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Virus Herpes simplex virus. Scientific classification Group I: Virus DNA duplex II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: V positive single-stranded RNA virus: n egative-stranded RNA Virus VI: transcribing single-stranded RNA viruses VII: dsD NA Viruses transcribing For other uses see Virus (disambiguation). A virus (from the Latin word virus, toxin or poison) is a biological entity capable of copyri ght replicated using the cellular machinery. Potentially infective agent is comp osed of a capsid (or coat) protein surrounding the nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA. This structure can, in turn, be surrounded by the viral envelope, a lipi d layer with different proteins, depending on the virus. The life cycle of a vir us is always in need of the metabolic machinery of the invaded cell to replicate its genetic material, then produce many copies of the original virus. In this p rocess lies the destructiveness of viruses because they can damage the cell to d estroy it. They can infect eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells (in which case they a re called bacteriophages, or simply phages). Some evidence seems to show that th ere are viruses that infect other viruses (called viroids). Some viruses require unusual enzyme so the charge within its packaging as part of their luggage. Three types of viruses: a bacterial virus bacteriophage (center left), an animal virus (top right), a retrovirus (bottom right). Contents [hide] 1 Characteristi cs of the virus crystallizable Size 1.2 1.1 1.3 2 Structure obligate intracellul ar parasites of viruses lipoprotein Wrap 2.1 3 Types of virus 3.1 Viruses that infect animal cells 3.2 3.3 Virus Virus that infect bacteria th at infect plant cells 4 Virus classification 4.1 Classification of Baltimore 02. 04 5 ICTV classification of the virus reproductive cycle of the virus 6 Source 7 Examples of virus 8 See also 9 Links Characteristics of the virus outside None of the virus has organelles and, above all, none has metabolic autonomy and ther efore are not considered cells. Their life cycle has two phases, extracellular a nd metabolically inert, and other intracellular is reproductive. You can group t he defining characteristics of the virus around three issues: its size, the fact that they are crystallizable and the fact that they are intracellular parasites or microcellular required. These three questions put to the virus at the border between the living and the inert. Size Viruses are extremely small structures. They range in size from 24 nanometers of the FMD virus to 300 nanometers of poxv iruses. Their small size explains the lateness of the discovery of these agents. The first reference to the existence of viruses is due to the Russian botanist Dimitri Ivanovski in 1892. This researcher sought the causal agent of mosaic dis ease called snuff, and concluded that there should be a toxin or a body smaller than bacteria, because the agent passed through filters that retained bacteria. Called these filterable virus pathogens. In 1897, microbiologist Martinus Beijerink Dutchman performed experiments simila r to those of Ivanovski, and came to reject the idea of toxins, because it was a n agent capable of reproducing, and maintaining its infectious power plant to pl ant, undiluted its pathogenicity. Soon after, the German microbiologist Frederic k Loeffler and Paul Frosch discovered foot and mouth disease of cattle was cause d by a filterable virus that acted as an infectious agent. In the 30s, using fil

ters with pore size less, cell culture techniques in vitro that allowed to obtai n large amounts of virus, ultracentrifugation, and finally with the electron mic roscope and diffraction ray X, we were able to visualize these agents. Viruses a re crystallizable crystallizable, as shown by W. Stanley in 1935. This depends o n the fact that virus particles are precise geometric forms that are identical, which separates the irregularity characteristic of organisms, cells or organelle s, and about the characteristics of minerals and aggregates of macromolecules su ch as ribosomes. By having an identical size and shape, the virus particles tend to arrange themselves in a regular three-dimensional pattern, periodic, ie, the y tend to crystallize.