Structure of Linguistic POUNDS LUCINDA FERREIRA BRITO PhD in Linguistics Department of Linguistics and Philolog y at the Federal University

of Rio de Janeiro POUNDS A is endowed with a grammar formed from the constituent elements of words or lexical items and a lexicon (t he set of words of the language) that structuring mechanisms from morphological, syntactic and semantic showing specificity but also track general basic princip les. These are used in the generation of linguistic structures in a productive, enabling the production of an infinite number of buildings from a finite number of rules. It is also equipped with conventional components pragmatic, encoded in the lexicon and structures of the pounds and pragmatic principles that allow th e generation of implicit metaphorical meanings, irony and other non-literal mean ings. These principles also govern the appropriate use of linguistic structures of Libras, ie allow users to use structures in different contexts that are prese nted to correspond to the various linguistic functions that emerge from the inte raction of everyday life and other types of language use. We shall see each of t hese concepts to the definition discussed and illustrated by structures POUNDS. 1. The lexicon or vocabulary of POUNDS 1.1. Estrura sublexical Signals from thei r units Distinct Minimum 1.2. Training of lexical items or signals from Morpheme s 1.2.1. Lexical and Grammatical Morphemes Morphemes 1.2.2. Formation of words b y derivation and composition 1.2.3. Verbal Aspect 1.2.4. Lexical Items and Make Time for Time 1.2.5. 1.2.6 Quantification and intensity. Classifiers 1.2.7. Merg er of two arguments. Structuring of Sentences in POUNDS 1. The lexicon or vocabulary of POUNDS The lexicon can be defined 'roughly' as the set of words of a language. In the c ase of Libras, words or lexical items are the signs. Fequentemente It is thought that the words or signs of a sign language is made from alfabelto manual such a s: (1) a) RIGHT b) MYRNA c) CHOPP However, this is not the case. The manual spelling the letters of a word in Port uguese, as in example (1), is the mere transposition into space, through the han ds of the graphemes of the word of the spoken language. That is, a means of maki ng loans in POUNDS. So, as we have the word "xerox" in Portuguese which is a loa n from Inglis, the examples in (1) illustrate the numerous loans POUNDS. (1-a) i s the spelling of the name of a person, ie a proper name in Portuguese as the na mes in POUNDS, are different. So when a person wants to introduce someone to som eone, spell their first name in Portuguese (MYRNA) and, if it has a name in POUN DS, then this will be articulated. Example (2) illustrates a user POUNDS present ing a person named Myrna his interlocutor. Example (2): A: 3 SUBMITTED 2. NAME M -Y-R-N-A. SIGN MYRNA. (= I'll present it to Voci, her name is MYRNA. Your sign ( name in POUNDS) is Myrna) (1-b) is the spelling of a word in Portuguese "beer" w ord for the concept of which there is no sign or word POUNDS. In this case, the written word of Portuguese to be transposed into the space through the spelling book. (1-a) is the spelling of a word in Portuguese for a term which is a sign i n POUNDS which is known as one of the users in general a listener. Example (3): A: B: A: B: CORRECT ANSWER (The answer is right =) O-WHAT THIS, RIGHT (= What do es this signal?) RIGHT (right =) OK (Oh OK) Or, a person can spell SURE to show another how to spell this word in Portuguese . In this case, spelling manual is a means of verification, or serving questin t he spelling of a word in Portuguese. However, the signal even for the concept "r ight" in POUNDS is what follows next to the illustration of manual spelling the word right: C-E-R-T-O RIGHT Now I have one word of Libras. We can see that she did not articulate in a linea r fashion as the spellings are in (1). This word or sign that has a distinct str

ucture or the spellings of words in Portuguese. The words in Portuguese, are for med by the juxtaposition of its components or linear minimum units distinct. 1.1. Estrura sublexical Signals from their units separate minimum The right word or lexical item, in Portuguese, is composed of the following comp onents or units: in Portuguese spoken / sertu / Here we have five sounds or phon emes, that is, five components or minimum units of the spoken word right.€writte n in Portuguese We have here some five letters or graphemes components of the wr itten word. We do not consider the letter as a minimum unit phoneme because the phoneme, is sometimes represented, in writing, by more than one letter, as is th e case: / xatu / - boring / x / - ch or sometimes one letter can represent more than one phoneme, as in: / leksiku / - lexical / ks / x Thus, there are five ese. These units are to form words. sure a, the minimal units configuration of the e pivot point of the components or minimum constituent units of words in Portugu called phonemes minimum we know to be sequentially combined - / sertu / boring - / xatu / lexicon - / leksiku / in Libr or components of a word or sign SURE are: F l / TBD is the hands is the linear movement, down with retention end is th signal, ie the trunk, chest, right side

