NES CIMENTACIO DEEP UNIT 12 12.1. INTRODUCTION (UD: 42.1) 12.2. TYPES OF PILES ( UD: 42.2-42.3) 12.3. Isolated pilot. COLLAPSE LOAD (UD: 42.5-42.6 / LW: 33.1-33. 2) 12.3.1. Introduction 12.3.2. Point resistance. 12.3.

3 Static and semiempirica l expressions. 12.3.4 shaft resistance. Formulas jacking and load tests 12.4. Pi lot group. COLLAPSE LOAD (UD: 43.2 / LW: 33.4) 12.5. DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGES IN GROUP OF PILES 12.6. CHECKING IN AND BREAK IN SERVICE (UD: 43.3) 12.7. NEGATIVE FRICTION AND OT HER SPECIAL SOLICITATIONS (LW: 33.5) 12.8. PROCEDURE OF CALCULATION AND TECHNOLO GY STANDARDS (UD: 42.4 / NTE) 12.1. General typology of foundations INTRODUCTION Purpose of a foundation: to t ransmit the buffered form field structural loads that can not be transmitted dir ectly to it as a material of low strength and high deformability. Shallow foundations: Foundations semideep Deep foundations D / B <4 4 <D / B <8-10 8-10 <D / B Pile: Items foundation of great length kneel directly on the ground or are built in a cavity previously opened in it. The foundation on piles is needed when the surface or semi-deep foundation is not possible for technical reasons or econom ic dimensions. Originally established criteria slimness such as: φ / l> 1 / 12 ( XV and XVI century) subsequently developed rejection criteria less than 1-4 mm in 25 to 30 blows o a hammer o given weight ormulas were developed then jacking: Pm Pm × H (1851) δ Pm + Pp an finally static an empirical expressions, respectively epen ing o n soil characteristic parameters or results of tests penetratción: Qh = pp = 9 c u or pp = qc / β Working metho s of the piles Contri ution y shaft: it relies on friction etwee n the groun an the pile. Behavior is shear stress versus relative isplacement that may have terms frictional or a hesion. Τ F = integral of x Afuste Contri ution to tip: it relies on the support usually normal in lower layers more resis tant either y nature ifferent as greater confinement. P = σn x dApunta integra l component A (any of them) may be much higher than the other. The haft may wor k again t, ie in tead of re i ting it re t . Ba ic criteria for the u e of tilt When urface layer are not trong enough t o obtain acceptable ize of urface foundation erving the breakage and conditi on of ervice ( eat ). Filling of oft oil that ha never been ubjected to an external load ( oil normally con olidated). Strict limitation of eat , eat or eat on other differential tructure . The pile are foundation that give ri e to very mall movement compared to hallow foundation . Heterogeneou ground. Pre ence of layer of variable depth hard upport. Very heavy load : Off hore, dock in port area , wall , bridge bearing , inverted vertical load (traction). In any ca e hould be con idered for po ible improvement of the land for exampl e by pre-loading or removing layer of oft oil. 11.2. TYPES OF PILES a) how to tran mit the load to the oil column: trong pred ominance of the peak component (re i tant layer on oft ground). Floating or fri ction: tran mi ion along the deformable oil pile to which i attached by haft .

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According to the NTE can be e tabli hed that: - P> 3 F work

e entially the pil

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b) The manner of putting in work over the ground Di placement pile or kneeling: the field i in talled in the field moving in a oil volume equivalent. Fir t the ground up, but then only compre ed. They feat ure: - trong friction oil - pile (the pile i tightly confined) - oil di turb ance: improving overall compre ion area - to reduce the co t of jacking the pil e may be of intere t to be mooth Pile of mining: the ground i dug beforehand where you are in talling the pile. Then run the pile. They are characterized by: - weak friction oil - pile due t o weak normal ten ion - intere t that the pile i rough to enhance the contribut ion of tem. Extraction - di placement: the previou ly excavated oil volume to occupy le t han the pile over. Thi i done to reduce the co t of jacking a middle ground. c) the place of manufacture and method of execution Prefab : in thi ca e are tr an ported from one manufacturing plant and kneel by percu ion, pre ure or vibr ation,€by hydraulic jack , crew the ground or in talled in borehole drilled pr eviou ly. Executed in itu: There are variou typologie - jacking of ca ing rec overed with a azuche (cap lo t on the tip of the tubing). I poured in ide the c a ing to be extracted imultaneou ly with the concrete. Should alway be two dia meter of concrete in ide the hirt to prevent entry of water. The ca ing i rem oved by lateral beating u ed to vibrate the concrete. ICC 2 - Idem but with cap in place of azuche gravel. In thi ca e the hit i made with an internal hammer trike the cap. CPI 3 - Extraction with poon (if hard ground drill) with tubin g retrievable. The concrete ca ing i removed. CPI-4. - Extraction with poon (i f hard ground drill) with non-recoverable tubing. CPI-5. - Drilled with propelle r and maintaining the excavation thixotropic ludge (mixture of water and benton ite clay) that hold the wall to avoid land lide (the den ity can be from 1.3 t o 1.4, I gue ). CPI-6 - Borer: introducing a mortar through the center of the a uger that move the ground field. Finally we will extracting the auger while i poured. The tru e are introduced into the fre h concrete. CPI-7 d) according to the Wood material: Underwater Metal hold up wel l to harne rolled. Oxidation rate i low Concrete: reinforced or pre tre ed. Mixed: A combination of profile with concrete. General procedure for calculation 1. Selection of the olution ba ed on predeter mined criteria 2. Te ting on break / Downfall ( ingle pile / group of pile ). If it fail , back to 1. 3. Checking ettling / eat for the workload. If it fail , back to 1. 4. Structural dimen ion of the pile: armor 5. Sizing of auxiliary equipment uch a pile cap or beam bracing. Notation pp: peak pre ure or re i tance to the ultimate point (unit of voltage ) pf: re i tance pre ure to tem or tem-rupture (unit of voltage) Qh: Burden of collap e (t) = Qp + Qf Qh = P + F: contribution qc tip and haft, Rp: re i t ance to penetration (voltage unit ) qu: imple compre ive trength (unit of vo ltage) cu: undrained hear trength l, D: φ pile length, B: diameter o pile