€Obligate intracellular parasites viruses are obligate in tracellular parasites. From the thirties it is known that viruses are composed m ainly of nucleic acid and protein, the latter form the capsid, which is also kno wn as protein envelopes. This means you need a host (host), as in the wild do no t survive. It is known that viruses can live about forty days without having a h ost in which to reproduce. Also found viruses with lipids, although these are ta ken from the cell they infect. So far all known viruses showed a single type of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA), which may be one or two strings and can be seg mented. For nucleic acid can be replicated, you need to use the structural and e nzymatic machinery of a living cell, and on the other hand, only within a living cell with the virus of self-preservation functions, which together with reprodu ction, characterizing living . This condition is because many viruses are known as pathogens that cause diseases in plants and animals and even bacteria. Structure of viruses Stylized rendering of a cross section of HIV, the AIDS virus Schema complex virus with a virus capsid is composed of a nucleic acid molecule and a protein coat. This is the basic structure of a virus, although some of the m can add to that the presence of an enzyme, or with the nucleic acid, such as r everse transcriptase of retroviruses or in the wrapper, to facilitate the openin g of a gap the host cell membrane. A unit formed by the nucleic acid and protein coat is also called a virion. The nucleic acid is only one type, DNA or RNA, never both. Thus we can distingui sh two types of viruses: RNA Virus DNA Taking into account the type of nucleic a cid chain (double or single positive or negative sense) and how the virus replic ates using the host cell (transcribing or not) Viruses can be subdivided further according to the Classification of Baltimore. The protein coat called a capsid. It consists of some identical subunits called capsomeres. The capsomers are glo bular proteins that sometimes have a part glicÍdica together. Interlock cover g iving a geometric shape. Given the shape of the capsid, we can distinguish the f ollowing types of virus: cylindrical or helical: capsomers, which are of a singl e type, a setting fit simple nucleic acid helix. An example is the mosaic virus snuff. Icosahedral: capsomers, which tend to be several forms that fit forming a regular icosahedron (ie, 20 triangular faces and 12 vertices), and leaving a ce ntral hole, where it is heavily matted nucleic acid. Some polyhedra are more exp ensive than the icosahedron, and some have protein fibers that protrude from the capsid. An example is the adenovirus, among which are the viruses of colds and pharyngitis. Complex: with minor variations, corresponding to the following gene ral structure: A head of icosahedral structure that contains the nucleic acid. A line of helical structure is a hollow cylinder. A necklace of capsomers between the head and tail. A basal plate at the end of the tail, with anchor points for attaching the virus to the cell membrane. Plate also leave a fibrous protein th at helps the attachment of the virus on the host cell. Examples of such viruses are most of bacteriophage viruses (which infect bacteria). Many lipoprotein envelope virus, the capsid exterior, have a wrap similar to a p lasma membrane phospholipid and protein double layer, many glycoproteins that pr oject outward projections called spicules. The capsid of this virus are often ic

osahedral, although there are also with helical capsid. It interprets the lipopr otein envelope is a remnant of the plasma membrane of the infected cell where th e virus has been formed. An example of this type of virus it is the flu. Some au thors call complex viruses lipoprotein-coated viruses that have also several nuc leic acid molecules within it, and some enzymes, such as influenza virus. Virus types This section will consider three groups according to type of virus to infe ct cells, and each group is the most prominent examples cited and other defining characteristics.€Viruses that infect animal cells West Nile Virus: causes disease in birds and mammals, including humans. It is tr ansmitted by mosquitoes. The first was described virus of foot and mouth disease (Loeffler and Frosch, late nineteenth century). Most of them have a lipoprotein envelope: The single-stranded RNA virus can be mentioned those of rabies, measl es, influenza and rubella. Retroviruses contain single-stranded RNA and the enzyme reverse transcriptase. W hen infecting the cell, RNA transcribed in a double-stranded DNA molecule that b inds to cellular DNA. This part includes the AIDS virus and some oncogenic virus es. Among the double-stranded DNA virus can include the group of herpesvÍridos as herpes, and hepatitis. There are also animal cell virus non-enveloped icosahe dral lipoprotein: The human polio virus has single-stranded RNA. Most of the reo virus (with dsRNA) infect