t is shown that these exercises abdominal weakens the perineum, causing urinary incontinence, prolapse (dropping of the internal organs, matrix and / or colon) and sexual dysfunction (2, 3, 4). Almost all fitness professionals have been ask ed once about what to do to get a flat belly and everyone knows that the solutio n is not to do sit-ups, since most people who come by and ask . Cardiovascular e xercise, though it helps in reducing overall fat (5) is not sufficient to achiev e a reduction in the perimeter of the abdomen. Combining exercise improves cardi ovascular and abdominal exercises, in a sense, the physical aspect of the practi tioners (6) but, as manifested by many customers, it seems that is not achieved the goal you seek, obtain a flat stomach and strong. It was shown in a recent re search conducted at the University of Physical Education in Oporto, which superi mpose to training cardiovascular electrostimulation achieved a highly significan t decrease localized fat in the abdomen and waist circumference (7). All this in formation led us to conduct this study with an investigation to check what effec t does abdominal exercises on the perimeter of the abdomen and compare the resul ts with those obtained with the application of electrostimulation in the abdomen . The reason why we decided to conduct this research is very interesting because we seem to specify the type of exercise that provides best results for reducing the waist circumference and confirm whether the traditional abdominal exercises provides a protruding abdomen. The ultimate goal of this work is therefore veri fied by a comparative study, the effect of traditional abdominal exercises volun teers and the effect of electrical work in the abdominal area,€assuming that it is much more effective electrostimulation and it is not as aggressive as the pel

vic floor traditional abdominal exercises, which have been shown to cause an ove rpressure that causes pelvic floor dysfunction. 2 MATERIAL AND METHODS Subjects To test the hypothesis, there were four working gr oups, which initially consisted of ten people each. All individuals who formed t he working groups were healthy and without any alteration or injury that prevent ed them from physical exercise. The ages ranged from 25 to 45 years. Material is used stimulators Compex ® brand, model, Sport 3, with maximum curren t pulse of 120 mA (milliamps) and compensated and biphasic rectangular pulse. Compex Sport 3 The program used was the Resistance Force, selecting the area of the abdomen (chronaxie of 300 microseconds), level 1, acting at a frequency of 5 0 Hz, with a time of contraction and rest for 7 seconds each and a rest frequenc y of 5 Hz for each subject were used two large electrodes (5 cm. X 10 cm.) and f our small (5 cm. X 5 cm.) Compex ® house. Measuring tape, with which we measured waist circumference on the day the investigation began and the day it ended. Co ntrol tables, which were recorded intensities at which subjects of research work in each session of electrical stimulation. Final questionnaire, where subjects who participated in the study reflected their perceptions, impressions and feeli ngs they had during the two months of research. Experimental procedures research was conducted in 16 sessions spread over eight weeks, at two days per week. Before we begin, we measured the waist circumferenc e to all participants with a tape measure, with the subject in an upright positi on, relaxed, with the weight distributed between both legs and feet separated ab out 25-30 cm. In front of the subject, it will put the tape measure around the w aist, skin tight 3 without pressure, keeping f normal expiration. This n order to be as rigorous the investigation and at it horizontal. The measurements were made at the end o measurement was repeated three times in each subject i as possible and was performed at both the beginning of the end, after two months.

DESCRIPTION OF THE GROUP OF RESEARCH A first group of individuals who only used electrostimulation. This first group used electrical stimulation to reduce waist circumference. As a preliminary matter, there was a habituation to electrical s timulation of three sessions to habituate subjects to the feel of this type of t raining. Completed three sessions of habituation, stimulators were used twice a week for ten minutes, always at the maximum bearable intensity and performing a voluntary contraction in the opposite direction to that conducted by the stimula tor (detailed protocol below). A second group of individuals who did not perform physical activity, these volunteers made traditional abdominal exercises. The t rained group also ten minutes two days a week, performing traditional abdominal exercises volunteers (details below). A third group of individuals who performed moderate physical activity and previously used in abdominal electrical stimulat ion as the first group. This group was formed by persons who performed twice a w eek for an hour moderate cardiovascular exercise and muscle toning, they made in their training traditional abdominal exercises but within pre-exercise isometri c and stimulators used for ten minutes, always at the maximum intensity bearable , and performing a voluntary contraction in the opposite direction to that condu cted by the stimulator. A fourth group of control, who never used abdominal or e lectrostimulation. This group was formed by individuals who did not make any kin d of exercise and also used an electrical training. 4

DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF The electrostimulation electrostimulation training group did two days per week, separated by a minimum of 48 hours in two months, the sessions lasted ten minute s and the work intensity was the maximum that the subject came to bear, always k eeping inside the abdomen from the time they are beginning to feel the contracti on by the stimulator.€It ignored the heating phase of electro and became the pro gram of Force-Resistance at level 1. All sessions, including three of habituatio n, were performed with the subjects standing. Habituation sessions were conducte d with low intensity in order to accustom people to the feeling of electrostimul ation. At the beginning of the investigation, after habituation, peak intensitie s were recorded for each subject in each session endured. Sought to gradually in crease the intensity as the person could tolerate. Placement of electrodes large electrodes were placed transversely in the rectus abdominis, the negative in the proximal portion, just below the xiphoid process and the positive in the distal sub-umbilical area, almost to the groin area. Sma ll electrodes are placed along the external obliques, the negative in the proxim al portion, the waist and the positive, following the oblique line was placed in the distal portion just before the rectus abdominis. The placement of the elect rodes is designed so that the lower rectus work at higher intensity, because it is usually the area that has less muscle tone at the low innervation you have. Placement of electrodes. Left photo: abdominal muscles before contraction; pictu re on the right: abdominal muscles at the time of contraction. 5 Traditional abdominal exercises These exercises were performed volunteers two da ys a week for two months with a minimum of 48 hours rest between sessions for a duration of ten minutes. There were two sets of each exercise listed below. Description of the 1st abdominal exercises Exercise: Supine, knees bent, soles o f the feet flat on the floor, hands clasped behind his head and elbows wide. Ele vation of the shoulders and the top soil about 30 º in the direction of the knee s. During contraction, the hands remained clasped behind the head without exerti ng any force forward. Photo left: starting position; picture on the right: 2nd year running exercise: supine, legs elevated at an angle of 90 degrees with the trunk, knees slightly b ent, hands clasped behind head, elbows open. Elevation of the shoulders about 30 ? Soil degrees toward the legs. During the execution of the exercise, the hands were clasped behind his head, avoiding any force to the head and neck. Photo left: starting position; picture on the right: exercise performance 6 3rd year: Supine, legs elevated at an angle of 90 degrees with the trunk, knees slightly bent, hands clasped behind his head and elbows wide. Lift your right sh oulder toward your left knee directing the incorporation was approximately 30?. It returned to the starting position and ran the counter-movement with the left shoulder. Photo left: starting position; central Photo: Running to the right, Right photo: running to the left. ? The exercises are performed in that order, were executed sets of 20 repetition s each, and if at the end of the three series had plenty of time (not reached at

10 min.) Exercises were repeated in the same order. 7 RESULTS waist circumference measurements yielded data that can be observed, subj ect by subject, in the column on the left and right tables. The reduction in wai st circumference with electro group are significant in four of the six subjects, while the next group, who performed abdominal exercises volunteers, only apprec iable difference in one of the six subjects and can see that in 2 subjects there is an increased waist circumference? Table 1. Measurements taken by the researc h subjects participating in the electrical work: 100 1-97 cm. 2-78 cm. 3-91 cm. / 97 cm. / 75 cm. / 90 cm. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 investi gations Before Results 4 to 74.8 cm. / 74 cm. 5 to 65.1 cm. / 64 cm. 6-71 cm. / 71 cm. 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? Table 2. Measurements taken by the research subjects participating in the trad itional abdominal work with volunteers: 123 456 87 cm. 87 cm. / 87.5 cm. 90/87 cm. 80 70 77 cm. / 77.3 cm. 60 50 40 78 cm. / 77 cm. 30 20 67 cm. / 67 cm. 10 80.5 c m. / 80.3 cm. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Before the research results 8 In the group that prior to electro-moderate exercise, reduced waist circumferenc e was significantly higher in seven of the eight subjects€while in the control g roup did not see any significant difference. ? Table 3. Measurements taken by th e research subjects participating in working with electrical and moderate exerci se: 1234567892.4 cm. / 90 cm. 67 cm. 76 cm. 91 cm. 77 cm. / 65.5 cm. 100/74 cm. / 91 cm. / 75.5 cm. 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Before the research results 65.3 cm. / 64 cm. 79.4 cm. / 77.5 cm. 74.5 cm. / 73.5 cm. ? Table 4. Measurements taken by the research subjects participating in the grou p that did not perform traditional abdominal or used volunteers or electrostimul ation: 12345678 90.5 cm. / 90.5 cm. 86.5 cm. / 86.5 cm. 100 90 80 74 cm. / 73.7 cm. 70 60 75.7 cm. / 75.5 cm. 50 40 90 cm. / 90 cm. 30 6 7.5 cm. / 67.5 cm. 20 10 0 67.5 cm. / 67 cm.