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e tip - P <3 F work

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3.12 isolated pilot. COLLAPSE LOAD 12.3.1. Introduction The global racture (typ ical o shallow oundations) hardly occurs in piles. Due to its more slender, th e break in a pile is punching. Rupture o a pile is identi ied in the load-seat. This curve is in the same way that the stress-strain curves o elastic-plastic material behavior. You can show ductile behavior and brittle behavior. According Winterkorn and Fang, the rates o breakage in piles can be outlined as: a) Land -based so t rock at its lower limit. The pile is o type column and almost the e ntire load is supported by point. The sha t is negligible and also the capacity or containment o soil around the pile. I the load is large enough in relation to the slenderness o the pile, it can get to sag. The break type is completely ragile. b) Land so t on middle ground middle ground or on hard ground. In this case you can also try to pile column what i it leads to an overall breakdown o support layer (Prandtl mechanism) then it would also cause a rupture curve wit h brittle behavior. c) Land homogeneous loating pile. As a loating pile is int roduced in the ield, is compressed and the sha t resistance increases. There or e, the curve o rupture o a loating pile tends to show hardening. d) Pilote tr action. A loating pile can bear loads in tension and breaking curve that produc es plastic type is per ect. Actions and reactions to a pilot is a system o char ges, V, H, M general. In act the single pile can only support vertical loads V and, to a lesser magnitude and importance, horizontal loads. V vertical load on a pile is just comparing with the collapse o the pile load Qh through a sa ety actor to the collapse. The collapse load is expressed as: Qh = Q p + Q where Qp and Q are respectively the charges o collapse o the tip and sha t and are expressed as: Q p = pp Ap l Ap = πφ2 / 4 l Πφ Q 0 0 = ∫ (z) dz = πφ ∫ (z) dz = i li πφΣ

O these two com onents, the contribution sha t is a ected by the en orcement s ystem in more than the ti contribution.

You can consider the analogy with shallow oundations, so that in rinci le will be based on the general ex ression o Brinch-Hansen: h = c 'N c dc ic sc + qN q + 1 iq dq sq BγN iγ γ 2 γ d sγ The term wei ht (γ) is ne li ible in all cases of piles. In undrained conditions Nγ = 0 which cancels the entire term. In drained conditions is ne li ible becau se: 1 BγN iγ γ γ d sγ <<qN q sq d QiQ 2 because, first, B = φ is small, and seco nd, qNq is very large (q = γl , and the len th l is lar e). The terms of inclina tion, the unit will in any case, as the loads act vertically on pilin s. Therefo re, the startin expression is as follows: ph = c 'N c sc dc + qN q dq sq subseq uently particularize the type of soil and in different cases. Breakin mechanism s in piles have been studied by different authors with the aim of findin ways t o Nc and Nq analytical. Some of these mechanisms are: Terza hi: Assume overall r upture (rupture zone in active and passive rupture zone) in the round under the pile tip and the round acts as a lateral load q = γl. Meyerhoff: The mechanism of rupture be ins similarly to lobal break, however, c ontinue to break lines in a spiral pattern that is emer in hasra that intersect s the shaft of the pile. This mechanism allows to define the ZAI and ZAS which a re, respectively, below the active zone (ZAI = 2-3 φ) and the to s ot (4 φ φ cl ays and sands 8). The existence o this justi ies the iles ZA im rove their co ntribution oint i embedded in the hard layer on a su ort Berenzantsev sim le: The basic hy othesis o this author that the real charge q on the level o su

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12.3.2. oint resistance.