animal cells. The double-stranded DNA viruses that usu ally contain low virulence, such as adenovirus (of cold) and wart virus (parvovi rus). Viruses that infect bacteria were discovered independently in 1915 and 191 7 by Frederick Twort, British bacteriologist Felix D'Herelle in Canada. Most vir uses are complex and contain double-stranded DNA, belonging to the group of myov Íridos. There are also unresponsive to bacteriophage common type, as corticovÍ ridos, icosahedral, or levivÍridos, single-stranded RNA, or lipoprotein envelop ed bacteriophages. Viruses that infect plant cells are the first to be discovere d (snuff mosaic virus, Ivanovski, 1892). Most of them contain single-stranded RN A and helical capsid, lacking lipoprotein envelope. The snuff mosaic virus is on e example. Some reovirus (double-stranded RNA viruses, and non-enveloped icosahe dral lipoprotein) produce tumors in the wounds of the plants. In this group ther e are also viruses with icosahedral capsid DNA, such as maize streak mosaic or c auliflower. Virus classification viruses have been classified according to type of nucleic acid they contain, the characteristics of the virion envelope, when p resent, the taxonomic position of their hosts, the disease they produce, etc. Gi ven their lack of autonomy for development and likely polyphyletic nature, it is very difficult to consistently apply the criteria for classification and nomenc lature that serve so well for the classification of cellular organisms, or real organisms. Combining characters listed, and that order of importance, have recognized some 30 groups of viruses internally w ell defined. The effort required to achieve a natural classification has produce d different results, we consider here two, the classification of Baltimore and t he International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Classification Classi fication of Baltimore Baltimore distributes the virus in seven main groups based on the chemical basis of the genome: Group I: dsDNA viruses (double stranded). DNA viruses of two channels into the cell (regardless of the mechanism of infect ion) and RNA polymerases do not distinguish the cellular genome of the viral gen ome, form mRNA, which results in ribosomes and leads to the capsid protein, and sometimes replicating enzymes. Viruses are the simplest. Eg the T-series phages pair were the first to be discovered. Group II: ssDNA viruses (a positive one). Its genetic material is DNA from a string. Since polarity is positive, negative strand needed to transcribe, so, to enter the cell DNA polymerase (enzyme repair or extension) makes a double-stranded DNA used to synthesize (from the negative strand) mRNA that carries the information needed to produce capsomeres and repl icative enzymes. Group III: double-stranded RNA virus. They are double-stranded RNA virus. They have as part of the virion transcriptase is a viral RNA dependen t RNA polymerase used to, from the negative strand dsRNA, making mRNA. Besides b

eing an enzyme is a structural protein, since it is part of the capsid, so only replicated if the cell enters the capsid near the viral genome. Group IV: positi ve-stranded RNA virus. They are single-stranded RNA virus whose genome has the n ature of mRNA. They are simple virus. Group V: negative-stranded RNA virus. They are single-stranded RNA virus of antimensajero polarity. They have an RNA-d ependent RNA polymerase of a string. Thus, within the infected cell to form the complementary RNA genome and acts of mRNA.€Group VI: transcribing single-strand ed RNA virus. Are RNA viruses whose genome could act as a messenger but in vivo does not. They have a reverse transcriptase that transcribes an RNA genome a DNA molecule, the first of a string and then two. Subsequently, and using cellular enzymes produces a messenger. These viruses are able to reach the nucleus of cel ls, are inserted to the chromosomes of cells they infect, are retroviruses. Grou p VII: dsDNA Viruses transcribing. It is the group most recently discovered and described. It has a bicateario DNA genome, which is expressed to form a messenge r, which translates as group I. However, at the time of encapsidation, is the me ssenger which encapsidation. This, by reverse transcription from a reverse trans criptase in the virion paneled, re-shape a DNA molecule, first dicatenaria mono and then that becomes the viral genome. Are clear examples of these oddities, th e families Herpesviridae and Caulimoviridae. Classification of the ICTV ICTV (In ternational Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) tries to get a universal classific ation which could function as the necessary standard