T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi The geometry of the mechanisms T3 Spain José Antonio Mora T3 EUROPE

T3 Team Spain 1 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT D Society Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi EUROPE T3 is a trademark of Texas Instruments Collaborators: Ignacio Baeza Garcia Jesus Garcia Francisco Arnau and T3 Spain te am which is composed of Salvador Caballero, Floreal Gracia, Juan Fernando, Alfre d Mollà, Onofre Monzo, Jose Antonio Mora, Pascual Pérez, and Julio Queralt Tomas Rodrigo. NOTE The file includes nine subfolders mecanismos.zip designs the mechanisms included in each chapter. The contents of these subfolders are shown in the image: T3 Team Spain 2 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Index. 0. Presentation Purpose and Objectives Background Mathematics mechanisms GeomètreII The program Cabri-use in class. Features of the software version 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The lift jack machine steam arm mechanism of oscillating hydraulic cylinder leve r Combining two triangles The articulated parallelogram articulated Quadrilatera l Gears and belts Bibliography 9 13 18 21 25 29 31 35 39 45 T3 Team Spain 3

Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 0. Presentation. Purpose and objectives. The aim of this material is to present a collection of designs made arrangements with Cabri Geometry II software, they are ready to be manipulated, and facilita te their study. With the constructions we have simulated the operation of object s, most belong to the realm of geometry objects used in daily life: the lift jac k, engine performance of the steam engine, oscillating arm mechanism or the hydr aulic cylinder, served as basis for studying different ways to build the triangl e has a side length variable, and apply it to new situations, as the liftgate of the garages, the needle on the sewing machine, the shaper or machines used in c onstruction using articulated arms. For each polygon, traces the sequence of drawing in Cabri II so as to highlight their properties. Later we analyze the way in which this geometrical constructio n is used in machinery or technology to analyze situations of everyday life: the crane, excavator, two-pan balance, wipers on the bus, the movement of the leg c yclist to pedal, the automatic locking doors, etc.. T3 Team Spain 4 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Viewed this way, the mechanisms become a context for understanding geometry and through the constructions, the operation of many of the objects that surround us . It is very important to work these issues, not only from the perspective of ma thematics teacher, and also provide insight into other areas such as physics, te chnology, physical education, fine arts or computer science. Background. My focus on these issues comes from the first time I got my hands on the book of Bolt and Hiscocks "Machines, mechanims and mathematics", which arose in context s and situations mathematical hinged bars and belts that later Brian Bolt discus sed more fully in "Matemáquinas. The math there is in technology. " The program Cabri-Geometry II proves to be a suitable tool for designing with the computer t hese mechanisms by the inclusion of new possibilities, which we did not have in previous learning resources of geometry: * Includes the move: we can build the d esign so that when the pedal is operated with the animation tool, the entire sys tem-the points that we have associated with serving as the pedal-to move with hi m simulating the operation of the machine. * Allows the inclusion of some elemen ts that we may change variables. Here, a simple mouse movement can change the ra dius of the plate, the pinion and wheel size. * Allows the program to learn with us through the construction and implementation of procedures or macros that, on ce built, we can use at any time. * Enter the color: it makes the design more at tractive and realistic. The designs presented here in book format and files Cabr i-Geometry II, have been submitted earlier in Congresses and Conferences of Teac hers of Mathematics: T3 Team Spain 5 Cabri II mechanisms

T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi * Communication at the 8th I.C.M.E. held in Seville. 1996. * Presentation at the Third Conference of the S.E.M.C.V. Al Khwarizmi, held in Burjassot. 1997. * Wor kshop on J.A.E.M. 8AS held in Salamanca in 1997. * Workshop on Didactics III Jor nades a les de les Matemàtiques Meridionals Comarques held in Reus. 1997. Constr uction machinery has also been part of teacher training courses that T3 Spain ha s organized and conducted in cities such as Alicante, Valencia, Pamplona, Madrid , Úbeda, Murcia, Almería Leon and courses for 1996-97 and 1997 - 98. Understandi ng the mechanism is usually not an easy task, usually found hidden among other o bjects and not even see it until you try their construction. This is where the C abri II program is helpful because it provides a tool that, in some ways, is mor e affordable for many that the actual mounting. The mechanisms have been distrib uted in nine chapters, each devoted to a device used in technology. The process has continued to try to extract from it the underlying geometrical structure: th e basic polygon or polygons involved in its construction. Later a statement of t he initial difficulties that arise when trying to move the language model CabriGeometry II and are given ideas of how to use the program toolkit for the simula tion of the movement of the mechanism. After this exhibition illustrated with pi ctures of the construction process, it includes a list of the mechanisms used th e same geometrical figure in the same way that has been raised initially. The program Cabri-Geometry II One of the features of the mechanisms is that in most there is a piece with whic h we began the movement, and the other for running the job marked. Among them we have a set of features, which will be dealt with transmission of movements from the driver to the follower. This scheme of work fits perfectly with the philoso phy of Cabri II, with it's relatively easy to place an item on the screen drawin g, to move freely or subject to certain condicioEquipo T3 Spain 6 Mechanisms wit h Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi tions, and create out of it, new figures from these points, and so on. When movi ng the initial objects, the whole system will move with them. In the example of damping, the motion of point P on the arc XY, red bar makes contact with the bla ck at the point Q and press on the piston that moves inside the cylinder. As alr eady noted, we can print these systems move to see the mechanism in action and t hen analyze the component parts, the given region to be moved by the elements or the different velocities of the component parts. To facilitate the study of sys tems in some of the designs has been careful to leave some parameters so they ca n be manipulated by the user, so it can better capture the functioning of the me chanism. For example, in the transmission design of the bicycle, we can modify t he radius of the plate and pinion and the wheel size. Once established the dimen sions we can observe the motion of the system and get some estimates as the disp lacement of the bike every time we take a complete turn of foot. As noted above, Cabri II includes the possibility of macroconstrucciones or procedures that can "teach" the program to perform certain buildings that once designed, can be use d at the time we need them. Given two circles, we can make the process of constr uction of tangents to these circles. If you already have done once the construct ion, we can ask the program to store it as a file, you can use it as a tool: giv en two circles, draw the two segments located on the tangent lines, and which ar e extreme points tangency, which we design as a basis to drive belts. T3 Team Spain 7 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT

Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Classroom use We can point to two possibilities for the didactic use of the mechanisms made in Cabri II, depending on the type of work proposed to students: · Design of simple mechanisms: high school students quickly become familiar with t he tools and philosophy of the program, and soon many are willing to develop som e simple designs (the cat, the liftgate, the steam engine, etc.. .) In the intro duction to each chapter includes any aid, that teachers can provide students in the building process simpler mechanisms that occur in it. Handling complex machi nes: The preparation by the teacher of mathematics, where possible with the tech nology, some designs have an effect on the subjects of the curriculum. In mathem atics could be especially interesting for the study of sites from a dynamic pers pective for the analysis of geometric transformations in the plane and for drawi ng curves. · Features of the demo version of Cabri II You can get a demo version for DOS, Windows and Macintosh Cabri Geometry II prog ram on the Internet at: http://www-cabri.imag.fr/produits/cabripc.html. Limitati ons. It is an incomplete version of the program, not including stock options, pr inting or cut-copy-paste. In addition, the disadvantage of limited time: only al lowed to work continuously for fifteen minutes, after which, the program automat ically closes we lose the changes made since the last time that we recorded. To continue working must restart the program. If you do not have the retail version , this version allows the analysis of already processed files that appear in the directory of the disk mechanisms accompanying this book. However, if changes ar e made, we can not store to be available at the next meeting. T3 Team Spain 8 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 1. The lift jack. The lift jack consists of three articulated rods that form a triangle, where the base is variable in length and the other two sides have fixed length. When you lengthen or shorten the base, we let the third point is placed at different heig hts: The geometric constructions admit a multitude of approaches and degrees of align ment and depth. What we are going to build is a triangle with two articulated ro ds of fixed length and a third that can be lengthened or shortened. If we build with strips of cardboard, our concern will be to examine how unions or how to ge t a rod extensible. When the tool is a computer program that uses points, segmen ts, polygons, etc., We must review the relations between the objects listed in t he system to capture the basic elements that make it work. The triangle can be s een from the vertices: one is fixed, another move by a segment and the third is determined by the two segments of lengths marked in advance and each has one end on one of the points drawn. For this first building is appropriate that we draw before the two fixed-length rods AB and BC, one item, which will be fixed and a C that can be moved "in principle" on a line passing through A. T3 Team Spain 9

Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi To obtain the position of the third vertex, Cabri II has the Compass tool: given a segment AB and a point A, can draw the circle with center at A and radius AB, and also draw the circle of radius centered at CB C. Point B will be any two po ints of intersection of these circles. You can move C along the ray for possible triangles To investigate the building: modify the lengths of the segments or the position of some of the points that have served basis. Here the problems begin, because w e encounter situations in which the triangle does not exist, the reason is that the circles have no intersection. We rethink the situation to study the set of positions on which they can move C so that the triangle can be constructed, ie, when AC is between AB-BC and AB + B C. We measure the segments and calculate the sum and difference of these lengths to then transfer those measures to the T3 Team Spain 10 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi ray from point A. This gives us two points: X and Y to be the ends of the segmen t on which we want to move freely C.€Now we just have to redefine the point C so that, instead of belonging to the semirecta, is located in the segment XY. As seen above, in the cat elevator horizontal displacement of point C get that B is situated at different heights. Moreover, we can extend the segment BC, and p laced over the different arguments to study the different paths followed by thos e points, when C moves on the segment. In the drawing of the upper trace is left on by the four points marked on the segment, to discuss the various paths to fo llow. Another way would be with the Locus tool-less-drawing, which is especially interesting because the loci are automatically transformed when we modify the i nitial lengths of the segments, which does not happen with the trail that leaves the trace when activated . 110triva. The triangle of variable base. Articulated triangle with two sides of fixed length AB and BC and a variable AC. C is activated by moving the segment X Y. We can see the height of the triangle in B T3 Team Spain 11 Cabri II mechanisms SPAIN PROJECT 120gato T3. The lift jack. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi When you move the point C from one side to another, ie, we modify the base of th e triangle, we get that the height varies, which can be used as a booster. Move P between X and Y and leave the trace of Q, Q ', Q''and Q''' 130 hamac. The hammock. The triangle PQR with the PR side of variable length ham