(Y, Z) (x, y) is the orientation of the palm to the left is the S symmetry in mo tion or use the left hand, performing the same movement that the left, as well a s articulating and not just as supporting hand . In Portuguese, the minimal unit s or components of the right word / sertu / can be described as follows: / s / s ound with obstructed passage (as) deaf, fricative. / E / r / / t / u / sound pas sage (vowel) sound, open medium. sound passage blocked (depending on), sound, vi brant. sound passage blocked (as) deaf, occlusive. sound passage (vowel) sound, closed later. It can be observed by the description of minimum units of SURE in pounds and som e in Portuguese, that the characteristics of the units of the signals are spatia l (shape of the hand or the solid, linear motion and retensão, orientational vec tors of the hand, etc.). and that the characteristics of the units of spoken wor ds are such acoustic-noise (or obstructed free passage of sound, sound, position of the joint posterior, frontal, medium mouth, etc.).. As we have seen, the wor ds of Portuguese and Libras are structured from minimum noise and spatial units, respectively. These units or phonemes, as already mentioned, are distinctive because, when substituted for on e another, generate a new linguistic form with a different meaning. For example, in POUNDS, we have: they are two distinct words or signs with different meanings as well only becaus e the first sign - LEARN - be articulated in the forehead and the second - SATUR DAY - be articulated in the mouth of the user. That is, there is a distinct spac e in the characteristic signals, the pivot point, which distinguishes them. Thes e characteristics, / forehead / and / in mouth / are distinctive units minimum e quivalent to phonemes from words foot and beat the Portuguese, / p / and / b /, which also distinguish the linguistic forms and their meanings. LEARN and SATURD AY in pounds and leg and hit in Portuguese, are minimal pairs because their phon ological forms are idÍnticas in all but one feature space (point of articulation ) for the first and aural (sound) for the past. Consider other minimal pairs in POUNDS: Minimal Pairs in POUNDS EDUCATE / EDUCATION Accustom / CUSTOM Par separate minimum configuration by Hand GREEN (SP)

ICE CREAM (SP) Minimal pair distinguished by the Movement Through the above examples in Portugu ese and Libras, we show that the words of Libras are also formed from minimal un its distinctive calls, in spoken languages, phonemes. The number of these units is finite and small because, following the principle of economy, they combine to generate an infinite number of shapes or words. Then, the lexicon of Libras, li ke the lexicon of any language is infinite in that it always involves the genera tion of new words. Previously it was thought that the pound was poor because he had a small number of signs or words. It can happen the fact that a language tha t is not used in all sectors of society or could be used in a culture quite diff erent from what we know does not produce words or words to a particular semantic field, however, does not mean that this language is potentially poor because it has all the mechanisms for creating or generating words to any concept that wil l be used by the community that uses it. For example, POUNDS had a sign for the concept "language" until a few years. As if deaf people were informed about what is done in linguistics, the linguistic meaning, there was a need to generate a signal to that concept. The signal is not LINGUISTIC spelling of the word in Por tuguese, however, has a trace of loan because the setting is hand picked L (only the thumb and index finger extended), a shape of Libras, however,€that used to represent the letter "L" in the manual alphabet. This signal is held with both h ands, palms down with the thumb of a hand almost touching the other in front of the bust, making movements of positive spin and translational rectilinear sidewa ys. However, there is any distinctive combination of minimum units to be permitt ed by the language. There are restrictions and because they do we say that certa in forms are not accepted at the linguistic system while others are. One way lbr esk not be identified by speakers of Portuguese as a well-formed or as a word of that language. This is because of the Portuguese