tatic Ex ression

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

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ort is lower γ l due to silo effect caused by the very construction of the pile or the natural state of the field. This facilitates the rise in the lateral fiel d. Gibson: It is based on the existence of a bulb when the soil is plastic. This bulb is stable until it reaches a break in that is rowin even reachin the r ound surface. Arenas tip resistance is ne lected and therefore cohesion: ph = qN q dq sq The existence of different mechanism also causes the existence of diffe rent models that can be used to determine the coefficient Nq (in the case of ra nular soils. Caquot- Kerisel the compiled and obtained an avera e curve that wou ld be: N q = 103.04 as φ 'I you com are this ex ression with the results obtain ed or oundations such as: φ 50 30 Nq Nq in ootings on iles 320 4200 18.4 56. 9 This means that or high values o φ 'di erences are an order o magnitude. q =

l dq = 1 + 2 as φ '(1 - without φ') 2 arctan = 1 + 2 as φ '(1 - without φ' ) 2 × 1.57 l φ = arctan arctan (∞) = 1.57 φ However, the ex ression: H = qN q q γlN sq sq dq = dq is leadin to a linear increase with the depth of the collapse pressure and this in fact is not observed. For dense sand, the pen etration resistance (qc) is stabilized at 300 kp/cm2 to 5 m (20φ?) While in loos e sand stabilization is achieved at 100 lb/in2. To overcome this di i-culty oth er models have been ro osed based least theoretically, such as: = 5 N q as φ 't / m 2 or z> 20φ In this case, is there ore: = min (q qN q dq, 5 N q as φ ') N ( T) Nq Ty e 20 Very loose sand 0-4 4-10 10-30 70 30 dro hal dense 3050 90> 50 150 Very dense Finally, because the theory is di icult a lication sought a more em irical a roach that is written as: = qc 4 N ≅ β β (1 <β <3)

qc (kp / cm 2) 4 N ≅ in which β is not constant: It increases with increasing qc increases as the iameter of the pile pp = qc R p = β β ip resistance accor ing to stan ar granular soil N E-CPI/77 wor s eventually m ay e written as: pp = qc 1 + αBqc ______________________________________________ Point resist nce in Gr ves if there is gr vel b se nd gr nul r type not possi ble to conduct the penetr tion test c n be t ken: cle n gr vel: Gr vel s nd to g r vel cl y: kp/cm2 pp = 120 pp = 80 kp / pp = 50 cm2 kp/cm2 In ny c se it is dvis ble to flush the tip nd h ve minimum of 6φ both above and below the level o su ort. I only su orts can be reduced to hal its value calculation. Clay- oint resistance behavior o clays is more com lex than that o granular materials due to ore ressures generated during jacking,€resha ing may occur with consequent soil ro erties change and consolidation rocesse s can occur simultaneously. Usually works in total stresses. In so t clays (qu < 2.5 lb/in2) can be neglected the contribution o the ile ti as it is small com ared to the contribution to be obtained rom the stem. imilar to as was done i n arenas will start rom the general ex ression o BH in this case is undrained conditions: H = cu N c sc dc + qN q dq sq actors in Nc and Nq are worth: Nq = 1 N c = π + 2 = 5.14 and orm actors can be calculated as: B as φ = 1 L NB 1 = 1.2 c = 1 + q = 1 + Nc L 14.05 q = 1 + and embedding actors: D dq = 1 + 2 as φ '(1 - no φ) 2 = 1 arctan B dc = dc - 1 - dq N c as φ = 1 + 2 D = 1 +

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The other coe icients o the ex ression can be calculated in this case as: 1 + B as φ '= 1 + tan φ' ≅ 1.3 L

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2π arctan ≅ 1.6 Nc B +2 2 π D π → ∞ ⇒ D → B B 2 arctan In conclusion it a ears that the colla se ressure er ti is: = γ nl × 1 × 1 × 1 + cu × 1.2 × 5.14 × 1.6 ≅ 9cu As you can see the end of overload is ne lec ted because all correction factors are unity in which case only ives q = γ l pr actically equivalent to the wei ht of its own pile. That is, the clay-point resi stance is evaluated as: pp = 9cu If you have the simple compressive stren th and resistance to penetration then this expression becomes: pp = 9cu = 4.5qu ≅ ≅ 0. 6qc qu qc 7.5 A special case screens which act as a foundation and whose point resistance is: pp = 7.5cu 0.5qc qu = 3.75qu ≅ ≅ 7.5 qc that have different coefficients was not included the form factor (a screen is s imilar to a shoe run). Rock point resistance can be established in eneral expre ssion of the point resistance accordin to the simple compressive stren th: D pp = αq u = 0.5 + β qu 6φ α = D 0.5 + β ≤ 1 6φ where the arameter β epen s on the type of rock y: Rock ype Granite porphyry Slate Lime stone compact marly not har compact san stone compressive strength qu (l /in2) 150 80 40 100 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.8 β Normally to achieve penetration of the tip of the pile in the rock of support wi ll require the use of rills. If precast piling can also use the tip of Oslo con sists of a narrow appen ix of the pile at its lower en in the form of nee le th at can penetrate the rock. Finally, if there is rock or har soil ut in a limite thickness can e assume as a punching mechanism in the case of shallow foun ations (Hanna an Brown Mey rhoff). soft har groun