mock makes opening or closing. Moving P on the XY segment marked. 140 hamac. The liftgate. It is based on the triangle PQS with PS side lengths. W e managed to raise the door by changing the height of the P and thus the inclina tion of the segment PQ. The mechanism for opening the gateway to many garages use a new vision of the ba sic triangle variable: now the base of the triangle is placed upright. The posit ion of C in the segment XY determine the degree angle of segment BC, which will open the door to be horizontal, or closed with distance C of A and get vertical door is closed. T3 Team Spain 12 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 2. The steam engine One of the traditional examples of the relationship between rotating shift back and forth with what is the operation of the steam engine. Here is a triangle of variable base: When B rotates about A, BC rod transfers the movement to a piston that moves inside a cylinder. In reality, the point is C drive and fro movement is translated into a rotation of B about A, but this building has some problems in Cabri and has opted for the opposite. To analyze the model of the steam engi ne, instead of putting the point C on a segment XY, as in the construction of th e lift jack, you make the degree of freedom of the system rests with the point B . The condition we impose on this point is different from the construction of th e cat. As the segment AB has fixed length, B must be a point on the circle with center A and radius AB. To put the other fixed length rod must make a new beat o f center B and radius BC, so we have a circle that intersects the ray at point C . The triangle of variable base will now have a different appearance, a point B turns around and drives to a rod, one end is constrained to move in a straight l ine. T3 Team Spain 13 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Point C is the rectangle by dragging it to simulate the piston. One side of the triangle will be located on the line perpendicular to segment AC passing through C, we take two points of that line D and D 'which are at the same distance from C, to be two vertices and draw two lines parallel to AC passing through them. T hen draw two circles of the same radius centered at D and D ', and the cutoff po ints with lines drawn in the last two vertices we determine E and E' of the rect angle. Finally, we draw the polygon DEE'D 'hide the auxiliary lines and introduc e some elements of your presentation so that the result is as realistic as possi ble. The design of the steam engine is useful for further mathematical concepts, as t

he measure of angles and trigonometric functions. With a point, which revolves a round a circle of unit radius,€is easier to draw the sine function as the measur e of the distance from point to axis. We can use the rod-crank system of the con struction of combustion engine with Cabri II to study how high the piston in the cylinder, and construct the graph that determines the position of this point wh en he makes a complete circuit. It is interesting to compare this graph with the sine function, we see that there are small differences, some of which are marke d by details that are not easy to detect: the construction T3 Team Spain 14 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi tion made it take longer to go from right to left along the top than the reverse , as a consequence of this is that the graph indicates the position of blue-cyli nder is above the breast, but two points : / 2 and 3 / 2 which are the only ones where the two match. 210vapor. Steam engine (1). A point B rotates about A, while the connecting rod transfers this movement to the BC point C which is located on a line through A, and drags the piston in the cylinder. 220 steam. Steam engine (2). Same as above 230sinex located in another position. The steam engine and the sine function. T his construction serves to compare the graph of the sine function that determine s the position of the piston within the cylinder. T3 Team Spain 15 Cabri II mechanisms SPAIN PROJECT 240hinch T3. The inflator. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi The triangle of variable base is operated with a lever from the point P. Get her to shorten the length of segment BC to expel the air inside the cylinder. 250ci lgi. Rotating cylinder. The triangle ABC with BC variable length crank is driven by marketing. When C rotates, forcing the piston to move around inside the cyli nder while rotating. 260maqco. The needle on the sewing machine. With a function ing much like the steam engine, get the up-down movement of the needle in the se wing machine 270cospe. Pedal sewing machine. PQ makes pedal tilts around O. The connecting ro d transfers this movement to the rotation of a point around a circle. In the des ign we can only see movement on half circle. In reality, the inertia will ensure that full circle R T3 Team Spain 16 Cabri II mechanisms

SPAIN PROJECT 280palco T3. The toggle lever. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi It has a very similar to the inflator operation. In this case, it exploits the f act that when P is close to X, their movements become very small movements of B, which will be easier to ensure that the bar is introduced through the interior of a pin. 290cubas. The trash can. At lower P in the small arc marking, we let B tilt with him about A. BC The bar is hinged so that it passes through R. When B is raised, C will press on the lid open. Similarly, when we stop pushing on P, the cap will fall on C and will be moving the opposite. The latter triangle in t he mechanism pedal opening the lid of the dustbin, is one of the most difficult to see because the triangle is hidden inside the frame. The design is done based on the triangle ABC with AC side lengths. The pedal is lowered into P, a point which moves over a small arc and makes balancing a rod with fixed point A to B a nd lift him up a rod that is forced to pass through the point R. In C contact wi th the top of the cube that rotates around the fixed point O and up. T3 Team Spain 17 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 3. The swinging arm mechanism. The swinging arm mechanism is used when you want a slow food movement and fast r everse. Now we have two fixed points O and Q, while the point P moves around O w ith constant velocity. QR bar has a slot in which is housed P, so that the segme nt becomes a rocking motion with the characteristic that takes much longer to ma ke the journey round the back. The closer Q is the point of the circle, this dif ference is more pronounced. The design starts with the point O as the center of a circle on which we place P . We place the point Q outside the circle but close to it. To draw the rocking b ar, draw the ray that originates from the Q and passes through P. With a circle with center Q QR-draw the green segment. If we mark the limits within which moves the segment and return flights, we must draw the tangents to the circle passing through Q. The layout of the tangents w ill be explained later in Chapter 9. T3 Team Spain 18 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi We can modify the return flights of simply moving the point Q, when they approac h the circumference of contact points are closer to each other so that we increa se the time it takes to go from right to left, while if you move away, thus incr easing the return journey.