phonological pattern is CV (co nsonant + vowel) and due to other restrictions. In order lbresk the use of sever al consonants and sequÍncia certain types of consonants makes this way escape th e standards accepted by the Portuguese. Likewise, a form made up from the minimu m units of pounds will not be accepted as a word of that language if you run awa y to the standards that govern the formation of his words. For example, a sign t hat the main articulator is the left hand or the right hand is a hand of support will not be considered a well-formed word of Libras. The units described above are called minimum units distinctive because distinguish words, as in the exampl es cited for pound, and LEARN SATURDAY, distinguished by place of articulation: head and mouth, respectively. Likewise, the words foot and beat in Portuguese, a re distinguished by the characteristic phonetic sound, ie, one is deaf and the second is sound. Thus / p / and / b / are two minimum units or phonemes and distinctive points of articulation / forehead / and / in mouth / units are also minimal, this time from POUNDS, or "phonemes." Going forward, when we speak of " phonemes" of Libras are referring to their spatial units than tim nothing to do with sound or phone, however, that work just to phonemes of oral languages. As w e can observe, the principles and mechanisms that are used in the structuring of words from minimal units are the same in Portuguese and Libras. What differs is the nature of the characteristics of the units that are restricted by the oralauditory modality, in Portuguese, and visual-spatial modality in POUNDS. It is d ue to the same restrictions that the units or phonemes of Portuguese are organiz ed or structured sequentially or linearly in time while the units or "phonemes" of Libras are structured while at the same time or in space. The minimum units a re distinctive in POUNDS the following parameters according to the configuration of Hands, Point of Coordination, Movement Guidance and Facial Expression. Consi der these parameters in the signal SURE / SURE, illustrated below: Figure sure sign of its parameters Settings Hand of POUNDS

The 46 hand configurations of C HEAD POUNDS top of the head face R S T forehead upper face I lower face P The Eye Ear Nose N B d mouth cheeks The area below the chin neck T BODY P Points of Articulation POUNDS It must also employ certain ad jectives quelocalizam more precisely the points of articulation: Other terms are used to describe the horizontal translation of points of articul ation as pictures from a previous point in the frame of the body: The B and Q C B S P I C M P C shoulder bust waist stomach ARMS arm wrist elbow forearm chin HAND palm of your hand Coast In the description of points of articulation, are still used the foll owing terms: L1 L2 side of the indicator hand pinky fingers D Dp fingertips Dd k nuckles (junction between the fingers and hand) Dj knuckles (first joint of the finger) finger D1 D2 D3 annular middle finger indicator D4 D5 V interstices betw een thumb fingers V1 interstices between thumb and forefinger V2 Interstice betw een the index and middle fingers V3 Interstice between the middle and ring finge rs V4 Interstice between the ring and little fingers p LEG EN SPACE NEUTRAL Types o f Movements and Orientation POUNDS internal movements of hands: [~ 5] gradual ex tension of the fingers starting with the indicator [The ~ 5] gradual extension of the fingers starting with the little finger [The ] Simultaneous opening of the fingers [[ The] simultaneous closing of the fingers bO] clamping (with the forefinger and t humb) [ mov] movement tapping with the fingers curved [5 + mov] motion drumming with fingers extended [54 ~ G] gradual closure of all fingers except the indicator [5 ~ [B] gradual closure of all fingers except thum b B] flexion of the hand, fingers extended [VV] repeated flexing and extension of the forefinger and middle finger together in the middle [V + mov] motion drumming of fingers [V. mov] shear motion [The] extension of the thumb [The L] thumb and index finger extended while [BV] sudden closing of all fingers except the index and middle, which is flex [T he [As [As [[[[G1 [The [The third] simultaneous extension of the thumb, index an d middle 3] simultaneous extension of all fingers except the thumb 5] simultaneo us extension of all the fingers L] index extension 3] extension of both the indi cator and the average 5] simultaneous extension of all fingers with the thumb al ready extended X] repeated bending of the indicator V] extension the indicator a nd the average R] extension of the minimum Expression of non-manual POUNDS Face Top frowning eyes wide eyes bid raised eyeb rows Face Bottom cheeks puffed cheeks contracted pursed lips and furrowed brows

