Plato Critias Acrobat edition edited by Patrick Sanasi (Patsa@tin.

it) Plato Critias Plato's Critias TIME: With great joy, Socrates, as if resting after a long journ ey, I gladly free now of the course of reasoning. (1) What god (2) born once in reality and now born just in words, I pray that we preserve them, in all that wa s said, of those things that were said to measure, and if, without realizing it, we said something out of tune on them to impose the appropriate penalty. But pu nishment is to make the one who sang Stone; to do so in future speeches correct origin of the gods, please provide the knowledge, powerful and very effective am ong remedies. Having thus prayed, we leave, as agreed, the following reasoning C ritias. Critias: (3) Well, Timaeus, accept, but the prayer that you did too earl y action, seeking understanding as you would have talked about big things, well, this same prayer I express myself now, but I call to obtain a even greater unde rstanding for the things that are being said. Although I know more or less that the request is very ambitious and I'm going to make it more crude to as I should , but I have to do it. Moreover, as a man of sense would dare say that your word s were not those good? Moreover, the fact that what is said needs more understan ding in the more difficult this must somehow try to explain it. Why, my dear Tim aeus, when you say something the gods to men is easier to give the impression of not thoroughly discuss when it comes to us mortals. Indeed, the inexperience an d ignorance of the listeners make up a large resource for those who intend to ta lk about issues on which the listener is in such condition as to the gods then k now our situation. To further clarify what I am saying, follow this route. Imita tion and representation must to some extent are the speeches from all of us: (4) the reproduction of images made by painters, such as to represent the divine bo dies and human bodies, consider it for the ease and difficulties seem to those w ho the watch, imitation satisfactory, and we recognize that the earth and mounta ins and rivers and forests, the whole sky and things in it and are moving at fir st could be met if one is able to play a small part something similar, but then, since these things do not know anything definite, do not review or criticize th e paintings, and we use a chiaroscuro vague and misleading for these same object s, but when one tries to represent our bodies, because we perceive clearly what is being overlooked because of the ongoing monitoring and family, become terribl e judges who will not render in full all the similarities. This same thing happe ns also to be noted that the speeches, and we are satisfied that if the argument s heavenly and divine, are also displayed with a small likelihood, while the hum an and mortal things by carefully considered. Well if, in what we are saying now suddenly, we are able to make that perfectly agrees that one must have indulgen ce: because you must think that all mortal things are not easy but difficult to represent than the expectation. I said all this, Socrates, because I wanted to r emember these facts, and ask no less an indulgence, but more for things that are going to be said. So if that seems correct to ask me such a gift, concedetemelo willingly. SOCRATES: Why, O Critias, hesitate to give? Indeed, this same gift i s also given by us to third, Hermocrates. (5) it is clear that now, when it shal l turn to speak, will request it, like you, and therefore to ensure that they ca n prepare a another start and is not required to say an equal, believes he speak s for that moment, our indulgence. However, my dear Critias, I expose previously thought the audience: the poet who preceded you has an extraordinary reputation in this audience, so you need a good dose of indulgence, if you intend poterti

get these same distinctions. Hermocrates: Well, Socrates, you give me the same w arning from a man. And indeed men without courage never raised a trophy, or Crit ias: we must therefore go forward courageously in discourse, and, given the invo cation of peonies and the Muses, (6) to proclaim and celebrate the virtues of th e old citizens. Critias: Dear Hermocrates, you were assigned last fila7 and have another in front of you,€which is why you're still full of arrogance. So this is kind of that company, will soon itself to make clear: we must then listen to your exhortations and encouragements and beyond your gods that you have mentione d we also rely on others, and Mnemosyne. (8) the fact that so to speak, is the m ost important aspect of our words depends entirely on this deity: if we have eno ugh memory and we have reported more or less what was said by the priests and br ought here by Solon (9) I'm more or less sure that this audience will give the i mpression of having done our homework properly. So this is what needs doing and do not delay. First, remember that in total there were nine thousand years (10) since, as they say, the war between peoples who lived beyond the Pillars of Hera cles and respect all those who live on this side and this war we must now descri be it fully. (11) A