If we let the point is inside the circle, the segment and does not reciprocating , but gives full turns, although the time that the segment passes through the to p of the point Q is greater than that which passes underneath. 310brosc. The osc illating arm. The point P rotates about O and severally to the bar carries QP is fixed at Q. The rotary motion is transformed into a rocking motion, with differ ent time for that to turn round. Used when you want a slow food and a quick retu rn. 320movgi. Bar with twisting motion. Here AB = AC and BC is the bar lengths. C turns around and slides to the interior of the bar to get to turn around B. So that the bar made a complete revolution, the crank has to take two. T3 Team Spain 19 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 330giosc. Rotating and oscillating movements. They are based on two previous bui ldings. Left AC> AB and the bar will complete turns, while the right-AC <AB with what is printed on the bar back and forth motion. 340perpe. Rotational movement around A D turns while sliding down the inside of the bar and B slides on the o ther perpendicular to the previous bar. The triangle is ABC and the side length is variable 350limad BC. The shaper. Use the triangle OPQ with variable length s ide of PQ to transform a rotational movement (about O P) in another segment AB s winging from point S. 360corred. The slide. Serves to transform the oscillatory movement of B on an ar c centered at A, in a reciprocating movement in D. We have used the triangle ABC with BC lengths. T3 Team Spain 20 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 4. The hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic cylinder that is used in dump trucks and bulldozers suggests a new way to address the triangle of variable base. Now the points A and C will be fi xed and we want the varying length of CB determine the direction of the segment AB. In Cabri-Geometry II, to design a hydraulic cylinder length part of a segment CB CX and call Y the midpoint. Point B is any point of the segment XY. The length of the cylinder will be CB, as is always between CX and CY. Line is drawn with t hicker CY is the base of the cylinder, an intermediate line is the length YB has expanded and thinner for BX, which indicates the maximum length that can reach and use different colors in the presentation. Finally, we can create a macro to build the complete cylinder when we give two extremes. The construction of the t riangle using the cylinder begins with the two fixed-length segments AB and BC. If AC is the side still, then B must be a point of the circle with center at A a nd radius AB. The circumference of the center C and CB radio at any given time d etermines the length of the hydraulic cylinder and one of the intersection point s of these circles defines the point B. T3 Team Spain 21 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT

Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Thus we have the triangle in which the vertex B determines the direction of the third side. The system is governed from the point B of the segment CB's in the t op right of the design, which extracts the hydraulic cylinder to the outside and thus opens the angle CAB or enter inside to close it. Now we just have to build the triangle and study the relationship between cylinder length and angle measu rement. The use of the hydraulic cylinder and variable-length side of a triangle is very large articulated in those bars or platforms that have to change its inclinatio n according to our needs, in the case of the crane arm.€Sometimes it may be desi rable to combine two or more hydraulic cylinders to achieve the desired motion a s the articulated arm of the excavator which is composed of two hinged bars, eac h with a hydraulic cylinder - ABC and XYZ - which modifies its slope. It also in corporates a third cylinder PQR to alter the angle of the blade on the bar to wh ich it is attached. With Cabri II can govern each of the excavator hydraulic cyl inders separately, as would the operator in the cab. T3 Team Spain 22 Cabri II mechanisms SPAIN PROJECT 410cilhi T3. The hydraulic cylinder. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi In the triangle OPQ, PQ is a cylinder that can go inside one to twice the length . The segment OQ is fixed and the length of PQ segment determines the slope of O P 420grua. The crane. The arm of the crane is raised by a hydraulic cylinder which is the side OP variable length of the triangle OPQ. The segment OQ is fixed to the frame of the trailer and the side OP determines the inclination of the jib o f the crane. 430volq. The dump truck. For the truck can lift large angles, it is necessary th at the hydraulic cylinder can extend three or four times the length of the cylin der. This requires having telescopic mechanisms. 440conte. The container ships. The truck that deposits and picks up the containe rs of the works in our cities, could be composed of two hydraulic cylinders arti culated to facilitate movement of container T3 Team Spain 23 Cabri II mechanisms SPAIN PROJECT 450excav T3. The excavator. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi The composition of three hydraulic ciclindros allows movement of the shovel. Wit h ABC we raised the first arm (green), with XYZ the second inclined arm (in red) and turn the blade with PQR Cabri II can govern each of the excavator hydraulic cylinders separately, as the operator in manipulates cabin from the cockpit con