and designed to run from the tongue against the bottom inside of the cheek just right cheek swollen contraction of the upper lip wrinkling of the nose to balance head back and fort h (yes) for balancing sides (not) bending forward tilt to the side slope behind the Face and Head wh wo Trunk head projected forward, eyes closed lightly, frowning (eg, what?, when and how, when, why), designed to head back and eyes wide open (ie: who?) Rotational movement translatory movements (hands moving in space) rectilinear re tensão Fefreados With Circular Continuous Tense Simple Repeated 1.2. Training of lexical items or signals from Morphemes We showed in the previous section, the words are structured as language Portugue se and Libras from their distinctive minimum units or "phonemes." Let us now ill ustrate how words are formed from their POUNDS morphemes or minimum unit of mean ing. 1.2.1. Lexical and Grammatical Morphemes Morphemes Morphemes are units which may be lexical or grammatical function. For example, t he words home, construction and impossible to Portuguese consist of the followin g morphemes: lexical home construpossívelmorfema s (plural) tion (name) im (deni al) grammatical morpheme In POUNDS, not all morphemes that form words are equivalent to the Portuguese. H owever, we can illustrate the morphemes of Libras as follows: SITTING PRETTY NIC E TALKING TO CATCH CAN GET POWER TO KNOW repeated movement (brand name) ~ ~ faci al expression (mark level augmentative) Ô facial expression (mark diminutive) 2 hands and long movements (continuative aspect) Cl: 5 Classifier for objects big round Cl: F Grader for small objects and small head movements (denial): NON-POWE R reverse movement of the hands (denial): IMPOSSIBLE movement of the hand out (d enial ): DO NOT KNOW-grammatical morpheme lexical morpheme Consider some illustrations of the signs above: TALK SPEAK NO-STOP TALKING gab + continuative aspect GET + Cl: 5 POWER / POSSIBLE NON-POWER IMPOSSIBLE KNOW NOT-KNOWING 1. 2. 2. Formation of words by derivation and composition The illustrations abov e are examples of word formation by derivation. CHAIR is derived from SIT by rep eated movement of the first; cute and derivative BEAUTIFUL by Addition of facial expression ~ ~ mark rate increases; is derived from the handsome BEAUTIFUL by A

ddition of the affix facial expression Ô, mark diminutive; TALK-TALK SEMPARAR is derived through the addition of the left hand and stretching movements, mark co ntinuative aspect; BALL CATCH-CATCH is derived through the addition of the affix Cl: 5, classifier for round objects large, GET NEEDLE-is GET derived through th e posting of the grammatical morpheme Cl: F, sorter for small objects and small; NON-POWER POWER is derived through the cattery negative head movements to the s ides, is derived from IMPOSSIBLE POSSIBLE by reversing the movement down to the sides, cattery also negative; NOT KNOW-KNO W and derived by displaying a motion of the hand out, too negative morpheme. Thr ough these examples, we observed that the first words are formed from its radica l to which are attached affixes or grammatical morphemes, the derivation process . The words or signs in POUNDS can also be formed by the process of composition, ie by the addition of two signals in simple compound shapes.€For example: HOUSE + CROSS CHURCH WOMEN = = LITTLE GIRL + MAN + = SMALL BOY SITTING Some signs and chairs are as diverse as how to name the categories and verb, but most of them do not distinguish the categories as verb, name , adjective and adverb. What wil l define them as such is its function in the sentence. We can, however, illustra te some instances of words that could be derived from others such as building an d construction, in Portuguese. For example, in the sentences below, identify the same lexical item as a noun or verb, depending on the sentence in which they ap pear: HE DO NOT CLEAN-FLOOR-Cl Y (with brush) (= He wiped the floor with brush) CLEAN-IT GROUND-Cl Y (with brush) NO-Y (= He did not clean the floor with the br ush) in the first instance, the lexical item CLEAN-FLOOR-Cl: Y has a verbal func tion. However, in the second sentence, CLEAN-FLOOR-Cl: Y has a nominal function, ie it is a noun because it comes with a light verb, NO-Y, which by their nature without Valinco verb can not be considered a name. Here, as so-called light ver bs always come accompanied by a name and as the only item capable of fulfilling this function is the nominal signal CLEAR-FLOOR-Cl: Y, we say that it may belong to both categories: CLEAN-FLOOR-Cl Y - verb CLEAN-FLOOR-Cl: Y - the name is the same with the other categories: adjective, adverb. 1. 2. 