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, productivity and competitiveness through the creation of streams, aligning best sequence in which actions create value withou t interruptions and the actual demand of the customer, always this need. To unde rstand Lean manufacturing is necessary to understand the context in which compan ies are at the moment of its creation. This philosophy originated in Japan after World War II at Toyota Motor Company in order to increase productivity and elim inate waste at your company. As mass production did not fit the economic reality of most parents and the market, the company, under the leadership of Taichi Ohn o, sought a new way to manage their manufacture. So we need to lean production w ith different principles of mass production, especially in relation to materials management. Although with few resources, the country had well-educated people w ith great desire, and to compete globally should use their resources more effici ently, reduce losses to the fullest and achieve excellence in quality, a prerequ isite to remain on the market. So the Japanese developed a variety of aggressive programs and robbers prosper, creating groups of employees in the unending purs uit of continuous improvement in the company. How can cite the example of how ev olution was measured as the level of quality companies. Until the '70s, we used as a measure of quality the word income, or how many good parts leaving a univer se of material processed. During the 70s, there was a change in the company's fo cus right now are measured defective parts, the scrap. During the 80s, the level of quality improvement has grown increasingly t o finally culminate in the current goal of every company: ZERO DEFECT. The size of this evolution is seen in the unit of measurement currently used: parts per m illion (PPM). Since improving the quality levels should be attacking costs. Acco rding Bonzato and Moura (1994), industries are taking 35% of his or unnecessary costs without adding value. The table below shows the cost levels of firms and h ow to attack them. What are these costs and where are they? To reduce costs the company must tackle these three sources: material, manpower and overhead. In the material there is not much to do, we price our products based on quotations of suppliers and negotiating for better supply conditions are time consuming and so metimes not happen. The companies focus their attacks upon manpower, the belief that reducing this cost may also decrease the difference between cost and price. Now something more must be done: the overhead. As overhead costs refer to the i nventory of materials in stock as much in process, materials handling, under-uti lization of equipment, scrap and / or poor quality among others. The starting po int for Lean Production is to know what value is. Silveira Bueno's Dictionary de fines value as merit, price, representative. But who really defines what value i s not the company but the client. The need for the client generates the value an d the company must determine it, seek to satisfy it and charge a price for it to stay in business, reducing the cost to the customer and improving quality. The next step is to identify the chain of value, it means to dissect the productive process and separate it into three types: one that actually generates value and the customer is willing to pay for this, for example, the machining process of t he screw a screw, one that adds no value, but it is essential to maintain the le vel of product quality, such as fluid coolers machining process, and finally, th e one that adds no value and should be eliminated, rework, for example. Continuing with the hardest part of lean manufacturing, because it requires a ch ange in mindset of the company: Value Stream. Companies must now ignore the idea of producing departmentalized, ie, each department makes a transaction resultin g from a focus on process and production that focuses on the cellular part. Roth er and Shook (2003) define value stream as any action (or not adding value) requ ired to make a product for all flows essential to every product. The effect of t he creation of Value Stream is felt in the material reduction in process lead ti me and material handling. Therefore, the company can respond more quickly to cus tomer needs. This allows the reverse flow productive: instead of making and push the products to the client now starts to pull this production,eliminating inve ntory and giving value to the product: the Pull Production. The schedule of Lean
Production System is based on pulling in which production is authorized and lim ited by demand. The best way to control the production is the use of Kanban. Taiichi Ohno (1912-1990), vice president of Toyota, as the leading critic of the waste that humanity has ever known, and they've listed the seven main types of waste, as outlined in the previous paragraph. Illustration 1 - HP Shed EVOLUTION OF lean Although today presents itself as obvious, the Japanese who we re in the 60s began the movement to combat all forms of waste in industry, sprea ding the idea that all activities and efforts in a productive environment must h ave a single goal: adding value to the product or create customer value. To expr ess and give meaning to everything that does not promote adding value, that is, to denote all forms of production losses, Japanese use the term "Change" (pronou nced change) which means wasteful. The most common forms of waste in the busines s are: • mistakes that require rework, • Production of items no one wants, • Tra ining of stocks of goods, • Stages of processing unnecessary • Movement of goods and persons without a defined purpose • People are still awaiting the completio n of a previous activity that is in arrears • Products (goods or services) that do not meet the customer's need. By adopting a more observant, and from a little training you can see that all ar ound us, both within companies and outside them, there is an unimaginable amount of waste. Many organizations are already applying the methodology of Lean Think ing as a way of management to protect against this loss they reduce profits and undermine competitiveness, because they understand that this is the way to do mo re with less human effort, less equipment, less time, less space, less energy, a nd bringing the product to the condition desired by the customer. In addition to reducing waste, Illustration 2 - HP Finished Shed lean thinking is a way to make work more challenging, since the methodology of L ean promotes a constant feedback on how the efforts of employees converted into value for customers and therefore for the company. The Lean also promotes the involvement and staff commitment to the organization, because the companies who practice it preaches to a lifetime employment relatio nship, making each employee a member of the company. To promote this stable envi ronment, Japanese companies were up to World War II organized into groups of abo ut thirty large companies who crowded around a bank, these groups were called Za ibatsu, and around every large company were organized many small businesses, the satellites. This relationship was common for a small company had, as one custom er, a large company, and this, as the sole supplier of certain items, a small co mpany, which required a high degree of confidence and stability 1971, property in Japan was liberalized, allowing for majority control by foreig ners, most companies had been organized under this logic, keiretsu, which made t hem privately held despite an apparently open ownership structure. This arrangem ent enabled the perpetuation cost of Japanese organizations, maintaining jobs an d capital into Japanese hands. Another important approach is the career structur e of the Japanese worker who is steeped in seniority, which means progress in re lation to time of dedication to the company. This mechanism inhibits rotation, b ecause the worker knows that getting in another organization "means to restart t heir careers, and that no worker is hired with initial salary equivalent to that of other Illustration 3 - Then Lean - "Column A"
