ADM 2004 - International Congress of Administration Management tools to improve interpersonal relationships between managers and sub ordinates

in the production process Sergio Escorsim (CEFET / PR) <escorsim@uol.com.br> Dr. João Luiz Kovaleski (CEFE T / PR) <kovaleski@pg.cefetpr.br> Dr. Luiz Alberto Pilatti (CEFET / PR) <@ lapil atti pg. cefetpr.br> Abstract Nowadays the interpersonal relationships are increasingly complex, due to the turbulence of the economy in the modern world and the speed with which th ings happen, requiring speed in decisions, production processes and the relation ship between suppliers / producers / customers. In this maze of information and multiple tasks of those who manage the production, a real struggle is fought for survival in the business world. Increasingly, the competitiveness is fierce and an important link in the process has been often overlooked, bringing immense di ssatisfaction on the factory floor, which is the interpersonal relationships bet ween managers and subordinates, greatly affecting the outcome of production. We tried to show that there are management tools that are of extreme importance in improving the inter-relationship between command and controlled, greatly benefit ing the balance of this relationship. It was aimed at demonstrating the importan ce of using appropriate management tools to improve relationships between manage rs and subordinates in the production process. Keywords: Production management Management Tools - Interpersonal Relations. 1. Introduction The production mana ger of today needs to have a series of characteristic inherent and essential to their profession, among them: always recycle their knowledge, learn to formulate strategies, capacity to resolve conflicts and, above all, learn to value and co nstantly motivate employees. Management is one of the most complex sciences that exist, because it deals with people, and people are extremely complex beings. A person is different from another. People think and act differently. What is goo d for one may not be for another. What matters for one may not interest another and so on. Therefore, to manage efficiently it is necessary that the Administrat or or Manager of Production aware of human relationships and the behavioral scie nces who are Psychology and Sociology, Politics and Ethics. Besides the knowledg e of these sciences, it needs to have much ability to "seek, refine, maintain an d use" a team of efficient and quality because it depends on the positive result s of the Organization in performing their duties. The administrator of the produ ction works with three key elements in the process, they are: people, machines a nd materials, whose association results in the production, which generates the n eed for administration. 1 On this assumption, and other factors, is an evident need of Directors and its s uccess depends on harmony in the inter-relationship of people in the productive process. In this case, the use of management tools is essential. 2. According Ch iavenato Contextualization (1991 pp. 1), the modern society we live in is compos ed of organizations. Almost everything that man needs - if not all - is made and produced in organizations. Modern man spends most of his time and his life with in organizations. In short, he says that organizations are composed of resources such as people, buildings, machinery and equipment, money etc.. Usually we spea k of social organizations, because without people they simply do not work. Organ izations do not exist at random, they serve to produce something. The production is the primary goal of any organization. Slack (1997 pp. 56), speaking on "Deve loping a manufacturing strategy for the organization," argues that the administr ation of production involves hundreds of decisions, one-minute intervals during a work week. As a result, it is vital that production managers have a set of gen eral principles that can guide decision making toward the goals of the organizat ion. Moreira (1998 pp. 10) says that "organization" is the process of joining (c ombining) the productive resources: personnel (manpower), raw materials, equipme nt and capital. Resources are essential to the achievement of planned activities

, but should be organized coherently to better use. And "Direction" is the proce ss of making plans that are on paper into concrete activities, assigning tasks a nd responsibilities to employees, motivating them and coordinating their efforts .€The three authors stress the "organization" as the most important factor of mo dern society and there are inserted the human, material, equipment and capital. It is also clear the role of production managers in coordinating and motivating employees to turn plans into production. Montana (pág.174 l999), in his book "Ma nagement", to discuss the Human Resources Administration, says that each person brings to the organization a different talent, a different level of expectation, a contribution different and sometimes even a different problem. Organizations can not buy the human mass, as well as a day of work can not be used twice, a da y of work lost is a day of lost work and can only be replaced by another resourc e person doing that particular service . A day of low productivity is a situatio n even worse, since the person is spending its resources but is not presenting a satisfactory level of productivity. Although the organization may waive the per son under certain conditions, it can also leave the organization at any time, th erefore, the organization must continually strive to maintain a positive environ ment to encourage each individual to continually make their work more productive . This will benefit both the person and the organization. Campos (1974 pág.45) r eports that the ideal type of leader is one who delegates tasks through a correc t sense of limit. They do it sparingly, conscious of its responsibilities. This sense of responsibility is one of the hallmarks of great leaders, the organizers . Through him, we see the moment when the weight of the tasks begins to exceed i ts capacity. Show themselves to be able to choose which they delegate tasks to a ssistants, training them to exercise those powers and delegated them gradually. 