3. The Verbal Aspect P OUNDS, as well as various sign languages and oral modulates the movement of the signals to differentiate between punctual aspects, continuous or durative and it erative. The occasional appearance is characterized by referring to an action or event occurred and ended in a well-defined point in the past. In Portuguese, when we s ay, "he said on television yesterday," we know that the action happened in the p ast speak in a certain period of time "yesterday." In POUNDS, we have a sign TAL K to a linguistic context similar. For example, YOU TELL HIM YESTERDAY (= he spo ke with Voci yesterday). However, we also have the sign-SEM-STOP TALKING respect to an action that has a continuity in time as in the example HE STOP TALKING-SE M-CLASS (= he talked incessantly during class). Look at these two signals: STOP TALKING (looks off) TALK-SEM (continuative aspect) The same occurs with the verb LOOK that can undergo change in one or more of its parameters, then denote durative aspect. The signs illustrated below could appe ar in linguistic contexts like the following: LOOKING (off) YOU YESTERDAY YOU DO NOT LOOK-SEE (off) LOOK (durative) IT STAND-LOOKING LONG-MAR (durative) LOOK (durative) PASS IT ALL LOOK-continuous (durative) in the second signal to ' look', setting his hand and pivot point move from G1 to 5 and the eyes for the n ose. Thus we have the formation of another word with durative aspectual value. T he verb TRAVEL punctual aspectual value below could be used in sentences like PA

ULO BRASILIA TRAVEL YESTERDAY, while the verbal signal value with iterative appe ar in sentences such PAULO TRAVEL-MUITASVEZES. The iterative aspect refers to th e action or event that occurs repeatedly. Consider the following signs: TRAVEL (off) TRAVEL (iterative) This type of display that we find in POUNDS by amending the motion, the configur ation of the hand and / or point of articulation of the verb root or what would be considered radical, is not found in Portuguese. 1. 2. 4. Lexical Items for Time and The Mark of Time POUNDS not have in their ve rbal forms to mark time as the Portuguese. As we have seen, these forms may be m odular aspect. Some of them also bend to number and person. Thus, when the verb refers to a time past, present or future, which will mark the time of the action or event will be lexical items or signs as adverbial YESTERDAY, TOMORROW, TODAY -LAST WEEK, WEEK-Quevar. Thus, there is no risk of ambiguity because they know t hat if what is being narrated began with a mark in the past, does not appear as another item, or to schedule a time signal, it will be interpreted as having occ urred in the past. Signs that convey temporal concept, in general, is followed b y a mark past, future or present as follows: Move back to the past; Movement for ward to the future, and Movement in the body plan for this . Some of these signs , however, incorporate this mark time not requiring therefore a single brand suc h as YESTERDAY and the day before the signs illustrated below: YESTERDAY Day before yesterday Other signs such as YEAR require tracking a signal of future or present, but whe n it comes to past, he undergoes a change in direction of movement back and fort h, in itself means 'last year'.€The signs and YEAR PAST YEAR-can be seen in the illustrations below: YEAR YEAR-PAST It interessenta noted that a timeline made up of the coordinates: past (behind) - present (in the plane of the body) - future (in front), can also be observed i n spoken languages such as Portuguese and Inglis as mentioned earlier this cours e. A completely different structure of time was observed by us in Sign Language Vulture Kaapor, sign language of the indigenous inhabitants of the Amazon Forest Buzzard, where the future tense up and this is the torso of the user of that la nguage. The past does not seem to be marked. This led us to conclude that the Po rtuguese language, and Libras are not so different in what is not subject to res trictions from the visual-spatial modality, conveying thereby a worldview very s imilar, at least in the semantic aspects so far studied for us. The differences we have seen lately in pointing out grammatical and lexical structure of the pou nd and the Portuguese do not seem much point to cultural differences but are rat her due to the fact that the first use of the space and the second using the aco ustic medium, to structure the meanings and lexical grammar. 1. 2. 5. Quantifica tion and intensity quantification is achieved in POUNDS through the use of quant ifiers like much, but incorporate the measurement, regardless, because the use o f such words. So we can see in the examples with the verb LOOK up the look off i s accomplished with only one finger extended while the other two signs are perfo rmed with open hands, or with the fingers extended. Thus, this type of change of parameter setting Hand iconically represents a higher intensity in the action ( STAND-OLHANDOLONGAMENTE) or a larger number of related subjects (ALL-FICAROLHAND