leader of one then, it was said, was this city, who supporte d the war all the time, the others were under the command of the king of the isl and of Atlantis, which, as we said, ( 12) at that time was larger than Libya and Asia, but now submerged by earthquakes, mud is insurmountable (13) that prevent s the passage to those who sail from here to reach the open sea, the voyage does not goes further. As for many barbarous nations, and all Greek tribes that exis ted then, for the development of each speech in the making show what happened, b ut rather to the lineage of the Athenians at the time of the adversaries and the v 2 Plato Critias such as warfare, the first requirement is to expose the power of each principle and their constitutions. And among these same people we must give priority, in t he story, those who lived here. Indeed once the gods were divided at random all over the earth according to place - not to contest: (14), it would be an argumen t not just think the gods ignore what suits each of them and then, knowing what suits better with others, had tried to obtain it for themselves by force of cont ention - then with getting justice draws what was their degree, to stay in those regions and, After having spent established, like the shepherds of the flocks, we bred and own property her children without using violence on the body by phys ical force, like the shepherds who lead the beasts to pasture under the blows of the whip (15) but in the way, in particular, is a docile animal, leading from t he stern, clinging to the soul by persuasion as a rudder, according to their des ign: in this way ruled and all mankind. The gods, having thus obtained the lot a bout who these other places, they administered. Hephaestus and Athena (16) who h ave a common nature, both as brother and sister born of the same father as both reached the same goal for their love of wisdom and art, so they received either a single lot, this region as congenial and naturally suited for virtue and thoug ht, and since I did as native born (17) virtuous men, settled in their minds the political system, their names are preserved, but their works due to destruction of the successors and the length of time spent, are gone. In fact the race that always survived, as mentioned previously, (18) mountain and remained illiterate , and knew only heard about the names of the lords of the region and, in additio n to these, a few of their works. They, therefore, were content to assign these names to their children, but ignored the virtues and the laws of his predecessor s, except for some obscure information about each of them and being, they and th eir children for many generations, lacking the necessary goods, turning one's mi nd what they have lacked, and this also devoting their speeches, did not care of the events in former times and in times past. The story and events search ancie nt city in fact come together with leisure, when one begins to see someone alrea dy supplied goods necessary to live, not before. So the names of the ancients ha

ve been preserved, without the memory of their works. I say this basing on the f act that among the many companies that just remember names associated with each of Cecrops, Erechtheus, Erichthonius, Erisittone (19) and in front of the other heroes Theseus (20) between the two firms Solon says that the priests , mentioni ng mostly the names of those characters, told the war was fought at that time, a nd similarly for the names of women. And as the image and statue of the goddess €since then the military occupations were common to both women and men, so, acco rding to the custom, they had a votive statue of the goddess armed, evidence tha t all living beings living members, females and males are common in nature capab le of exercising the power that lies in each sex. (21) At that time, then lived in this region other classes of citizens engaged in crafts and drawing nourishme nt from the earth, while the warrior class from the beginning to separate will o f divine men lived separately, provided everything that was necessary for the su stenance and education, none of them had anything of their own, but consider eve rything in common and not considered right to take anything from other citizens that it was more of sufficient nourishment and exercise all of the activities de scribed yesterday, which have been mentioned about the guards that we have assum ed. (22) Moreover, the story was reported in our region was credible and true: F irst, for what concerns the boundaries then came to the Isthmus (23) and in part along the rest of the continent, to the tops of Cithaeron (24) and Parnitha, (2 5) then came down to having the right Oropa (26) and left until Sea excluding As opus: (27) this region exceeded fertility for all others, which at that time cou ld also feed a large army inactive in field work. Adequate proof of its value: w hat now remains of it supports the comparison with any land, because it produces all much fruit and abundant pasture for all animals. At that time, however, in addition to the fine quality of the fruit, it also produced in great abundance. How is this possible and