1 Q 2 p = qu πφe being and the thickness o the hard layer, qu their resistance to sim le com ression 12.3.3. ha t resistance. It was indicated that the burden o sha t sinking is c alculated based on ressure by sha t sinking by: Q = πφ ∫ dz 0 l The ultimate sha t mechanism is well de ined as it takes lace in the ile-soil inter ace. im ly raise the status thus breaking, which in this case is the Mohr -Coulomb, in that inter ace: = σ τ = a + h 'as δ in which a is he a hesion, δ is he angle of fric ion σh 'i the horizontal effective tre can be expre ed a : σh' = Kσv '= Kγ'zy therefore is: pf = σ τ = a + h' as δ = a + Kγ 'z as δ By using his con i ion break is observe ha he shaf resis ance increases li nearly wi h ep h. This, however, is no very realis ic because he pene rome er o measure (sleeve) he shaf resis ance a ep h is observe ha here is a s abiliza ion an even wi h he bes soil ( ense san ) never excee s he limi va lue pf = 1kp/cm2 Since bo h he poin resis ance as he shaf resis ance wi h e p h is s abilize hen he ra io pp / pf is cons an a a cer ain ep h. In gene ral, he shaf resis ance in granular soils is higher han in cohesive soils bec ause he former are base on he fric ional componen (which epen s on he conf inemen ), while in he la er he ul ima e un raine con i ions imply ha only he componen is a hesion. However, i is usual ha he shaf is mobilize san li le because he poin is well suppor e an he pile si s low (low eformabi li y of he soil in he en zone). Conversely, in clay, he bearing capaci y a

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Shaf resis ance in san is par of he overall con i ion of Mohr-Coulomb break: pf = σ τ = a + h 'as δ = a + Kγ' z as δ an hen iscusses he rela ive impor a nce of each erm: The erm a herence, which is rela e o soil cohesion can be n eglec e in granular soils. The fric ion angle δ correspon s o fric ion a he in erface suelopilo e an is es ima e by: δ = φ 'in the case o iles o extrac tion and the roughness o the ile with the ground can be good. δ = φ '/ 3, wher e kneeling metal iles that are very smooth. δ = 2φ '/ 3 or kneeling on concret e iles. The thrust coe icient K is strongly in luenced by the manner o im lementation o the iles: iles o extraction in the ield since it is decom ressed to do th e drilling and just ushing on the ile, Ka <K <K0. I you have to take would be advisable to ado t a value K = Ka would leave the side o sa ety. In dis laceme nt iles since the site is com ressed to drive the ile, K0 <K <K . I you have to take would be advisable to ado t a value K = K0 would leave the side o sa et y. Ty ical values o K Hincado drilled Loose sand dense Arena 1.0 0.25 2.5 0.7 In any case, already has said it is more likely to have in ormation enetrometer riction angles. This means that you should estimate the sha t resistance based on these results enetrometer. In this case: qc β 20 <β <200 pf = qc (kp / cm 2 ) 4 N ≅ he varia le resistance increases with β (see figure). Finally, the static penet rometer is also a le to provi e irect information on the shaft resistance, ie irect measurement of pf. In any case is limite , as alrea y mentione , the value of a kp/cm2. pf = qc R p = β β Figure. Shaft resistance in san . Shaft resistance in gravel in gravel Since it is ifficult to perform penetration tests, you can take the following enchmarks : pf (l /in2) clean gravel (GW, GP) san y gravel (GS) or silty clay Gravas ( GC, GM) 1 0.77 0.51 Stem resistance in clays Estimation of stem resistance in clays is ifficult ec ause of the generation of pore pressures ue to low permea ility, the reshaping that may happen uring the execution of the piles an the presence of consoli at ion processes in the area where installe . Practically it is a on resistance w hich woul result in: Q f = πφ ∫ adz 0 l ie, they assumed that δ = 0 which correspon s o he rup ure of he in erface in un raine con i ions. A herence o epen on several fac ors an logically can be es ima e from he un raine shear s reng h cu soil. A herence 0.5 (lb/in2) 0.4 0.3 0.2 smoo h Pilo e 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 un raine shear s reng h (lb/in2) Pilo e rough A hesion accor ing o he un raine shear s reng h This ble way of assessing a herence may be: pf = a = β cu As g figure β is practically equal to unity for soft clays oing ecline as resistance increases coming to enforce in ica es ha one possi shown in the accompanyin (Cu <0.3 kp/cm2) while g the or er of 0.2. Kerise

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he ip is low an mobilize an are i shoul be no e For example,€much

he high groun eforma ion (floa ing piles) an he runk is herefore impor an con ribu ion of he pile shaf . Finally, ha he componen by shaf is very sensi ive o he placing. ifference if he pile is kneeling or perfora e . 