2 Bernardes (2003 págs.182, 183) focuses on "communication" as a highly important factor for those in positions of responsibility in organizations. Communications systems allow operational and administrative efficiency in the flow of informat ion for planning and control. Three cultural variables are closely related to co mmunication: technology, principles and feelings. In the same order, includes th e means chosen, namely, electronic communication, the boundaries of each and ins ecurity. In 1985, William Ouchi publishes a book entitled "Theory Z - How can co mpanies meet the Japanese challenge", a time when the world was lost with the gr eat advance in technology, productivity and low cost of Japanese products. It to ok a decade for entrepreneurs understand what Ouchi concluded: "The secret of Ja panese success is not technology, but a special way of managing people." The aut hors Montana, Campos Bernardes Ouchi and emphasize the need for a positive envir onment to make work more productive. The administrator is responsible for conduc ting this environment and should lead you to leadership and motivation. It is al so fundamental to the choice of auxiliaries for the exercise of powers delegated . Communication is another factor of major relevance for the inter-relationship with the people involved in the production process and that the Japanese success was not the technology but rather "a special way to manage people." 3. Manageme nt Tools Before the concepts presented and considering the results of a 35 years professional experience managing production companies, states that are necessar y management tools to improve interpersonal relationships between managers and e mployees, aiming at harmony at work and perhaps greater productivity in producti on processes. We selected six working tools to the administrator of production, considered indispensable in this process: Leadership, Communication, Decision Ma king, Delegation, Motivation and Update. These management tools, if well impleme nted, ensure the success of the production process, because the machines or serv ices depend on the man who runs and every human being is prone to errors, which can be expensive for the company or take the venture to failure . It is for prod uction managers to avoid or minimize these errors and ensure the success of the organization. Objectively, this article will address these six tools. 3.1 - Lead ership is a reciprocal relationship between those who choose to lead and those w ho decide to follow them. Any discussion of leadership must attend to the dynami cs of this relationship. Strategies, tactics, knowledge and practices are harmle

ss unless they meet the fundamental human aspirations that connect leaders and t heir followers (Smith, 1998 pp. 73).€It can be concluded that a leader is someon e who influences people to think and act a certain way to achieve a preset goal. The production manager must know the human nature of people who will be under h is command that he has successfully lead them to the desired goal. Leadership is one of the most important factors of organizational change. It can be said that organizations are not managed, they are led by individuals passionate about win ning cultures that promote high performance, set ambitious targets, measure resu lts and require accountability. Hesselbein (et all, 1996 pp. 34) says they are t hree essential attributes of a leader believing in yourself (confidence), the passion for work and love for people. In this context, leadership involves planning, st rategy and communication. Communication should be open, clear, openly and honest ly at all times, always showing respect for subordinates. The main characteristi cs of leadership are: be accepted, admired, respected and followed. These princi ples are inherent in a good production manager. 3.2 - Communication means the ac t or effect of transmitting an order, participate or advise. According to Bellow s (in Chiavenato, pág.452 1982), communication involves an exchange of facts, id eas, opinions or emotions between two or more persons and is also set as interre lationship through words, letters, symbols or messages, and as a means to partic ipant in an organization share meaning and understanding with others. Technicall y, it is said that communication is a process of transferring meanings. Communic ation is one of the most important tools of the administrator, because it determ ines the success of the message. In any communication process, there is, on one hand the "sender" and the other the "receiver" of the message. Between the trans mitter and receiver is a channel that is continuously bombarded by barriers that interfere with communication. In a communication process, the "sender" selects who will talk consolidates (makes understandable - the language they will use) a nd transmits the message. The barriers that affect communications are of orders psychological, sociological and technical. The administrator of production shoul d be alert to these interferences can be highly damaging to the results of under standing. Psychological barriers interfere with the values, attitudes, interests and motivation of subordinates. The sociological work on culture and language t here is implied to be employed, with consequences in the social classes of our s ubordinates. Finally, technical barriers are all those from the improper use of the channel. Example: I tell you one thing and mean another. When communicating we should examine the true purpose of communication. What we want with it: - Get Information? Start activities? Change attitudes? Set goals?. For us to succeed, we must plan communication. Given the importance of this tool in production pro cesses, it is necessary to study in detail, what we communicate to eliminate or minimize the negative effects of barriers that can affect the results of our goa ls. Chiavenato (1985 pág.456) says that communications are vital and indispensab le in any form of social life, especially in business. Communication is a seriou s matter in any work situation and even more so when we determine the execution of an order of service and workmanship and anything can go wrong if not interpre ted correctly. 