therefore on the basis of which the current residual la nd then it can rightly be said? It, entirely detached from the rest of the conti nent lies stretching to the sea as the tip of a headland, the sea basin that inc ludes sinks quickly on all sides. Since there were so many terrible disasters in these nine thousand years - why so many are the years that pass from that time until today - the portion of land in recent years and many accidents have become detached from the heights of land not accumulated sediments of a some significa nce, as in other places and, sliding down in a continuous process around, disapp eared in the depths of the sea, then, as happens in small islands, compared with what was at that time, the parts that remain today are like the bones of a body that was hit by a disease, because the land around what it was fat and soft, ha s slipped away, and he remains alone, the region, the slender body. At that time , however, when it was intact, had raised the mountains and hills and rich loam, the plains of Felleo said today, (28) had vast forests and mountains, of which there is evidence still visible today. And those mountains there are some who ar e currently providing food only to the bees, but is not much time, derived from trees cut off from here to take shelter in buildings impressive, it still had ro ofs. We grew, numerous tall trees cultivated but also provided endless pastures for livestock. In addition each year of water that was enjoyed by Zeus, not lost , as happens today, when it disappears draining away from bare land to the sea, because he had plenty of welcomed it in his breast, held in Serbia in impervious clay, and then letting the water fall down from the heights to the cavity, offe red everywhere abundant flow of springs and rivers, and shrines that still remai n from the sources that existed at one time is testimony to the fact that Today' s stories on it are true. 3 Plato Critias So my natural conditions of the rest of the country. And, as appropriate, was ke pt in perfect order, from real farmers, who did just that job, lovers of beauty and with good quality, possessed of excellent land and water in great abundance and, on that land, much enjoyed seasons temperate. And here was inhabited at tha

t time the city. First part of the acropolis was not then as it is today. There was indeed a night of rain, where it rained more than the land could bear, that has melted around today and made terribly bare, and at the same time there were earthquakes and an extraordinary flood, before the third disaster Deucalion; (29 ) but earlier, in another time, size and stretched up all'Eridano all'Ilisso, (3 0) embraced inside the Pnyx (31) and included on the side opposite to the NFIP, Mount Lycabettus,(32) and was all earth and, except in a small section on top, f lat. Remote areas, under the same side of the Acropolis, were inhabited by artis ans and farmers who worked the land surrounding the area above the living around the sanctuary of Athena and Hephaestus, the only warrior class, who 's were sur rounded by a garden wall as a single dwelling. They lived sides of this north fa cing, common in homes. There were tables set up for the winter months, all that suited to life in common, their buildings and shrines, they possessed it, except for gold and silver - because of these metals were not absolutely use, and inst ead pursued a middle course between arrogant pomp and illiberal stinginess, livi ng in decent homes in which they and their children's children grew older and gr adually leaving a legacy to others equal to them (33) -, sides exposed south, ho wever, when abandoned gardens, gymnasiums and cafeterias, for example during the summer, they used them for these purposes. There was only one source, the place where today is the acropolis, of which dried up because of earthquakes, are cur rently around small streams, and instead gave the men of that time at all, plent y of flow, and was tempered in both winter and summer. This, then, the way livin g here, serving as custodians of their own citizens and leaders from the other h and, freely accepted, other Greeks, but always taking care that was in them as m uch as possible the same in all ages the number of men and women, those already able to fight and those who were still about twenty thousand at most. (34) These so since these men and thus more justly administering their city and Greece wer e estimated across Europe and throughout Asia for the beauty of body and soul to every kind of virtue, and they were all men of their time the most famous. And as their opponents, what were their conditions and how things were going home, i f we is not off the memory of what we heard when we were children, I explain, an d what we know is common (35) with friends. is necessary, however, before beginn ing the speech, yet provide a brief clarification, so do not be surprised to hea r a Greek names for men Barbarians: they learn the cause. Solon, as he planned t o use this story for his poetry, looking for information on the meaning of these names, he found that those Egyptians who first wrote these names, they had tran slated