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l propose the following expression for the etermination of α: β = 2 1 + 2 1 + 7 cu cu (Cu in kp / cm 2) Finally, it is convenient to express the shaft resistance ase on resistance to penetration, in which case: pf = a = β w = β su ject always to the limitation o f 1kp/cm2. qu q ≅ β c Fe ruary 15 p f = β w = β qu / 2 ≅ β qc / 15 Stem resistance in clays. Finally, we must make a series of recommen ations rega r ing the evaluation of the shaft resistance may apply to e on the security: Wh ere to fin very soft clay layers eep, the shaft resistance which are a ove can not excee three times the soft layer. In the case of granular layers foun int er e e clays, the shaft resistance of granular layers may e higher than two t imes that of the clay layers. In layers of clay with me ium consistency must e epreciate or a ove 2 meters a ove the contact with the groun surface. Shaft resistance in rock is generally not necessary to consi er the shaft in roc k layers as they want for a rock e ge support. If a case must e consi ere : pf = 1 qu 20 12.3.4. Formulas jacking jacking formulas are use primarily to control changes uring the execution groun , possi le rupture of the pile uring jacking, etect ion firm layer of support an , in general,€groun control uring execution H: height of fall of the hammer weight g Pm = Mm δ: rejection, m / low

he work evelope y Pm weight falling from a height H can e written as: H ηPm ttotal being η = coefficient of energy losses, ie not all t e potential energy gets transformed into work. It also is designated as system performance it. T i s work is consumed: inelastic collision losses, work / energy consumed in t e ja cking and elastic deformation of t e pile and ot er elements. T e fall of t e a mmer causes some δ pilo sea . The collapse loa of he pile can be e ermine a s: H Qh = Pm Pm Pm + Pp × δ Demo: Mp: Mm: vi: vp: vm: mass of he pile, mass of he club, ini ial veloci y o f each of he hub, veloci y of he pile af er being bea en, spee of he club af er being bea en The equa ions o solve he problem are hose of he heory of collisions, ie he conserva ion of momen um: M m M m vi = vm + M pvpy he conserva ion of kine ic energy: 1 1 1 2 Eo - E f = M m vi2 vm + M m M p 2 pv 2 2 2 expressio n ha may ake ifferen values in erms of consi ering elas ic collision (wi h bounce) or inelas ic (no bounce): Elas ic collision: Eo - E f = 0 1 1 February 1 February 2 M m vi = M + M mvm pvp 2 2 2 2 vi M m Mm + M vp = p Shock inelas ic (no bounce): (vi = vp) MVI M = (M m + M p) vp vp = vi M m Mm + M p Eo - E f = 1 1 = M m vi2 (M p + M m) v 2 = p 2 2 Mp 1 = M m 

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M p + Mm vi2 2 In reali y here is an in erme ia e si ua ion can be expresse Eo - E f = 1 M m vi2 (- ρ 2) = Tchoque 1 M 2 p + Mp Mm

co esponding to the elastic case when ρ = 1 and the case is not elastic (withou t bouncing) when ρ = 0. The coefficient ρ is called the coefficient of pe cussio n. Fi st wo k will equal the initial ene gy available: ηPm ttotal = H = 1 M m = Eo 2 vi2 allowing write t e energy loss as: Eo - E f = Mp M p + Mm (ηPm H) (- ρ 2) = Tchoque 1

Finally, he equa ion of conserva ion of he o al work is: o al = Tchoque + + Telás ico ThinCan in which i replaces: ηPm H = (ηPm H) M p 1 - p ρ2 Mm + M ( ) + 1 Q + δ Q δ h 2 an h af er some algebraic ransforma ion lea s o: Pp Pm Pm + ρ 2 × 1 H Qh = Pm + Pp δ + δe 2 which lea s o he final formula if we neglec he elas ic eforma ion an percussion is comple ely plas ic (no reboun ) Qh H = Pm × Pm Pm + Pp δ Loa es ing of responsibili y in cases where require guaran ees excep ional is a visable o perform loa es s on piles cons ruc e . These can be es ruc ive an non es ruc ive. In he firs case, he informa ion is more comple e. _______ ________________________________ 12.4. Pilo group. COLLAPSE LOAD piles usually groupe o form foun a ions o wh ich was main aine hrough he pile caps. The pile caps is a s ruc ural elemen whose mission is o ransmi loa s o he piles an he groun . In fac , his sup por o he fiel will be weak or nonexis en ue o he high s iffness of he p iles. The separa ion be ween he s il s is a key variable for bo h he fiel beh avior for he is ribu ion of loa s in he group. This separa ion s is usually i n he range of 2.5φ to 4φ. In iles driven into sands have seen an im rovement i n the sag resistance due to com action o soil in the vicinity o the grou . The maximum e ect was observed or s = 3.5φ. For much higher values (s>> 3.5φ) il es behave as isolated and im roving the e ect will be negligible grou . For muc h lower values (s ≅ 2φ) is little soil between iles and lost e iciency. Corres ond to maximum e ect: i Qhgru o = 1.25Σ Qh As in ractice it is di icult to ensure that e Qh = Σ i Qhgru o iciency is o ten taken:

In the case o iles o sand extraction on land decom ression may lead to a decr ease in stem resistance, which would evaluate the colla se load o the grou as: i Qhgru o = 0.7Σ Qh 

On the othe hand, you can w ite two mo e of total labo cont ibutions, which a e jacking the pile: Elastic defo mation of the pile itself: a Telastico δQh Thin Can = δ e 2 = Qh 

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2φ ≤ s ≤ 4φ In clay soils, regardless o the manner o im lementation, there is resha ing th e clay which o ten reduce the e iciency o the grou o iles. Ty ically it can be ex ressed as: i Qhgru o = ηΣ Q w ere η is called t e coefficient of efficiency.€T is coefficient can be calcula ted as (coefficient group from Los Angeles) β m (n - 1) + n (m - 1) + 2 (m - 1) (n - 1) η = 1 π β mn = arctg ( φ) 2s where m is the number o iles er row and n is the number o iles er column o the grou . In the case o clays, or small se arations (s <2φ) should not be r uled out ossible ru ture o the grou collectively as i it were a semi-dee o undation. In this case can be reached at: i Qhgru o <0.65Σ Qh which normally require a calculation assuming ru ture ressures global colla se o the set (with a ground sur ace oundation o the grou and embedding equal to the de th o the iles). In the case o grou s o iles in rock small se arations can reach u to s = 1.5 φ without reducing the burdens o colla se. Analysis o ile grou s by blocks eq uivalent in some s ecial cases (mentioned the case o grou o iles in clay wit h small se arations) you can break a global mechanism o the grou o iles. Nor mally, this situation im lies the need or additional testing or the ossible c olla se. These indings have oints in common with the indings raised in shallo w oundations. Here are some o these cases: dee so t layers above and below th e hard layer o small thickness: A grou o iles with ti in the hard layer can cause damage by uncturing o the hard layer. This creates a hard unch in the layer can transmit stress to the so t layers with an angle o 30o in the case o rock or granular and 10th s ot in the case o clays. -

In general, the con inement is very high (q = γ l) with the result that these me chanisms are unlikely. 12.5. DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGES IN GROUPS OF PILES Once we have obtained the colla pse load of a pile roup can set the followin condition for testin security: F S hun ent = dim V Qh rupo where V is the vertical load transmitted to the roup structure of piles. We can assume further that each pile, in-service, will receive: Vi = V n where n is the number of piles in the roup. These two expressions are not valid if the roup of piles must support small horizontal forces and moments. Both r oups have vertical components actin on a roup of piles. These components are d ifferent in each pile of the roup, bein able to invest the total effort on a v ertical pile (pile pulled). To obtain the distribution of vertical loads caused by a eneral system of stresses: V, M, M can be done in several ways: Dispense w ith the land and consider the union of the piles with pile caps is articulated R

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Floating iles layer harder than so ter dee : it can transmit the tension to so t layers with di erent levels starting 5φ above the lane o su ort o iles in the case o sand (increased contribution rom the ti ) or 1 / 3 l that level o su ort in the case o clays (increased contribution rom the m).

the the rom ste

 

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eplace the reactions of land for a fixed located at a certain depth l 'depends o n the deformability of the soil and piles. Solvin the correspondin portal. Con sider that the piles are within a continuum. Incorporation of times the articulated joint is assumed between the piles and pi le caps. V is supposed to act, Mx, My and thus, assumin a linear distribution o f stresses, can be written as: σ = ΣA V + i M and M x yi xi + Ix Iy whe e: I x 2 = Σ j I Aj and y = Σ j Aj x2 and in the same a eas if at all piles is: Vi = V M and M x i + xi + 2 Σ Σ xi2 yi n fo obtaining the load on each pile. In pa ticula , the pile mo e loaded and les s loaded. It is impo tant to the least loaded pile is not in tension. In case you a e in t ension, the sepa ation can be va ied to p event o put mo e weight on the pile c aps. Inco po ation of ho izontal fo ces esolution of a ecessed po ch and hype stati c subjected to a ho izontal st ess H leads to the following effo ts ho izontal a nd ve tical moments: H = H xi yi = Vi = H Hx n Hy n M yi + xH M i = M = M y / xi xi Xi H l '2 H i l' 2 M and H = Σ i M M M xH = Σ xi Σy 2 i Σx 2 i Both ve tical fo ces and moments should be added to those p eviously calculated. o that in total the following occu s ve tical load on each pile: Vi = HVM yxi xyi M M M xH yi and xi + + + + Σ Σ x i2 x i2 n Σ and Σ and i2 i2 In this case of ho izontal fo ces, the dete mination of l 'can be done by wo ds    