O). This configuration change hands, increasing the number of fingers extended t o mean a larger amount can be illustrated by the signals ONE-TIME, TWO-TIMES, TH REE-TIMES: ONE-TIME TWO-TIMES THREE-TIMES Sometimes stretching the movement of signs and printing to it a more accelerated pace, we obtain a higher intensity or quantity. This is what happens with the s ignals TALK and SPEAK-NO-STOP, exemplified above and with the signs and VERY FAR -AWAY illustrated below: AWAY VERY-FAR As we can observe, the mechanisms used by the space POUNDS for meanings and mean ing effects differ from those used by the Portuguese. In this, the shapes or mar ks are much more arbitrary and are presented in the form of segments sequentiall y added to the item or a word changed. In POUNDS, occurs too frequÍncia an inter nal change, ie a change within the word itself. 1. 2. 6. Classifiers Because som e oral languages and as many sign languages, the classifier has POUNDS, a type o f grammatical morpheme that is attached to a morpheme or lexical signal to indic ate the class it belongs to the referent of that sign to describe it as to form and size, or to describe the way the referent is insured or behaves in verbal ac tion. The classifiers in spoken languages such as Japanese and Navajo are suffix es of the numerals and verbs, respectively. In POUNDS, as one can hardly speak i n prefix and suffix morphemes or because other components are added to the radic al signals simultaneously, we prefer to say that affixes the classifiers are bui lt into the verb or nominal. Thus, in the examples below, one can observe the cl assifier V and V, respectively, refer to the way a person walks and walks like a n animal. FLOOR (in person) FLOOR (for animal) The classifier FLOOR (in person) can also be used with other meanings such as 't wo people walking' or 'a couple of lovers' (if the fingertips are facing up), 'a person on foot' (tips of fingers down, etc.). This classifier is represented by setting the hands on V, as follows: A person walking walking or standing Two people dating or strolling The classifier C can represent any kind of deep cylindrical object like a cup, a box, an urn as in the example below the signal VOTE: VOTE Classifier C Other classifiers can be represented by the morphemes hand configurations B and Y as follows:

Classifier B Classifier Y The classifier B refers to and describes flat surfaces such as table, wall, floo r, etc.. classifier while Y refers to and describes objects with irregular shape s or multiform, but no plans and no fine. The classifier is that G1 is used to d escribe objects long and thin.€Countless are the classifiers in POUNDS, its natu re and its semantic function. However, only a few mentioned by way of illustrati on. 1. 2. 7. Incorporation of the languages and oral argument of signals present several cases of incorporation of argument or complement. For example, in Portu guese, we can mention the verb shelve it in a syntactic-semantic analysis, could be decomposed into a basic verb-type place and a complement of this verb would be a rental in the drawer. So we can say "I put the books in the drawer" or "I c anned the books." The constituent in the drawer, a locative, argument or complem ent of place, was incorporated into this verb and decorrÍncia that we have anoth er verb shelve that dispenses the locative complement because he carries this in formation in your own lexical item. We therefore have a lexical form derived fro m another more basic, but this time not by the process of derivation by posting or by composition, as discussed above, but by what is called the embedding argum ent. POUNDS in the process of incorporation of argument is very common and visib le due to the spatial and iconic features of signs. The tris verbs below illustr ate this type of incorporation. The first, the verb DRINK / TAKE can be used wit hout incorporation into sentences like: DRINKING BEER (= I drank beer) But if th e direct object of the verb, for example, coffee or tea, the verb will incorpora te this argument and we different verb forms, as demonstrated by the following i llustrations: Drinking, object type) F) COFFEE-DRINKING TEA (x-insure in POUNDS (CI: BA and CI: Another example of embodiment can be illustrated by th e verb RENT / PAGARMENSALMENTE PAY in the verb that is usually hinged on the sup porting hand in B as articulated in the supporting hand (left hand) in G1, the s ame signal MONTH. Thus, a part of this signal is incorporated into the signal PA Y to replace it. Take the sign: RENT / PAY MONTHLY-The same process of incorporation can also be observed in the signal that derives from the word sign EAT, which is incorporated into the dire ct object APPLE: EAT APPLE-EAT 2. Structuring of Sentences in POUNDS It is generally thought that the sentences are completely POUNDS different structural point of view of those of Portuguese. Indeed, with respect to word order and constituent, there are differences because the Portuguese lang uage is a basic subject-predicate as that Libra is a language-type topic-comment . In sentences of the Portuguese, the prevailing order is: subject (S)-verb (V) object (O), commonly called the SVO. Thus, the sentences are structured as follo ws: The Lion S guy killed the bear. V The predicate like soccer V The predicate All children subject S