into your language, and again he in turn , recovering the meaning of each name, transcribed by transferring them into our language. And precisely these w ritings were in possession of my grandfather, they are still in my possession, a nd I'm very busy when I was a boy. (36) So if you hear these names, similar to t hose present, there seem strange: it know the reason. And so here is what was pr etty much the beginning of this long story. As mentioned before, (37) about the draw of the gods, which they divided the whole land into lots where larger where smaller, and established in his honor and offered sacrifices, so Poseidon, who had been allotted the island of Atlantis, ruled their children, generated by a m ortal woman, in a certain place on the island. Near the sea, but in the central part of the whole island, there was a plain, said to be all the more beautiful a nd guarantee prosperity, then near the plain, but in the middle of it, at a dist ance of about fifty stage (38) was a mountain of small size on each side. This m ountain was inhabited by one of the men born here originally from the earth, who se name was Euenore and who lived with a woman, Leucippe. Generated one daughter , Cleitus. The daughter was of marriageable age, when his mother and father died . Poseidon, having conceived the desire for her, joined with the girl and made w ell-fortified hill in which he lived, made it around steep, forming belts of sea and land, alternately smaller and larger, one around each other, two of land, t hree of the sea, as if working on the lathe from the center of the island, where ver the same distance, so that the island was inaccessible to men at that time b ecause there were no boats or navigation. He then embellished easily, how can a god, the island in its middle part, spring from the ground by two springs, one t hat flowed from the hot source, the other cold, then had to produce food from th

e earth of every kind and in abundance. Generated five pairs of male children,(3 9) after the babes and divided into ten parts of the island of Atlantis, the fir st born son of two older assigned the residence of the mother and the surroundin g blocks, which was the largest and best, and did King of others, and to each ot her made them leaders gave power over a large number of men and a vast territory . He gave all the names, who was the oldest and King gave this name, which is wh at that whole island and the sea, called the Atlantic because the name of the ma n who ruled for the first time was precisely Atlas; ( 40) twin brother born afte r him, who had been allotted the end of the island towards the Pillars of Heracl es, facing the region today called Gadir by the name of that place, was in greek Eumelus, whereas in the local language Gadir, the name that was just the name g iven to this region. The two children who were born in the second gave birth Pos eidon, the first name and second name Amfere Euemone; the children of the third gave birth name Mnesea, that first born native, born after that, the fourth-born children Elasippo Mestore was the first and the second, fifth-born children was given the name of the first Azae of Diaprepe per second. All of them, they and their descendants lived here for many generations, exercising control over many other islands of that sea, and also, as we said before, 4 Plato Critias governing regions on this side, to Egypt and Tirrenia. Atlas's stock was so larg e and respectable, and it was always the oldest king to send his children to the oldest power, preserved the kingdom for many generations, acquiring wealth in a quantity that there were many never been before in no domain of kings, there wi ll never easily in the future, and besides being able to have everything that wa s needed in the city and elsewhere in the country. In fact many resources, becau se of their dominance, they came from outside, but most of the island offered th e same for the necessities of life: first, all metals, solid or molten, which ar e mined, one of which is now known only by name - at that time but the substance was more than a name, orichalcum, (41) extracted from the earth in many parts o f the island, and was the most valuable in the party ' gold among the metals tha t existed then - and everything that forests provide for the work of carpenters: all produced in abundance, and then had enough domestic and wild animals. In pa rticular there was well represented species of elephants. In fact, pasture for a nimals, for those who live in the swamps, lakes and rivers and so for those that graze on the mountains and plains, were all equally abundant and they were for this animal, although the largest and the most voracious. In addition, the perfu me that the earth produces in our days, roots, shoots, wood, oozing juice from f lowers or fruits, all produced and made her grow well, and still gave the fruit grown and dry (42) becomes our food and the fruits of which we use to make bread - all of them the kind of product we call the grain - and the fruit woody offer ing drinks, food and scented oils, the fruit from hard skin, used for fun and pl easure, hard to maintain, (43) so those