trols. If we want to get an idea of the region that can reach the machine, we ca n stop the stroke from the tip of the blade and an animation multiple of three c ylinders at random. If we let him perform a couple of minutes as we have a pictu re on the right. To see the effect of each of the separate hydraulic cylinders, we are able to construct the locus of an object depends on another, in our case allows us to consider what positions would take the blade when the cylinder take s ten equidistant positions to along its route. Here are the positions obtained for each of the three cylinders: T3 Team Spain 24 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 5. The lever. A bar AB, which can rotate around a fixed point Or is a lever. Its usefulness is based on the distances traveled by A and B on the arcs depend only on the lengt hs OA and OB, because we deal with arcs of circle drawn with equal angles. The p hysical law of the lever tells us that the forces applied at the ends of the bar , are inversely proportional to the distances from the center of rotation. This is because the work done in the two points must be equal or, which is the same, must be equal to the product of forces applied at each point by the distance fro m O to each item. FA x FB x OA = OB where FB / FA = OA / OB The construction of a lever start, as in previous cases, with the two segments c ontaining the lengths of the arms of the rod OA and OB and mark the center of ro tation O. If we take the point A as the initiator and B as a follower, both are located on arcs of circle with center O, we can put on the circles drawn with a compass. A first place on the arc XY and draw the line through O and A, B is the point of intersection of this line with the other circle. T3 Team Spain 25 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi The arc on which B moves can be marked as the locus of point B when A takes diff erent positions on the arc XY. After that we can modify the arms of the lever, w hen necessary, with only displace A and B. Figure 520freno.fig looks at three types of levers depending on the relative pos ition to keep the points P (promoter) Q (follower) and O (point): · 1st kind: when driving and follower are at different sides of the fulcrum. We ha ve examples in the handbrake lever, the scissors and the nutcracker.€2nd kind: w hen driving and follower are on the same side, but the driver is farther from th e fulcrum. Examples include hydraulic brake, which is seen in this section and t he inflator, which appeared in Figure 240hinch.fig.

· 3rd kind: driver and follower are also on the same side of the fulcrum, and the driver is closer than the follower. Used when we want to amplify small movements , it is harder to see in the mechanisms, but we have examples in the bathroom sc ales in which small movements of the platform to be translated into other much l arger needle to mark the weight. T3 Team Spain 26 Cabri II mechanisms SPAIN PROJECT 510palan T3. The lever. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Combination of levers on which we can study the transmission factor. O and O 'ar e fixed points on which the system can tilt. We can vary the lengths of the bars . 520freno. The brake. Study of the three types of brake, depending on the situa tion of the fulcrum (O), the promoter (P) and follower (Q). 530tijer. Scissors. The lever is used to produce the cutting motion of the sciss ors. The system is activated at the point P, which is located on the arc with ce nter O. XY 540cascan. The Nutcracker. It has a scissors-like operation. Two of t he segments have been replaced by a diamond articles. 554frbic. The brake of the bicycle. The brake cable uses a lever on the handle t o produce tension in a cable, which means two levers that force the pads to move to press the wheel. T3 Team Spain Mechanisms with Cabri II 27 SPAIN PROJECT 560frhidr T3. The hydraulic brake. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi When pressing the brake pedal actuates a piston which circulates the liquid thro ugh the channels until you reach the discs that press the wheel to stop. 570prens. The hydraulic press. The forces are transmitted to a piston to the oth er by reducing the distance (divided by 32), but increasing the force multiplied by the same factor. T3 Team Spain 28 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 6. Combination of two triangles. In this section we present some mechanisms that use a combination of two triangl es, each with a variable-length side to transform a movement in another. In many cases this is to convert the rotary motion of a point (crank), the other slide, which moves as a track. This transformation is done with a pinned-end bar (rod)