In these sentences, as well as subject-predicate agreement that determines who d oes what in the event described by the verb of the sentence, the order is also s ignificant because otherwise we would not know which is the subject of the first sentence "The lion killed the bear" because both the constituent "The Lion" and the constituent "the bear" may agree with the verb. So if we altered the order of constituents above "the bear killed the lion," the subject would no longer be the "lion" to be "the bear." Moreover, there is the semantic aspect of the cons tituents and the verb that allows either one or the other constituent is the sub ject of "killing", ie one that kills. This is not the case with the second sente nce where the meaning of the constituent "all boys" and "football" does not make room for the two possibilities above. Moreover, the subject-predicate agreement in this second sentence is underscored by the fact that they include the plural mark while the second constituent "football" is singular. In this case, the ord er is less important to know the grammatical function and semantic role of the t wo constituents. However, the first sentence could have his last constituency mo ved to the front of the sentence through operations such as topicalization: The bear, a lion killed topic comment or bear the lion killed the topic comment Note, however, that in both cases it was necessary to appeal to mechanisms like intonation and unusual use of the preposition "a". In these cases, "the bear" re mains the direct object of "killing" and "lion", its subject, although we have t he topicalization of the object, that is, despite the direct object is the topic sentence and the subject and verb be the comment of the topic. The topicalization is relatively frequent in Portuguese, especially in colloquia l speech. However, in Libra, the frequÍncia is larger, we might say that is the general rule. In previous studies,€said that the preferred order of SVO sentence s POUNDS was when there was no topicalization or verbs or directional bending. H owever, further studies, although not refute what we said, showed that topicaliz ation is much more common than you think at first sight in POUNDS. The topic-com ment order is actually preferred when there are no restrictions that prevent cer tain constituents to move. However, a large number of sentences always appear in the order SVO. Here are examples: YOU READ NEWSPAPER (= Voci read the newspaper ?) SVO-NOT YOU SEE (= I have not seen voci) VO those two sentences, the order is SVO, that is, subject-verb-object. The subject of the second sentence is omitte d, it is an implicit argument, because in pounds as well as in Portuguese, the s ubject is generally assumed in the context or, when referring to the first perso n is always presupposed as known by the interlocutor. Thus, if the context is no t clear that anyone but the first should be the subject, this will be the first party. So, despite being explicit only the verb and object of the second sentenc e, we know that the order is SVO. These data reaffirm our previous studies, as w ell as the fact that when we have an inflected verb in the sentence order is ver y limited. Verbs with flexion with SEE, NOTIFY, ANSWERED, ASK, HELP are verbs in which the order will always be SVO. Note that we are not distinguishing here di rect object indirect object because, in recent studies in linguistics, there is a proposal to consider the complements as objects without preposition and the pr eposition with as oblique objects. In examples with the verbs above, we note the restriction on the order because the subject and the object does not appear as separate constituents of verbs, but in the way of bending the very verb by the d irectionality of their movement, a vector, whose point Source refers to the subj ect and whose final point refers to the object. It is the directionality with th ese two points is called verbal inflection. Here are examples: 1st 2nd REPLY (= I answered voci) first third ASK TRUTH (= he asked me the truth) TRUTH ASK first third (= the fact he asked me) 1st 2nd SEE (= I saw voci) MYRNA 3rd NOTIFY thir d SERGIO (= Myrna, she warned him, Sergio) 2nd 3rd HELP - Voci-help-it (= helped voci) As can be seen in these examples, the referent is always the first guy because h e is represented by the mark that starts the verb and the other for non-verbal i