who served after dinner as a welcome rem edy to those who are tired of satiety (44) such products the sacred island which then existed under the sun, offered, beautiful and wonderful in endless abundan ce. So taking all these riches from the earth, they built temples, royal residen ces, ports, shipbuilding and the rest of the region, ordering everything in the following way. Fences of the sea that surrounds the ancient city first made them viable means of bridges, forming a street outside and towards the royal palace. The royal palace released him from the beginning in this same residence of the god and ancestors, inherit from one another, and adding ornaments ornaments were always trying to overcome, as they could, the predecessor until released an ext raordinary home to behold the grandeur and beauty of the work. Achievement, star ting from the sea, a channel connecting off three picks, (45) one hundred feet d eep (46) and long fifty stages until the outer boundary of the sea: they created so the transition from sea to the city as a port After sufficient size mouthpie ce for the entry of larger vessels. Also cut fences that divided the land among

themselves surrounded by the sea at the bridges, so that we can get on board one trireme,€by a city to another, and covered the steps with roofs, so that the n avigation below happen: in fact the banks of the boundary of the earth rises suf ficiently above sea level. The largest city, which was in communication with the sea was three stadia in width and hand width was close to the boundary of land, the double walls of the sea was a large two-stage, the land had once again a wi dth equal to the surrounding sea, instead of a stadium was surrounded by the sea that ran around the island itself, in the middle. The island, which was the abo de of kings, had a diameter of five stadia. This all around, and fences, and dec k off a pick, surrounded them on one side and the other with a stone wall, makin g the bridge overhang on both sides by towers and gates, along steps leading to the sea, cut around the stone, below the central island, and under fences, on th e outside and the inside, white, black, red (47) and while they cut created with in two deep arsenals whose coverage was the same stone. As for development, some were simple, others are to create colorful, stirring, for viewing pleasure, the stones, and so made them a natural grace, clothed the entire perimeter of the w all that ran along the outer wall with bronze, using them like a plaster, while that of the internal walls smeared with molten tin, and finally that which surro unded the Acropolis itself orichalcum with the reflections of fire. The royal pa lace within the acropolis, was placed in the following way. At the center of the sanctuary, consecrated in the same place at Clitus and Poseidon, was left inacc essible, surrounded by a wall of gold, and there was originally conceived and ga ve birth to the descendants of the ten heads of royal dynasties, and was still E very year there were, from all ten locations of the country, seasonal offerings for each of those deities. The temple of Poseidon himself was a long stage, off three picks, proportionate in height to these dimensions, and the figure had som ething barbaric. Silver lining across the outside of the temple, with the except ion of pedestals, and pedestals were gold, the interior, the ceiling was to be s een entirely ivory variegated gold, silver and orichalcum; all other parts, wall s, columns and floor, clothed orichalcum. There they placed statues of gold, the god standing on a chariot, charioteer of six winged horses, he big enough to to uch the ceiling with the head of the temple, around one hundred Nereids (48) on dolphins - why so many thought then they were the Nereids - and there were many other statues, votive offerings of private individuals. Around the sanctuary, ou tside, were all images of gold, women and those from the ten kings who were born , and many other large offerings of kings and private, from the city itself and other countries outside those on which governed. The altar for the size and soph istication of the work was in harmony with this apparatus, and the royal palace, likewise, responded well to the grandeur of the one part, the other the splendo r of the temple itself. As to sources, the source of cold water and the source o f hot water, plenty of generous, each ideally suited for use in the pleasantness and under water, having used them around homes and plantations of trees suited to those waters and installed around tanks, some cast 5 Plato Critias open other blankets used in winter for hot baths, one part of those kings, those of other individuals, others for women, others for horses and other beasts of b urden, giving each the appropriate decoration . The water that flowed from there took her to the sacred grove of Poseidon, trees of all kinds, who, by virtue of the earth, beauty and extraordinary height, and made the water run until the ou ter circles through ducts built along bridges. And there were many temples built in honor of many gods, many gardens and many high schools, some for men, others for horses, except, in each of two circular islands. In addition, the center of the island increased, they had reserved for themselves a race track, off a stag e and so long as to allow the horses to go for the race the entire circumference . Around this, on both sides, there were buildings for the guards, for the bulk of the Colorado beetle, (49) was assigned to the most loyal garrison in the smal