. We also have examples of transformation of a rotation in another rotational mo vement also in the drive mechanism coupled to the combination of two mechanisms of arm swinging of a workbench. Most of these designs are inspired by the book A rtobolevski that contains an exhaustive list of thousands of mechanisms and many of them can be translated into the designs of Cabri-Geometry. 610disco. Disc at tached. Combine two triangles, each with a variable-length side. The crank drive s the rod PQ AP, which spins the disc with center B. 620dostr. Two triangles ABC-The first, acts as a swinging arm mechanism and tran sfers the movement to the triangle BDE, which has a function similar to that dis cussed in the steam 630covar. Sliding variable. ABD is a swinging arm mechanism and part C slides along a track, forming a second triangle AEC with EC variable. We can change the position of A to increase or decrease the route C T3 Team Spain Mechanisms with Cabri II 29 T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 640bacar. Workbench. Combination of two oscillatory mechanisms arm when you want a slow supply and return very quickly. QR bar moves with nearly constant veloci ty from right to left except when P is just above the O, when the return is made . 650bal1. Rocker 1. The crank and connecting rod BC CD printed up and down moti on to the rocker AE, EF rod that transfers the movement to the piston, that move s inside the cylinder 660bal2. Rocker Like the two previous compounds with the e lements differently. Now the BC and EF connecting rods are connected by the bar that tilts in BE A 670motba. Engine rocker. The drive crank AB is part of the tr iangle ABC. The EC acts as a rocker bar around the triangle DEF D and transmits the movement to the piston P. 680motdo. Double mileage engine.€The crank AB has traveled on an arc and drives the point C in a lateral rocking motion. The DCE i sosceles triangle, with variable, makes the piston makes two complete cycles, ea ch time B runs through the arc in either direction. T3 Team Spain 30 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 7. The articulated parallelogram. The parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite rods of the same length. We u se it when we want to keep the parallelism in various parts of the system. An ex ample in the balance, which is necessary to always keep the plates horizontal, f rom falling objects we place in them. The Cabri II construction starts with two rods of different lengths: OP and PQ. If O is a vertex of the parallelogram, the next P is any point on the circumference of center O and radius OP. The point Q we place on the circle that is drawn to do with radio compass P PQ. This assemb ly will have two degrees of freedom in P and Q, but normally the OP bar is fixed and Q which causes the movement in the system. The point R is determined by the intersection of two circumferences or by the parallelism of the sides. From here we can use one side for later use articulated parallelogram, causing a multiplier effect of the movement, as in the pantograph and extendable tongs, o r by putting two parallelograms forming a fixed angle, as in Repair boat lightin g. Team T3 Spain Mechanisms with Cabri II 31

T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 710paral. The articulated parallelogram. O is a fixed point while P and R can mo ve freely. The design lets you modify the length of the sides and animation mult iple moving points. 715rutre. The wheels of the train. The rods that connect the wheels of the locomotive form an articulated parallelogram, so that all carry t he same movement. 720venta. The window of leaves. The articulated parallelogram ensures that all p ages of the window remain parallel to close or open. 725balan. The balance of dishes. The articulated parallelogram get the bars that support the pans are kept vertical and not give the objects we place in them. 730herra. The Toolbox. Uses a combination of articulated parallelograms to colle ct and separate the different departments of the box. T3 Team Spain 32 Cabri II mechanisms SPAIN PROJECT 735pzext T3. Tweezers extensible. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Uses a combination of parallelograms to extend the arm and to close or open the clamp. 740pant2. The pantograph. When the point P moves along the outline of a f igure, the point and back double. 745pant3. Pantograph 3-1. If P moves on an arc , and draw another arc in a 3:1 scale. This is because Y is always at a distance of X Triple P. 755divid. Splitting machine. It is an application of the pantogr aph. It is used to divide a segment into four equal parts OP1. We P1 to the othe r end of the bar and P2, P3 and P4 make the divisions. 760parab. The wipers. Poi nt O P revolves around the arc XY. The joint transfers the movement to the brush . 765pabus. Wipers bus. When the brush is to clean a huge area, it is advisable to always keep vertical. This is achieved by an articulated parallelogram, if OO 'is fixed and horizontal to the ground, so is PQ and articulate to him the brus h so that it is perpendicular. T3 Team Spain 33 Mechanisms with Cabri II SPAIN PROJECT 765libro T3. The book mobile. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Composition of articulated parallelograms. When pressing the point P with a stri p of cardboard back and forth, characters paddle at the same time. 770flexo. Tab le lamp design. Use a combination of two articulated parallelograms to extend or collect the lamp. 775. Boat to repair lighting. It consists of two articulated parallelograms. The land which is subject to increases by a hydraulic cylinder a nd the second at an angle STU fixed to the basket will not tip and the ground is maintained in a horizontal plane. The windshield of the bus must sweep an area much larger than cars, it is desirable that the brush is maintained in a vertica l position to dismiss the water crystals. In the design of Cabri II has drawn th e locus of the brush, ie the positions to be occupied by this bar,€when the poin t P take 20 equally spaced positions on the arc on which it is located. The ligh ting repair nacelles need to work at different heights, while the operator remai

ns in a cabin has to be kept always in a position parallel to the ground, althou gh the arms are inclined to support it. This is achieved with a combination of t wo articulated parallelograms are connected in a fixed angle STU. It has drawn t he locus of the nacelles, 20 occupy positions which corresponds to as many posit ions of the hydraulic cylinder which makes it rise. T3 Team Spain 34 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 8. The four-bar linkage. The four-bar linkage consists of four different length rods joined at their ends . It usually has a fixed segment OP-casting - and the rest of the rods are mobil e. It is used to transform a rotary motion in another reciprocating, and vice ve rsa. The drawing and diagram belong to the operating mechanism of the trolley, w e see in western movies, to scroll through the track. Point A moves on an arc up and down, power on the movement of the ring Q OPQR for R-and the wheel - or tur n around and the trolley forward. The construction of Cabri II articulated quadrilateral with four segments of the previously drawn, one of which OP is the frame. Q be any point on the circle wi th center P and radius PQ, while R is the point of intersection of two circles: the center O and radius OR and the radio center in Q and QR. The previous construction of the four bars which are then articulated, encourage s further study, to allow multiple initial conditions from the outside of the dr awing. When we extend or shorten any of the segments drawn, we modified the whol e structure with the new conditions. T3 Team Spain 35 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Having built the ring with rods articulated figures soon emerge which often appe ar on paper, as the ring concave-left - and also other cross-right - they do rai se questions about whether they will or no polygons. There is an interesting art icle by D. Crawforth (1988) which sets out the educational use of this situation . Furthermore, we find situations in which the ring ceases to exist, ie can not bu ild the requisite conditions. The most obvious case occurs when one side is grea ter than the sum of the other three, but there are others. Locus tool facilitate s the study to determine under what conditions we can construct a ring, and when not possible. If we get the positions of R when Q takes 50 equidistant position s on the circle in which moves, usually draw one or two arcs (marked in blue bol d), which indicate about the solutions to the fourth side of the square. T3 Team Spain 36 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 810cuadr. The four-bar linkage. P can be rotated about O and Q about P. In some