4 3.3 - Decision making Our ancestors in the distant past, when faced with a situa tion of danger, had to make decisions in a moment, because the smallest hesitati on meant death. Those who were quicker to defend himself or eliminate the proble m, had more success and left more offspring. From this premise, the first man ev olved and learned to defend itself and only after analyzing the problem. Because of this, we often decide based on known facts. Thus, the entrepreneurs of the p ast acted as masters of the absolute right to make decisions. For many years, pe ople have lived believing in myths or false wisdom of those who held some kind o f power and the effect on the community was very strong. Today, faces the same n eed of the past to make quick decisions, with large differences in evolutionary

course, the world is increasingly complex, there is too much information, perfor mance pressure and a host of alternatives. Now the challenge is to drive busines s at the speed of thought. There is no way to escape, you decide or someone deci des for you. Just as important is learning to make decisions make informed decis ions. According to Montana (1999,€p. 74) an analysis of the functions of the adm inistrator reveals that virtually every manager, no matter what your official ti tle, makes decisions during the course of their work. This puts the decision-mak ing as ordinary function of the manager. Many people begin the discussion of a p roblem by finding when trying to exit that suits you best, without studying the alternatives, and reaching the settlement by trial and error. Therefore, caution is recommended when analyzing a problem. There is need for discipline in seekin g solutions. People well-trained and well prepared have greater insight and visi on in solving problems. Many people freeze when making decisions and this featur e is a psychological disorder that has a solution through training. Successful m anagers are able to see solutions and paths where others can not see and the dif ference is in professional training. Therefore, the decision is a process of ana lysis and choose from various alternatives available in the course of action tha t is oriented towards a goal to be achieved. The decision maker chooses the alte rnative. The fear of failure is the greatest difficulty that managers face. Ther efore find it difficult to take decision. This does not eliminate the risk. Igno red problems have serious consequences. The "decision" to "not take the decision " is an alternative. "Do not take the decision" is as risky as "decision making" because "not taken the decision" is "a decision", the "decision" to "not make a decision." So there is no output, decision making is the responsibility of the administrator, you need to know to make good decisions, or choose the best alter native. 3.4 - Delegation means to instruct, to instruct a person to solve a prob lem or task. Montana (1999 pág.162) says that delegation is the process that mak es possible the administration or management. At a time when a service becomes v ery complex, diverse or bulky for one person, there is the need for delegation. Nowadays, the overhead task is revealed by a tendency to over-centralization by executives and production managers, whose accumulation of responsibilities reduc es efficiency, leading to inevitable emotional imbalances in the relationship of work environment. The consequences from stress can lead executives to irreversi ble damage to health. The leader should not do the job that may be made by one o f its 5 subordinates. The delegation of tasks and responsibilities is a vital tool in th e rational organization of labor and a need of modern management. To delegate ta sks, we need to prepare our subordinates and choose responsible and requires som eone who is respected by the team to carry out our determination. The efficiency of the process requires that subordinates and superiors have identical percepti ons of the degree of authority and subordination of each. It is important to cla rify that the superior is aware that the delegation of functions does not transf er responsibility. The employee receiving the delegation shall be responsible fo r the task, before delegating the authority, which remains responsible to his su periors. The delegator will always be responsible for the actions of their subor dinates. These requirements are essential to delegate effectively. The use of a correct sense of limit and be aware of responsibilities is the mark of great man agers of production. Through the sense of responsibility we were able to pick as sistants who will receive delegated powers. Training subordinates, delegating as signments gradually, starting by making minor and tracking our orders to verify that no errors occur, certainly it will be treading a path that will ensure the success of our accomplishments. A competent delegation allows the production man ager to find time to plan and hold in the activities of greatest relevance, thus providing greater result in the goals and objectives of production. 3.5 - Motiv ation is a tool that is of great importance in the production process, and means "to arouse interest, curiosity." The man is an animal permanently dissatisfied, always striving to achieve something more than necessary to judge their satisfa