lest circle, which was nearer the Acropolis while those who were distinguished f or fidelity between all had been given accommodation in the Acropolis, near the king.€The arsenals were full of triremes and furnishings needed for the galleys , all prepared in sufficient quantity. And in the following way things were then placed around the residence of kings: for those who crossed the external ports, three in number, from the sea wall ran in a circle, distant fifty stadia all ov er the city and major port. This wall was closed in itself in a single location at the mouth of the channel from the sea. All this extension was covered by nume rous and dense housing, while the channel and the harbor teemed with larger vess els and merchants who came from all sides and that, for many, pouring day and ni ght voices and tumult and noise of all kinds . We therefore reported hours prett y much what you said at the time of the ancient city and home, then try to recal l what the nature of the rest of the country and how it was arranged. First of a ll that the area was said to be high and overlooking the sea, while all around t he city there was a plain, embracing the city and was itself surrounded by mount ains which descended towards the sea, flat and uniform across long, long three t housand stadia on both sides and the middle two thousand stadia from the sea all the way down. This part of the whole island was facing south and sheltered from the winds. The mountains surrounding it were known at the time, number, size an d beauty above the mountains that exist today, for many villages full of people who are there and in addition to rivers, lakes, meadows, able to feed all sorts of domestic and wild animals, forests for many and varied, inexhaustible for all the work and each in particular. This plain in a long time, the work of nature and of many kings, thus took the following accommodation. He had, as I said, the shape of a quadrangle, rectilinear for the most part, and elongated, but where it departed from the straight line straightened by a moat dug around: what is ca lled the depth, width and length of this ditch is not credible, ie that work cre ated by man could be of such size as well as other hard work that had resulted. We must, however, report what we heard: well, had been dug to a depth of a pick, while its width was at any point a stage, and because it was dug around the pla in, it was ten thousand stadia in length. Received the streams which descended f rom the mountains and walked around the plain, coming from both sides to the cit y, then went from there to jump into the sea. From the top of this ditch channel s straight, about one hundred feet wide, cut across the plain, came back to thro w in the ditch beside the sea at a distance from one another hundred stadia. And it was this way then they did go down to the town and the lumber from the mount ains to the coast on boats carrying other seasonal products, digging, from these passages navigable channels and cutting through each other and with respect to city. Twice a year gathering the produce of land, using rain in winter, summer w atering everything that gives the earth with water drawn from canals. As the num ber of men living the plain that were useful for the war, it was established tha t each batch provided a head was the size of a batch of ten for ten stages and t hroughout the lots were sixty thousand, for what concerns instead the number of men who came from the mountains and the rest of the country, was said to be infi nite and all, as the towns and villages, were then distributed to these district s under the command of their leaders. It was therefore decided that the master t o furnish the war the sixth part of a tank battle to reach the number of ten tho usand chariots, two horses and their riders, also a wagon with two horses withou t seat, which had a soldier capable occasion to fight on foot, equipped with a s mall shield, and fighting along with a charioteer for both horses, two hoplites, two archers, two slingers, three lightly armed soldiers who throw stones and th ree javelin throwers, four sailors to complete the 'crew of twelve hundred ships . This then was the military organization of the royal city, rather than the one into the other nine provinces, but it would take too long to explain. As for th e magistrates and public office, were so ordered from the beginning. Each of the ten kings exercised their command in the city and its men and most of the laws, punishing and putting to death anyone who wanted to;€but the power they had on each other and the mutual relations were regulated by the requirements of Posei don, as they had handed the tradition and the letters engraved on a stele from t he first king of orichalcum, which was placed in the center of the island, in th