cases the ring crosses and other can not be drawn. We can analyze the conditions of existence depending on the lengths of the sides. 820antpa. Mounting antipara llel. The joints are made now so that both P and Q rotate around O. Here we can study the conditions under which points can be rotated so that the ring always e xist. 830trole. The trolley rail. The bar is activated at point P that does swin g around A and by QR crank movement is transmitted to the wheel to spin and move the platform on which it is located. 840agit. The agitator uses a crank mechani sm (PQ) and rod (QR) to transmit a rotary motion to a reciprocating rod OS that has the fixed line segment OP. 850vaiv. Reciprocating. The articulated quadrilat eral ABCD uses a system similar to the previous to cause reciprocating P, which induces the sliding of the bar drawn in blue. The speed of the bar is different as is in the center or ends. T3 Team Spain 37 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 860inter. Intermittent feeding. Mechanism based on the four-bar linkage that was formerly used for the passage of the film frame by frame. Uniform circular moti on about O P becomes the curve marked in green for A€which causes hook and relea se the film in constant intervals. 870puert. Close door. The quadrilateral OPQR OP has side on the door frame and PQ on the same door. When Q revolves around P (which can be achieved with the spring marked in orange), the door will close. 8 80grua. The crane boom. To achieve the horizontal movements of the pen is to til t the arm. This is accomplished by zoom O. P This will deform the quadrilateral ABCD has the segment AB fixed. 885picicl. The rider's legs. They form a quadrila teral OPQR, which makes OP thigh Drive crank through the knee joint are transfer red to PQ leg that makes turns the crank and walk around R. The fixed segment is OR. 890sierra. Saw. It uses a combination of an articulated quadrilateral OPQR that makes tilting the parallelogram ABCD with two long sides parallel to the ba r RR '. C and D describe small arcs of circumference. T3 Team Spain 38 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi 9. Gears and belts. The use gears and sprockets has more than two thousand years. In the fifteenth c entury Leonardo da Vinci made gear designs and a prototype bike. Currently gears and belts are present in many activities: pulleys and hoists to lift heavy loads in all types of systems for gears, to facilitate the transmissi on of motion. The design of pulleys with a computer program is to explore ways of moving image s the physical-mathematical problem factor. In the simplest case we have two whe els connected by a belt. The number of turns one over the other depends only on the lengths of these circles or, which is the same, their radios. In the figure, when the wheel of two laps left, the right to be given 3. Cabri-Geometry, as a programming language puts at our disposal a number of tools, which facilitate ce rtain buildings, for example, lets you enter the building elements that make T3 Team Spain 39 Mechanisms with Cabri II T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi design can be manipulated interactively. To ensure that the circles are not stat

ic, we can draw two segments to one side will be those who will serve as radio f or the tool bar. Then we will have no more than "stretch" the ends of the segmen ts so that the circles be resized. Built the wheels, now we have to design the s traps that transmit motion from one to another. The tangents to two circles need to solve the previous problem of tangents to a circle with a dot. The solution is to consider the idea can arc on the circumference, whose center the midpoint between the center of the circle and the point P. If the angle is 90 °, the line will be perpendicular to the radius of the circle. For the case with two circles, we consider the tangent from the center of the sm allest circumference to the circumference of which is the center of the large ra dio and the difference of the radii. The tangent from the point to the new circu mference, and then draw parallels to these, which are tangents to the two origin al circles. Now we can vary the radii of the circles or the position of the cent ers to see what happens. For the procedure followed for the construction, we mus t take into account which is valid as long as the large circle is still larger t han the other. Another special case is when one of the circles is inside the oth er. Once these buildings, are to be used in designs for joining two, three or fo ur circles, instead of repeating the process, build a macro that has: T3 Team Spain 40 Cabri II mechanisms T3 PROJECT SPAIN · Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Initial objects: the two circles. · Object end: the two segments located on tang ents that are extreme points of contact with the circles. · Define macro: enter a name and save it. If only a question of presentation to facilitate further analysis of the student s, we can now draw the arches taking the points of contact, so that the places w here the belt passes to see the same color and thus achieve a more realistic eff ect.€Now we just make the simulation of motion of the wheels with two mobile rad ios that carry out the rotation. For the apparent movement of one over the other seems to reality, we can take a turn point in one of the circles, and transferr ing that movement to another, but this leads to many problems. A better solution is to take a point that can move on a segment, and transfer the distance betwee n that point and an end to the two circles from the points C and D. Two addition al difficulties that have arisen in the design of this chapter are: • The case o f the concentric circles of different radii, which move jointly, and each is con nected others. The displacement of the mobile pulley hoists the same circumferen ce makes move up or down while rotating. 41 Mechanisms with Cabri II