companies. This relationship, which precedes the appearance of the Lean philosop hy, is part of its foundation. Addressing the financial management of lean firms , they discuss the organization of the Zaibatsu had their assets written off in 1945 and were replaced by a new form of organization, the keiretsu consist of ab out 20 major companies, and Illustration 4 - Before Lean - "Column A" each from a different industry and without the Holding, the bank toward the grou p. These companies joined together by investing in each other, with mutual inter ests. By having a relatively low value and fearing being acquired by foreigners, the Japanese companies in growth in the '50s and '60s,sold shares to each othe r without any transfer of money, creating a circular relationship capital. This promoted a condition almost prohibitive for the sale of businesses to foreigners . Where, worker who is the longest in the company. Being fired is a demerit according to Japanese culture, so it is a complicating factor in finding a new job, then the worker should strive to make a good career and stay in the same company for long . This working relationship in Japan is a healthy ingredient for promoting creat ivity and complicity between employee and company. The company that adopts Lean must therefore use its structure in order to generate maximum value for customer s and give maximum satisfaction to employees. The concepts and techniques that g uide this process of change are related to the specification value, to identify the value stream, flow to the organization, implement the pull system and seek p erfection. These concepts are presented in specific chapters ahead. Economic globalization, the emergence of large economic blocs formed by countrie s that have very different interests, technological development booming generate d an environment of extreme competition, requiring companies large increases in productivity and a lot of flexibility, giving them improvements in competitivene ss in this new scenario. Need for innovation and demonstrates that nowadays the technology, not only in instrumental terms, and in terms of techniques and knowl edge is a sine qua non for organizations that want perpetuarse in a market incre asingly competitive and unstable. The changes are bigger and faster, forcing com panies to develop flexibility and streamline its structure, in order to adapt to a more agile environment and concomitantly avoid waste, the consumer market beg an to require an individualized treatment, causing companies, among other measur es, reduce the development cycle of new products. To accomplish this, companies have adopted many different strategies for the innovation process, to choose the right project and remain on competitive advantage, since this is temporary. Inn ovation should focus on improving quality, lower costs, reduced product life cyc le and development time, and its main characteristic is its focus on consumer ne eds. In general, innovation is an approach that is focused mainly on strategy, m arket requirements, and aims, mainly to easing the product (good or service) to meet the needs of consumers. To develop innovative products and processes in an organization, you must have: • Focus on the consumer: to achieve balance between integration areas and obtain results for specific problems of functional areas. • Discipline: The development process is complex, use of stages of development, clear criteria for phase change, test procedures, development of prototypes. • Consistency in the details: the development process must maintain coherence be tween its various components. • Alignment with the mission: the company should k now what their core business and how the environment can affect their business, companies that face different environments require more than one development sys tem. • Standardization: creating a pattern of development, a model of how ideas are transformed into products and business processes, facilitating communication and the development process. Maki ng a complement to these exhibitions, the value of creative activity is one that comprises a product (be it a good, service or a combination of both) that actua
lly end customer wants. Thus, the value of the product, and consequently what ar e value-creating activities should be investigated by the final consumer. For a product to be and to really please the customer, the authors suggest that identi fied the value chain, beyond the company and involving all activities necessary to create the product, from conception to manufacture. Thus, for this identifica tion, the authors divide the activities into three groups: value-creating activi ties, which must be kept, those that do not create value but are necessary to th e system and therefore need to be maintained and not create value and must be el iminated. The development of products and processes requires the effective actio n of the functions of the organization (engineering, marketing, production).Com plex products and processes are successful when the functional activities are li nked not just to keep consistent but mutually supportive. Implement integration interfunctional amending the functions perform when they perform and how they do the work. There is a great utility instrumental in facilitating technology deve lopment projects and functional integration, although according to the authors, some problems in the deployment of the systems can occur, and technical issues a rising from the conjugated complex software, whose installation requires a lot o f money, time and expertise / competence. Thus, we have to prepare people to wor k with new integration technologies (CAD, CAM, CAE and other) because one of the reasons for system failures are the administrative problems when companies fail to reconcile the technological imperative of system and needs of the organizati on itself. When markets and technology are more dynamic and time is critical for competitiveness, cross-functional integration is crucial to effective developme nt. An effective cross-functional integration depends crucially on the attitudes that affect the relationship between groups of the flow development. Both in pr oduct development, as processes. Ideally, the product design and process design must go together, so the integration between the different functions need to be very strong for the achievement of Lean Thinking. The simultaneous development i s the technique that distinguishes lean mass production in developing products a nd processes.
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