Before the research results 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 82.5 cm. / 82.5 cm. 9 DISCUSSION The different methods used in this study have shown significant diffe rences in the reduction of waist circumference, as well as in the perceived effe ctiveness by the subjects. The groups were somewhat undermined by the lack of as sistance from some of the subjects. Nevertheless, the results are illuminating. In the group that electrostimulation sessions, four of the six subjects were sig nificant decreases in waist circumference. One of the subjects decreased by 3 cm . (78 cm. / 75 cm.), Three at least 1 cm. in waist circumference, and in two sub jects no change. One possible explanation for the difference between these two s ubjects is the lack of regularity, it could not attend all sessions. In the grou p that electrostimulation sessions followed by moderate exercise, seven of the e ight subjects achieved reductions between 1 and 2.4 cm., A subject fell 2, 4 cm. , Another 2 cm., A third subject 1 9 cm., two 1.5 cm., a sixth subject 1.3 cm. a nd seventh 1 cm. In this group we also find a subject that lack of consistency i n training, was no change in their actions. In the scientific literature appears proven in the electrical stimulation produced a pattern of recruitment of diffe rent motor units (motor units that have thicker diameters are recruited in the f irst place), which normally causes with voluntary contractions (10, 11, 12). Thi s may be one explanation for the effectiveness of electrostimulation. A demonstr ation of the statistical superiority of the reductions achieved with electrical pre-exercise cardiovascular fitness and toning, the research by providing Throat , R. et al (7), although in his case was conducted jointly with cardiovascular t raining. In the group that performed traditional abdominal exercises volunteers we find that there are two subjects increased somewhat their waist circumference (77 cm. / 77.3 cm. And 87 cm. / 87.5 cm.), Two subjects have followed with the same feet that had at first (87 cm. / 87 cm. and 67 cm. / 67 cm.) and two have a chieved very significant reductions (78 cm. / 77 cm. and 80.5 cm. / 80 cm.). The se recent data confirm, in some subjects, the abdominal exercises cause an incre ase in waist circumference. It therefore seems important that future research be focused on this parameter. If confirmed, must take a new approach to abdominal exercises for health and aesthetic improvements. And finally, in the group of su bjects who did abdominal exercises or electrostimulation sessions, most continue to have the same waist circumference and a decrease is not statistically signif icant. 10 In the data, groups achieved greater reduction in waist circumference are the gr

oups that trained with electrical stimulation. In the other two groups, measures remained unchanged or the decline was statistically insignificant. It is confir med that the group of subjects who performed traditional abdominal exercises, so me few millimeters increased their waist circumference. As regards the intensiti es supported by the subjects, were the maximum that allowed them to keep the abd omen contraction. When the intensity was so high that the abdomen was planned ou t, it decreased the intensity to be at an intensity that the person could contro l the abdomen contraction. Much attention was that the person may keep contracti ng the abdomen as the maximum bearable intensity did not change significant. ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH SUBJECTS BY the end of the investigation were the subject s gave final questionnaires to reflect their perceptions, impressions and feelin gs during the investigation. The group that performed traditional abdominal said not too many comments, except the onset of stiffness and some made reference to cervical and lumbar pain. The groups that trained with electrostimulation made comments like: "I notice that the abdomen is more defined," "rules less abundant and painful", "I see my size smaller." So the perception of health and aestheti c subjects using electrical stimulation has been very good. 11 CONCLUSIONS - This study serves to demonstrate the effectiveness of electrostimu lation in reducing waist circumference, whether it applied exclusively, as befor e a cardiovascular workout and toning. - The research makes clear that tradition al abdominal exercises do not cause the decline and even produce a slight increa se in waist circumference. - The study shows a progressive tolerance to the inte nsity of electrostimulation by the research subjects. - In future research studi es should be made exclusive to confirm abdominal exercises suggesting this inves tigation. It is likely that more days a week the results of increased waist circ umference are even more spectacular, which should lead to reconsider the inconve nience of dynamic abdominal exercises. - More comparative research would yield n ew points of light on the effectiveness and appropriateness of applying electric al stimulation for aesthetic and health. 12 REFERENCES (1) Pinsach P Course and Physical Fitness Trainer. Physical Activity and Health. CEAC Paper Òrbita Gràfica course per Publicacions, SL ISBN 84-394-3470-7, 2004 (2) Calais-Germain, B. The female perineum and childbirth, Barcelona. The books of the March Hare, 1998 (3) Spanish Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Journa l, 1999 (4) Amostegui, J.M. Files Pág.644 Sports Medicine, Vol.XVI, num.74, 1999 (5) Asier E. Juul Achten and Jeukendrup. FatMax: A New Concept to Optimize Fat Oxidation During Exercice? European Journal of Sport Science, vol. 1, issue 5, 2 001 (6) Achten, J; Glenson, M and Jeukendrup, AE Determination of the Exercise i ntensity That elicits maximal fat oxidation. Human Performance Laboratory, Schoo l of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingha m, B15 2tt, United Kingdom. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, p. 92, 2003 (7) Throat, R., Chaves, C., Maia, J., Seabra, A. Efeitos do Trein cardio-vascul ar com e sem electroestimulaçao na da deplecçao of regional abdominal fat. 10 º Congresso de Ciências do Desporto e de Educação physical two countries of Portug uese lingua. Poster-Communication. 2004 (8) Hodges, P. W. Is There a role for tr ansversus abdominis in lumbo-pelvic stability. Manual therapy, 4 (2), 74-86; 199 9 (9) Pinsach, P. Applied Electro, Ed Foundation for the Development of Continui ng Health Education 2003, ISBN 84-95769-00-X (10) Belanger, AY, Quinlan, J.: Mus cle function studies in human plantar flexor and dorsi-flexor muscles. Can J Neu rol Sci, 9: 358-359, 1982 (11) Belanger, AY, McComas, AJ: A comparison of contra ctile muscles in human arm and leg muscles. Eur J. Appl. Physiol., 54: 326-330, 1985 (12) Blumentahal, DK, Stull JT: Activation of skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase by calcium and calmodulin. Biochemistry, 19:5608-5614, 1980.

13