classification of the virus , regulating the formal description of new strains and ordering its location wit hin the classification scheme. Try the rules of nomenclature and classification is as close as possible to the traditional standard of classification of organis ms using some of their categories, suffixes that indicate the taxonomic rank and applying italics the names of the taxa: Order (-viral) Family (-viridae) Subfam ily (-virinae) Genus (-virus) Species (-virus) The names of the senior taxa are written in italics, as in the International Cod e of Botanical Nomenclature (but not in the Zoo). The names of species follow a systematic rule, naming in the vernacular with the name of the disease and the w ord for viruses. For example, human immunodeficiency virus. Recognition of order s occurred lately and are used sparingly, having been appointed until now only t hree, so most of the 80 families have not yet been assigned to none. ICTV list c ontains about 4,000 species. Reproductive cycle of viruses Main article: Reprodu ctive cycle of viruses Viruses have a basic objective: to produce copies of them selves using a large amount of machinery that has a living cell to the processes of replication, transcription and translation. Virus origin of the virus's posi tion as the boundary between the living and the inert scientists poses the probl em of its origin. For many, the virus would be the first people in the history o f the evolution of the inert to the living, would achieve meet effectively the f unctions of replication, transcription and translation. Would then be less evolv ed organisms. For others, the fact that viruses can only perform these three vit al functions within living cells, leads them to believe that the virus could not exist before the first cells appeared, however simple they were. The virus woul d be regressive forms of cellular organisms that have adapted so far to parasiti sm. The discovery of other forms acellular has brought new light to the origin o f the virus, but has failed to solve the dilemma posed. The acellular forms are: provirus. Plasmids. Viroids. Some scientists (and Temin, 1969) have postulated that the virus would be the result of the evolution of these acellular forms: vi ruses come from provirus DNA, plasmids, and RNA of viroids. The capsid of the vi rus would be a developmental achievement by which the genetic material would be protected as they move from one cell another , and ensure the success of the infection. On the other hand, forms acellular co uld have been born within the cellular environment, when some certain genes achi eved independence from the operation of the cellular genome, thus the origin of the virus would not necessarily linked to the events accompanying the appearance of life on earth. But it could also speak of a reverse process: a loss of capsi

d reduce the autonomous units of replication-transcription-translation to the st atus of provirus, plasmids and viroids. In conclusion, the discovery of cell-fre e ways simpler than viruses helps us better understand their nature and biologic al significance, but it keeps us in doubt whether we are dealing with the first organisms emerged from inert matter, or against regressive forms resulting speci alization of parasitism.€Examples of viruses Group I: dsDNA viruses Gender Papo vaviridae Picornaviridae Enterovirus: Poliovirus Coxsackie, B, Echo, Coxsackie A, Genus Papillomavirus: Papillomavirus (HPV human Enterovirus) Gender Gender Polyomavirus BK, JC Poxviridae Orthopoxvirus Gender: Virus vaccine (vacc inia), smallpox parapoxvirus Gender: Orf, milkman's nodule Yatapoxvirus Gender: Virus yaba and Tanapox Moluscipoxvirus Gender: Molluscum contagiosum buffalopox virus (e) virus Chola Hepatovirus: Hepatitis A (Human enterovirus type 72) Genus Rhinovirus: Common cold virus hemorrhagic conj unctivitis (AHC) Group V: negative-stranded RNA viruses Arenaviridae Arenavirus Gender: Machupo Choriomeningitis lymphocytic, Lassa fever, Junin (Argentina hemorrhagic fever) (hemorrhagic fever Bolivia) Elephantpox Cowpox virus (f) Complex viral LCM-Lassa (The Old World arenavirus) Mopeia Monkeypox Virus Tacaribe virus complex virus ( arenavirus Rabbitpox virus (g) Variola (major & minor) virus "Whitepox" virus (v ariola virus) simplex Virus Herpesviridae Gender: Herpesvirus type 1 and type 2 Varicelavirus Gender: Varicella Gender-zoster virus Cytomegalovirus: Cytomegalov irus Roseolovirus Gender: B lymphotropic (HBLV-HHV6), herpes virus type 7 Linfoc ryptovirus Gender: Epstein-Barr Virus, Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) Nairovirus G ender: hemorrhagic fever human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) Group