s the brand that is marked by the verb or the end point of its movement, resulti ng in the order Subject-Verb-Object (direct and indirect). The third example abo ve shows one of the direct object topicalization which means that the order is O bject dir .- Subject - Verb - Object ind. In most cases, however, seems to prefe r POUNDS, as already stated, the topicalization and the verb at the end of the s entence as in the examples below: SEARCH STREET ACCIDENT topic topic topic COFFE E SUGAR-LIKE SHE DO NOT (= search, she does not like) comment NO-SEE (= the acci dent on the street I have not seen) commentary NO-Y (= sugar in coffee (she) doe s not put) comment Note, however, that in the examples above, even following the structure tópicoco mentário, the order of constituents is eventually (Locative) - Object - SujeitoV erbo. Even with topicalization, it seems we have almost always at least topic-SV (topic-subject-verb). In the last sentence, the subject is a third person, howe ver, is an implicit argument because the enunciator assumes that the speaker kno ws the referent identified by the situational context. As an illustration, see t he verb BORROW variant of São Paulo, and some of its inflections: 1EMPRESTAR2 2EMPRESTAR1 2EMPRESTAR3 EU-YOU-YOU-BORROW BORROW BORROW-YOU-I-IT I lent to Voci Voci Voci le nt lent to me for it with bended Some rare verbs bear the marks of subject and o bject in reverse, ie, the object is marked the first point of origin of movement of the verbal sign and the subject is marked by the end of movement of the verb al sign. Consider the verb INVITE: 1st 2nd INVITE voci-guest-I (Voci is being invited by me) (I invite) 1st 2nd 3rd INVITE INVITE 2nd-guest-I-convidadovocÍ Voci it (I'm being con (he i s being invited by Voci) vidado per voci) (Voci invites me) or (Voci invites) We have seen that the structure of sentences in POUNDS on the order of arguments (including supplements subject) is different from the Portuguese and even the m arks of bending are quite specific mode visualespacial language because it is ba sed on the directionality of the movement signal. However,€we emphasize here a s tructural level of the sentences in both languages in which the similarities are far greater than the specifics. This is the argument structure of sentences. Fr om this point of view, every sentence has a core that is the element that has Va linco. In general, the verb is that it has Valinco and as such, it is what deter mines the number and types of arguments or further information needed. Within th is concept, including the subject is seen as an argument. So we will say that a verb like "send" in Portuguese, and SEND in Libras are verbs with the same Valin co because the two tris ask arguments or additions: Paul sent the book to a frie nd BOOK SEND FRIEND PAULO (the book to a friend Paul sent) In both examples, the first in Portuguese and the second in POUNDS, regardless of the order, we can o bserve that the sentences are composed of a core and tris arguments or complemen ts: send - or core word with Valinco Paulo - an argument , that sends semantic r ole 'source', grammatical function 'subject'. Friend - second argument, that to whom you send, semantic role 'target' grammatical function 'indirect object' book - third argument, what is sent, semantic role 'theme' grammatical function 'direct object'. This kind of analysis of sentences and the Portuguese POUNDS sh ows how the syntactic-semantic structure may be the same. Some verbs, however, h ave no Valinco as the verbs take, give and make the Portuguese verb and the Y-NO T POUNDS. In this case, we will have a considerable difference because of the no n correspondÍncia syntactic-semantics in the two lan-guages. These are called li ght verbs that can be illustrated by the following examples: He undertook his st udies John gave the boy a spanking We did shopping yesterday CLEAR BRUSH-FLOOR-N

O-Y (to clean the floor with the brush, he did not) In these examples, the eleme nt with Valinco is the name that follows the verb in the examples of the Portugu ese and the name that precedes the verb in the example of Libras. This name is w hat is the core of the argument structure of the sentence because it is he who h as Valinco. The verb carries only the grammatical marks. Is the name that convey s the meaning of the lexical verbal complex. Therefore, although it resembles a direct object, the name with Valinco can not receive thematic roles (semantic) w hich makes this type of sentence more complex to analyze.