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such as: l' = 1.Feb ua y 4 l '= 1.2 f being Eo / El 0 0.5 1.0 7.1 25.1 1.0 f Ep I p E / 3 4 fo clays to sands Ep I p The / 3 Whe e Eo is the module f om the g ound up and the field is the magnitude of tip. ____________________________ Finally, ega ding the cha ge dist ibution in g oups of piles a e going to make comments o ecommendations: The safety facto to the collapse of a g oup can be established jointly, in which case it may be that the mo e heavily loaded piles b eak app oaching . Typically it can be conside ed a safety facto somewhat les s fo individual testing of the pile mo e loaded. If the ve ification is done on the pile sinking mo e loaded, you can ensu e that the global is also t ue. Addi tionally you have to check the load on the pile less loaded and ve ify that is n ot unde tension. If you d ive can do the following: What is the o de of the we ight of the pile than the pilot does not sta t (only cont ibution shaft and with the same safety facto to the collapse). Inc ease the weight of the pile caps I mp ove ine tia of inc easing sepa ation. The NTE conside s some small g oups of two, th ee o fou piles. As the findings desc ibed in this standa d a e based on a gene al exp ession and the use of an equivalent time, then use the following: a pile G oup: Mx = My = 0 G oup 2 piles : Mx = 0, My ≠ 0 G oup 4 piles: Mx ≠ 0, ≠ 0 My Meq Meq = My = Mx + My G oup 3 pi les: Mx ≤ 1.75 My Meq = 1.75m 12.6. CHECK AND ERVICE IN RUPTURE collapse Loading: tate of failu e of the st uctu e. You must ensu e that we each this situation both globally and locally. Unce tainty: the e is unce tainty in both loads and esistance. In an assessmen t cha ges on the side of safety. Can be estimated highe . The unce tainty is es istance to the behavio of the g ound and the pile. If the model is mo e eliabl e used can educe the safety facto . afety facto : Its main task is to emove t he behavio of the ultimate st uctu e of the state so that the e is a sufficient ma gin against possible loading conditions not fo eseen in the p oject. Additio nally, the safety facto can cove inaccu acies in the models used. F = F Qh Q o Vmax = h Qadm No mally the value of F = 3 is a efe ence value but can va y depending on seve al facto s. Fo example, t aditionally the estimated collapse load by jacking f o mulas has been associated with a safety facto of a ound 6. eating: With the wo kload o admissible (medium load) seats can be calculated eithe by empi ical exp essions, tables, o methods based on the st ess - st ain behavio of soil. teps to calculate a g oup of piles. It attempts to identify the va iables: n, φ , s, l 1. Choose a grou o iles (n) 2. Calculate Vi (s), that is, the more loa ded ile grou 3. We take s = 2.5 φ 4. Check that saw ≤ you attem t to determine φ. I it is considered too large should be back to 1. 5. Check F = Qh / saw wh at determines l. Considering the long iles are too many must return to 1. Note: column iles, the length l is a given. tructure o a ile ca : It's the ermis sible load o the ile and concrete structure. Te = 0.25σ 0.40σ concrete + teel Ahormigon Aacero 0.25σhormigon ≤ 750 t / m 2 in preca t pile 0.25σhormigon ≤ 6 00 t / m 2 on tilt performed in itu Aacero ≅ 0 ______________________________ _____ Seat in pile i very difficult to determine the eat by imple calculation. T he mo t appropriate load te ting, which can be very co tly. The pilot eat i fo 

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r two term , a deformation of the pile it elf and a deformation of the ground. T he verification of eat i unnece ary column on rock pile in den e and and hard clay . The deformation of the pile can be determined a : = ∫ 0 l Vl σ dz = E AE On the other hand, there are empirical expre ion for the calculation can be fo und in the literature. Floating in pile can u e the olution given by Mindlin ela tic. Finally, it may be convenient, yet ea y to do, calculate the entrie of a group of pile a if it were a foundation equivalent. Thi may be upported a t an equivalent footing depth (2 / 3) l and urface of the group of pile . 12.7. SPECIAL SOLICITATIONS are olicitation that may occur eventually and be v ery detrimental to the behavior of pile . Negative friction i cau ed by ground con olidation,€eg natural con olidation (ie by weight) of a loo ely packed filli ng E ling. Con olidation cau ed by an embankment: road embankment reache bridg e i anchored by pile . Con olidation induced variation of groundwater level cha nge induced con olidation of oil tructure (clay thixotropic) cau ed by the ve ry driving of the pile . Negative friction load terrreno horizontal lateral thr u t Buckling Drive The land i hung from the pile a it doe not allow the relative di placement in the contact. If the pile wa very mooth, the re ult would be that hi head wou ld be outgoing. Ideal behavior of the oil-pile interface: Shear tre Di placement By increa ing the di placement on the hear tre increa e to a limit value wh ich i the haft re i tance. From thi point remain con tant. If ub equently t he relative di placement begin to decrea e, then the hear tre decrea e . Ev entually, you could inve t your ign and then the tem begin to load on the pil e. Thi effect ha the ame po itive limit. It reache a value that remain even with de cenciendo relative di placement. Finally, when the relative di placement incr ea e again (for pile load), the hear tre ro e again and again to change the ign to be po itive again. Ca e of pile with negative friction pile affected by column: The negative friction may develop around the haft and the tip i a upport with very little ability to move:

τ = a + σ 'h a δ Law nega ive shear s resses. A firs increases by increasing he ver ical ensi on za espi e he higher rela ive isplacemen . Then ecreases o ecrease he r ela ive isplacemen The ransi ion from he s a us of posi ive fric ion o nega ive fric ion occurs as follows: + + Floa ing piles: floa ing in piles is no possible, by force balance, nega ive fr ic ion ha evelops aroun he s em. In fac , when his effec s ar s o appear

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Act po itive hear tre e . At fir t increa e by increa ing the vertical z. Then decrea e to decrea e the relative di placement

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a he op, he pile si s. This is always a par y wi h a posi ive fric ion allo ws a cer ain bearing capaci y. Even ually you can reach he sink. On he o her h an , he sea s o reach he new equilibrium can be unaccep able. + In he upper zone (above he neu ral poin ) is an increase ue o higher normal s resses wi h ep h. Aroun neu ral behavior is elas ic. In he lower, increasin g he normal s ress is offse by he ecrease in he rela ive isplacemen o re ach he area of he poin . The nega ive fric ion is harmful because: The collaps e loa is re uce he s ress s a e of he pile increase by increasing he sea Physically i can be assume ha he behavior of he pile soil in erface behave s similarly posi ive ue o fric ion in fric ion nega ive. Therefore, granular s oil is calcula e as a fric ional erm while clay is a erm bon ra e. The fric ional s ress can evelop grea er han he bon . While i is rue ha he uncons oli a e san , i can happen ha a layer of san on a clay Han ily no consoli a e cause very nega ive effec s on he pile. The nega ive fric ion can be re uce in he following ways: Re uce he number of piles bu have a larger iame er. Increases he ra io area / perime er. Broa ening he base of he pile o allow m ore loa ing ip. Lubrica e he shaf . Avoi consoli a ion. The nega ive fric ion affec s he con i ion of collapse, he s ruc ural s op an sea s. Accor ing o he NTE collapse loa is calcula e as: Qh = Q p + Q f - R2 Qh = Q p + Q f - Q R1 p <3Q Q f p> f 3Q The nega ive fric ion mus also be a e o check he more concre e sec ion loa e in compression: + Ri ≤ Vmax you maximum values of R1 an R2 epen on he pil e. Column is he maximum value i self is normally s em resis ance has been calcu la e . Floa ing on s il s ha resis ance is re uce by half shaf o no e ha he pile se le uring he evelopmen of he nega ive fric ion. CALCULATION OF THE LOAD WHEN HUNDIMIENDO PRODUCE NEGATIVE FRICTION Sea: Qh = Q p + Q f he collapse loa of a pile (con ribu ion by con ribu ion by s em ip.) E ven ually Qf can be ecompose in o several erms accor ing o he layers crosse .€For example: Q f = Q f 1 Q f × l1 + l2 + 2 × 3 × Q f + Q f l3 l4 4 ×

Piles column: Lan consoli a ion he bole s ra ifie layers 1 an 2 ( he upper). Qh = Q p - Q × f 1 l1 - l2 Q × f 2 f 3 + Q + Q × f l3 l4 4 × Floa ing piles: Lan consoli a ion he bole s ra ifie layers 1 an 2 ( he upper ): 1 1 Qh = - Q × f 1 l1 - l2 Q × f 2 f 3 + Q + Q × f l3 l4 4 × 2 2 con ribu ion is negligible ip. Reason for re uc ion of (half): by varying he pile si s Qf an can no mobilize all he nega ive fric ion. Floa ing piles: Lo homogeneous consoli a ion in he shaf . We assume ha he s hear s resses are reverse in l / 3 an are wor h half he shaf resis ance in he area, ie Qf Qh = l1 l × (l -) - Qf × 32 3 reasons: by varying he pile si s Q f an can no mobilize all he s em nega ive fric ion. I also seeks an equilibr ium wi h posi ive an nega ive fric ion. The propose scheme is equivalen o: l l 1 Qh = Q f l × - Q = Q f × f 3 3 2 l l = Qf = Qf × l × × Qf 2 2 × ll l - - = March 6 

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