T3 Team Spain T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi There have been four transmission belts designs of increasing complexity, the re construction of a spinning machine to see the usefulness of the reverse transfer and application of the wheels of a toy car. Later comes the problem of lifting weights or pulleys and hoists to facilitate the movement of heavy loads and, fin

 

ally, there are two designs in the bicycle transmission where the shifter is don e continuously: by lengthening of the radius of the plate and pinion. 910trandi. Direct transmission. Two wheels are connected by a belt. The transmission facto r is obtained as the ratio between the radii. Every time the big wheel a full tu rn, the small will OA '/ OA laps. 920trani. Reverses direction. As above, but the strap position reverses the dire ction of rotation. 930tran3. Composition 1 In this system there are two wheels that move in solidar ity. The design can vary the radii of all circles and study the transmission fac tors. 940tran4. Membership 2. In this system we can analyze the direction of rotation of each wheel and, like previous ones, change the radio to study the transmissio n factors. T3 Team Spain 42 Mechanisms with Cabri II SPAIN PROJECT 945hilar T3. Jenny. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Schematic reproduction of a Jenny Hemp Museum Callosa de Segura. Alicante. The t hree wheels are rolling left hemp thread. After these three strings are inserted into the right one for the wind in the opposite direction. 950jugue. Toy mobile . Consisting of two fixed pulleys (with center at A and B) and two that move wit h the stroller. The system is operated to move the point P to the left and right . 960poli2. Two pulleys hoist. When we got the point P two meters, the weight that hung on the hook Q will rise only a meter (a meter is collected rope on each si de). This allows us to raise twice as much weight. 970poli3. Hoist 3 pulleys. It consists of two fixed pulleys (N, N ') and mobile (M). We now need to stretch three meters of rope on P so that the weight from a rise in Q. T3 Team Spain 43 Cabri II mechanisms SPAIN PROJECT 980poli4 T3. Hoist 4 pulleys. Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi It consists of four pulleys, two fixed (A and C) and two mobile (B and D). We wi ll have to stretch four meters to climb one, and to be harvested one meter every one of the strings that come down. 990bicic. The transmission on the bike To study the transmission can modify the radius of the plate and pinion and see the relationship between the movement of the pedal and the wheel. 995.bici2. Bike 2. This system now supports full turns of the pedal. In addition to the radios of the plate and the pinion is also allowed to change the radius of the wheel. For certain values, it performs the calculation of the length we g o to give a full pedal stroke.

T3 Team Spain 44 Cabri II mechanisms T3 SPAIN PROJECT Societat d Educació Matemàtica Al-Khwarizmi Bibliography. ARTOBOLOEVSKY, I.I. (1979). Mechanisms in modern technology. (6 vol.). Mir: Mosc ow BOLT, A. B. and Hiscocks (1970). Machines, mechanims and mathematics. Mathema tics for the Majority Project. Chatto & Windus. The School Council. London. BOLT , B. (1992). Matemáquinas. The mathematics that is in the Communication Technolo gies. Labor: Barcelona. CRAWFORTH, D. (1988). What is a quadrilateral?. (In M. W alter ed. Geometry. M.E.C.: Madrid). CUNDY, H. M. et Rollet, A. P. (1978). Modèl es mathématiques. ECI: Paris Kozhevnikov, s.n. Mechanisms. Gustavo Gili. Barcelo na. MORA, J.A. (1996). Machines and mathematics. Proceedings of the 8th I.C.M.E. Sevilla MORA,€J.A. (1997). From the street to the computer. Revista Aula de Inn ovación Educativa, Vol. 58. January 1997, pp. 20-21. MORA, J.A. (1997). Math in the mechanisms. Proceedings of the Third Conference of the SEMCV. Al Khwarizmi h eld in Burjassot. 1997. MORA, J.A. (1997). The geometry of mechanisms. Proceedin gs of the VII J.A.E.M. held in Salamanca. MORA, J.A. (1998). Mathematics with Ca bri-Geometry II. South Project. Granada. P. O'DAFFER CLEMENS AND S. (1977). Geom etry: an Investigative Approach. Addyson-Wesley: California. Other materials used: J.C.B. Machinery. Propaganda leaflets. Valencia JOAL COMPACT. Toys and Hardware. Propaganda leaflets. Ibi. Alicante Albert Lucas, R. Hemp Museum Callosa de Segu ra. Alicante. Consulted internet addresses: Leonardo da Vinci. The bicycle and l'automobile. Studio of Professor Augusto Mar inoni. Museo di Vinci http://rcl.nemo.it/reteciv/cultura/arte/leon/indice.htm Le onardiano. invimus.html http://www.leonet.it/comuni/vincimus/ T3 Team Spain 45 Cabri II mechanisms