ction. The impulse that leads men to fight for something is determined by some r eal or apparent necessity, driven primarily by their expectations or their desir es. A satisfied need is not motivation to stay at the same level, man needs to h ave the prospect of new challenges. Human needs are complex and can be considere d infinite, as is always missing something.€People look for reasons to live and depend on an impulse, a stimulus-driven force in a sense, that is capable of sat isfying the desire. In the field of motivation and focus on making productive en terprise, managers need to know that their employees have desires, impulses, ins tincts, needs, desire and intention. This set of factors is always directed towa rd a target that varies from person to person, but intrinsically, men seek "happ iness" that is obtained through the health, comfort, welfare, professional achie vement, recognition for the work, progress, among other . The man has need for a chievement, social approval, power, knowledge, skills, finally, to succeed, rega rdless of their social class. The environment consists of various organizational levels and we can only understand the people there included focusing on the con text, the reasons of human behavior and how to motivate them to be more producti ve and satisfied. The complexity of human motivation is brilliantly illustrated and understood by the so-called "Hierarchy of Needs" Maslow, psychologist, consu ltant, U.S., 6 scholar in the field of motivation, which created a theory that human needs are organized and arranged in levels, a hierarchy of importance and influence. The h ierarchy of needs is represented and viewed in a pyramid where the base, the nee ds are the lowest and the highest at the top. Maslow says that the needs are bec oming more sophisticated in that it moves from level. In it, whether we are a me mber of a primitive tribe, a group of poor, middle class or a privileged group o f wealthy, often it will be entirely satisfied with the essential things that al ready have. Continually seeks to better quality and variety, always seeking grea ter satisfaction in life. 3.6 - Update It does not help dominate broad knowledge of administration if there is no update. The impact of constant change, new dir ections of development, new technologies appear in our lives so wonderful and un predictable. No update will happen a great machine for the crushing of the trans formations, which is technology. The upgrade and reorganization in the workplace and business processes must be incessant self-renewal. " If action is not taken to be smart shall be bound to a crisis of character disintegrating for lack of sufficient knowledge to prevent the exploitation of existing possibilities and t he vision of opportunities that come with rapid evolution. Techniques that worke d in the past does not guarantee success in this. What we said "a winning team d oes not move," was superseded by modern administration, because we live in a wor ld of rapid change and constant innovation. Today, one of the main responsibilit ies of the administrator is "change management". If a business is giving clear s igns of growth and success, it is necessary to assess how long this feature will be present. It is important to reflect on the alternatives that the company has to eliminate the negative factors, however, that strategies can be put into pra ctice in cases of diversion or crisis? The new era will be of permanent and bett er performance can be achieved only with great effort, which will require invest ment of human, technological and administrative. The important thing is to under stand the need to "update" and through it to prepare our team to achieve busines s goals and objectives. Technological innovations are permanent and serious conc ern is the speed of change. Know or follow all the changes and technological inn ovations is absolutely impossible, but it must be a production manager to date a nd well informed. 4 - Conclusion The tools presented to demonstrate its importan ce as a management tool, because through them obtain skills for efficient harmon y in relations between managers and subordinates, and that would achieve greater efficiency with the goals and objectives of production. The key to success of a production process as well as the business organization, is in human resources because they provide competitive advantages. The search for tangible results fro m the Scientific Management of Taylor, Ford and Mayo, which incorporated new var iables to the processes of production, the need for recognition and security for workers on the factory floor, promoted July 1

large change in the way people drive. As a result, have also changed the paramet ers of command,€changing the mode of treating people in organizations. More rece ntly, with the advent of Japanese techniques, a new style of managing people, ma king it clear that not enough good work environments, but people strongly commit ted to their duties, requiring rewards for their ideas and achievements in produ ction. Every action generates a reaction, and therein lies the crux of the matte r: people committed and well prepared for the exercise of its functions require administrators responsible for managing the production process. Therefore, these work tools are essential to production managers. 5. REFERENCES BERNARDES, C. General Theory of Administration: Managing Organizat ions. São Paulo: Saraiva, 2003. FIELDS, W. E. Leadership, and six His technical problems. Rio de Janeiro: FGV, 1974. CHIAVENATO, I. Business Administration: A c ontingent approach. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982. - Introduction to Administratio n of Production. São Paulo: Makron, McGraw-Hill, 1999. HESSELBEIN, F. et all. Th e leader of the future. São Paulo: Futura, 1996. MONTANA, P. J.; Administration. São Paulo: Saraiva, 1999. MOREIRA, DA Introduction to Production and Operations Management. Thompson Learning, 1998. SLACK, N. et all. Administration of Produc tion. São Paulo: Atlas, 1997. Ouchi, WG, Theory Z - How can companies meet the J apanese challenge. São Paulo: Nobel, 1985. SILVA, L. N. Wise leader: New leaders hip profile of the third millennium. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 1998. 8