e sanctuary of Poseidon, where every five years and sometimes, alternating every six met, giving equal importance and equal a year odd year. In these meetings d eliberating the common affairs, to determine whether someone had violated any la w and making the proceedings. When should judge, before they exchange insurance in the following ritual. Some bulls (50) were left in the sanctuary of Poseidon, king and ten, were left alone, turned to God after prayer to choose the victim that was welcome, gave start the hunt, armed not with weapons of iron but only w ith sticks and strings, the bull could catch, they led him in front of the colum n and there, on top of this, sticking just above the inscription. 6 Plato Critias On the stele, in addition to laws, there was recorded an oath threw terrible ana themas against offenders. Thus, the sacrifices made in accordance with their law s, when passed to devote all parts of the bull, mixed in a hole and pours the bl ood clot each, while the rest, purified the stele, placed him beside the fire, a fter which, drawing with gold cups from the crater, and offering libations to th e fire, took an oath to judge according to laws inscribed on the stele, to punis h those who previously had violated these laws and, secondly, not to transgress any of the states will in future rules of inclusion, which would rule nor obey t he ruler unless exercised his command under the laws of the father. Each of them , having raised these prayers for themselves and for their descendants, drank th e cup and consecrated in the sanctuary of God, then waited for lunch and occupat ions necessary, and when darkness fell and the fire had consumed the sacrifices , all wore a blue dress, beautiful ever there, sitting on the floor, next to the ashes of the sacrifices for the oath. At night, when now the fire was completel y extinguished around the temple, were tried and judged if one of them had accus ed another of violating any law, after formulating the opinion, the right day to affect the ruling on a table of 'gold dedicated in memory along with the clothe s. There were other laws, and many details which related to the privileges of ea ch king, among which the most important: they would never take up arms against e ach other and that they would support each other, and if one of them in some cit ies tried to throw the race director, had acted in common, like their ancestors, who judged it appropriate to take decisions about the war and other matters, le aving the supreme command to the stock of Atlas. A king master was not to condem n anyone to death of blood relatives without the consent of more than half of te n. Such and such power, then living in those places, God picked and then went ag ainst this region, behind such a pretext, as tradition dictates. For many genera tions, until it was strong enough in them the divine nature, were obedient to th e laws and sympathetic soul to the gods who had shared with their offspring were indeed real and big thoughts around, using gentleness mixed with wisdom in the events that from time to time presented themselves and among themselves. Therefo re, having all the power except in disdain, and, believing what little assets th ey had available, bore with serenity, like a weight, the mass of gold and other riches, and not be shaken, drunk and without the effect of luxury more self-cont rol because of the wealth, and conversely, remaining alert, acutely saw that all these assets will enhance the mutual affection united to virtue, and will wear for excessive zeal and esteem and with them the virtue perishes. Well, as a resu lt of such reasoning, and there remained until their divine nature, all goods th at we have enumerated above are heightened. But when the party of God was exting uished in them, often mixed with a strong element of mortality and human nature got the upper hand, then, become unable to adequately support the load of being available to them, and made inappropriate behavior, and who was able to see seem ed laid, because they had lost the most beautiful among the most valuable assets , while the eyes of those who had the ability to discern the true life that lead s to happiness then looked especially beautiful and blessed€full of greed and u njust power. However, the god of gods, Zeus, who rules according to the laws, be cause he could see similar things, realizing that this race was just degeneratin