II: Virus Parvovirus ssDNA Parvoviridae Gender: human parvovirus B19, RA-1 Group III: double-stranded RNA virus Reoviridae Orthoreovirus Gender: Gender Reovirus Coltivirus: Crimean fever colorado Gender Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever in Korea, died Canyon Virus, Virus four corners Bhanja Virus Pulmonary Syndrome Virus Belgrade (also known as Dobrava) Germiston Virus Virus Oropouche New World) Guanarito virus Sabia virus Virus Virus Junin Bunyaviridae Flexal Bunyavirus Gender: Virus group Bunyamwera, California encephalitis, LaCrosse encephalitis Phlebovirus Gender: F ever "sandfly, Rift Valley fever, Uukuniemi Virus Orbivirus Gender: Gender Kemerovo Virus Rotavirus: Human Rotavirus Group IV: pos itive-stranded RNA Virus Gender Astroviridae Caliciviridae Calicivirus Norwalk: Norwalk Virus, Virus Unnamed Virus (formerly Muerto Canyon) Hantavirus Hantaan (Korean hemorrhagic fe ver) Seoul Virus Virus Virus Puumala-Prospect Hill type Nairovirus Gender Hepevirus: Hepatitis E Virus Vesivirus (virus vesicular rash) of Crimean

hemorrhagic fever / Congo Lagovirus (hemorrhagic disease virus Hazara delVirus rabbit) Flebovirus Noroviru s (Norwalk Virus) Virus Rift Valley Fever Sapovirus (Sapporo Virus) Virus Virus sandflies Tuscany Gender Coronaviridae Coronavirus: Coronavirus Other bunyavirus es virus SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome severe) Filoviridae Togaviridae (Alphavirus) Filovirus Gender: Marburg Virus, Genus Alphavirus: equine encephal itis virus, Sindbis VirisVirus Ebola, Virus Rubivirus Semlikicelda 3 Orthomyxovi ridae Gender: Virus, Rubella Virus Flu (influenza) type A, B and American equine encephalomyelitis Eastern C Virus Chikungunya Virus Bebaru borne orthomyxovirus Ticks: Virus Dhori and Thogoto Mayaro Virus Virus Virus Mucambo Everglades Gender Gender vesicular Rhabdoviridae Lyssavirus: Rabies Vesiculovirus: Stomatit is Orthomyxoviruses ndumu Virus Virus Virus Gender O'nyong-Nyong virus Ross River S emliki Forest Virus Sindbis Virus Tonate Flaviviridae Flavivirus Gender: Encepha litis, San Influenzavirus: Influenza A, Influenza B, Influenza C virus Genre: In fluenza C Paramyxoviridae Paramyxovirus Gender: Parainfluenza types 1-4, Mumps Gender Morbillivirus: Measles Luis, Genus Pneumovirus: Syncytia l Virus Japanese B Encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis, yellow fever, Dengue types 1-4, Nile fever, Kyasanur disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis Hepacavi rus European Gender: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) respiratory virus mumps virus Newcastle disease Australia encephalitis (Murray Valley encephalitis) Group VI: transcribing singl e-stranded RNA virus Hepatitis G Retroviridae (retroviruses): encephalitis virus Central European tick Absettarov Gender Hanzalova Hypr Kumlinge Lentivirus: Hum an Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus SIV ( h) Group VII: dsDNA Viruses Gender H TLV: human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 Evil Forest Louping Kyasamur Rocio Powassan Encephalitis Virus summer season Wes selsbron Russian-summer West Nile Virus See also Bacteria, plasmid, prion, provi rus, Viroid, NanoBio. Reproductive cycle of the virus. Virus and cancer. Virus C omputer virus satellite. External links article is a Virus. Wiktionary has an en try about viruses. Genus Orthohepadnavirus transcribing Hepadnaviridae: Hepatitis B Hepatitis D (De lta) Wikipedia on Virus. Although viruses and bacteria appear the same, are not. Viruses are agents exter nal to our bodies, leading to "viral illness", if a virus attacks, it means that our body's defenses are low. To remedy this, just a bit of rest and care, and i ncrease vitamins and minerals needed to increase our defenses and "viral illness " termination. In the case of bacteria, although they are outsiders to our body and can spread through the air, like viruses, they can cause "infection" that in many cases, can not eradicate our defenses and cause damage higher. To treat th em you need to use antibiotics, but it is important that the doctor prescribe th e treatment you must follow, as automedicarte can kill bacteria "sensitive" (eas y eradication) and lead to the creation of bacteria "resistant", which can grow and multiply easily generate serious diseases, in addition to treatments to erad

icate them will become long and expensive. To be well â ¢ â ¢ Evita autorecetarte, e ach type of bacteria requires a specific antibiotic. The misuse of antibiotics c an create you more health problems. Do not forget that prevention and early detection can help you live better. All Rights Reserved