g into a miserable state, wanting to punish them, so that brought back to reason , to become more moderate, called all the gods in their most majestic mansion, w hich, at the center of the entire universe, sees all things that become part of, and after having been summoned said ... 7 Plato Critias NOTES: 1) The reference is the conclusion of the Timaeus (92C), which relates di rectly to this dialogue. 2) is the "god-sensitive" of the Timaeus (27C and 92C). 3) See the Preface to the Timaeus. 4) The theory here exposed on the imitative nature of art appears in book 10 of the Republic and Sophist. 5) It is probably the Syracusan general admired by Thucydides (Book 4, 58, book 6, 32, 72, 76, boo k 7, 73). Siceliots central figure in the Congress of Gela in 424 BC, Hermocrate s defended his city from attacks in Athens 415-413. After a period of exile foll owing the battle of Cyzicus, he returned to Sicily in 408. He died trying to con quer Syracuse. 6) peonies ('helper') is epithet of Apollo. Sull'invocazione to A pollo and the Muses see. Plato, Respublica 427B. Seven) Critias takes over the m ilitary metaphor Hermocrates recently adopted. According to most commentators he re allude to a third dialogue titled Hermocrates. 8) goddess of memory, daughter of Uranus and Earth: the Critias refers to remember the stories reported by Sol on on Atlantis. 9) The family of Critias boasted a descent from "Ghenos" Solon. 10) See Plato, Timaeus 23rd. 11) See Plato, Timaeus 24th. 12) See Plato, Timaeus 25d-24th. 13) See Plato, Timaeus 25c-d. 14) Nell'Eutifrone (5 and following) an d the Republic (Book 2, 378a-c) Plato makes an adverse opinion on the strife bet ween the gods for possession of a territory. However, in Menexenus (237b-238th) Plato accepts the myth that Poseidon and Athena had fought Attica, with conseque nt loss of the first. 15) See Plato, politicus 267th-272b. 16) In 112b Plato men tions a temple in Athens dedicated to both gods. 17) On the autochthonous Atheni an cf. Plato Menexenus 237b; Respublica book 3, 415d-e; Sophist 247c, 269b polit icus, 271st-c. 18) See Plato, Timaeus 22d-23d. 19) Mythical heroes of Attica. Pr obably their mention by Plato between the heroes of the mythical story of Attica is explained by the fact that they were in their deeds in some way to deal with Poseidon, the founder of Atlantis. 20) civilizing hero of Attica, pendant ionic Dorian Heracles. Primary sources on his exploits are Plutarch's Life of Theseus and the news kept in Apollodorus and Diodorus Siculus. A tradition attributes t he synechism Theseus of Athens, the institution of the Panathenaic, the conquest of Megara. 21) See Plato, Respublica 451st to 457th. 22) See Plato, Respublica 369th to 374th, 375th to 376th, 415th-417b. 23) The isthmus of Corinth. 24) Moun t the border between Attica and Boeotia. 25) Mount the border between Attica and Boeotia. 26) Oropus, which is here quoted the territory, is a city of Attica. 2 7) River that comes from the mountain and flows into the Gulf Cithaeron Euboean. Plato here gives coordinates that assign greater Attico extension of what the r egion had in his time. 28) The term alludes to the porous nature of the terrain ("Phellos" in greek means the 'cork'), similar to a lava (cf. Aristophanes, Acha menses 273). 29) The Flood of Deucalion was then the fourth. In the Timaeus (23b ) is said generally that "before there were many." 30) Rivers Attica. 31) locate d in West Athens Hill, usual place of meeting of the Assembly. 32) Mount to the north-east of Athens. 33) See Plato, Respublica 461d-417th, 419th-424c; Leges 67 9b-d, 742, 780c, 842b. 34) See Plato, Leges 737d-e, where the number of citizens of the ideal state is set at 5040. See also Respublica 460th. 35) The phrase re calls the famous "koine ty ton Philon" Pythagorean in scope. See Plato, Respubli ca 423rd to 424th; Leges 739c-d. 36. See Plato, Timaeus 26d-e, where, however, m akes no allusion to the writings, the grandfather of Critias, mentioned here, wa s Critias the Elder. 37) See 109b. 38. The stadium penthouse measuring 177.60 me ters. 39) Atlas and Eumelus Amfere and Euemone, Mnesea and Indigenous, and Elasi ppo Mestore. Azae and Diaprepe. The names that are known Plato adopts the Homeri

c poems, but have nothing in common with the characters of the epic. 40) This ch aracter should not be confused with the mythical Atlas, condemned to bear the we ight of the world for taking part in the war of the Titans against Zeus. 41) The first mention of this appears in the metal shield pseudoesiodeo (to 122), cf. a lso Herodotus, Book 6, 74, Aristotle€Respublica Atheniensium 7, 92b, Pseudo-Ari stotle, Mirabilia 58, 834b). Philoponus, in his commentary to Aristotle's Analyt ics, seems to identify with the orichalcum brass. This identification, however, is unconvincing and the Platonist orichalcum retains its aura of mystery. 42) is probably the grapes and wheat. 43) is difficult to identify this fruit. It coul d be the apple (on the basis of Plato, Leges 819b-c). 8 Plato Critias 44) Some are olives or maybe lemons. 45) The pick, equivalent to one hundred fee t, measuring 29.60 meters. 46) The foot penthouse is equivalent to 0.296 meters. 47) is a probable allusion to the Cretan temple decoration techniques. An allus ion to the technical ability of the Cretans in the water channel also appears in 117b. 48) Daughter of Nereus, a god of the sea, are usually given in number of fifty (cf. Pindar, Isthmia 6, 8). 49) The 'spear carrier'. The status of Atlas i s based on a military structure, with a highly centralized political power (see Plato, Respublica 567d, 575b on the use of bodyguards in tyrannical regimes). 50 ) The sacrifice of the bull in honor of Poseidon is known from Homer (Ilias, boo k 20, to 403) and the Pseudo-Hesiod (Scutum 104). 9

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