Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer rftg.development.googlepages.com Creation date: March 31, 2004 Version: v0.

02 - 3/MAI/2008 Author: Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes DISCLAIMER This document was prepared by Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes, who reserve all rig hts. © 2008 Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes This document is available for consult ation and use if they are in compliance with all copyright and / or intellectual property. A copy of all or part, by any means, texts and images available in th is document is expressly prohibited unless the user respects the rights of autho rship and / or intellectual property, citing it properly to the document, includ ing imperterivelmente a clear reference to the author's website: "rftg.developme nt.googlepages.com. The material contained herein is only a general information based on personal experiences and is not intended in any way influence the reade r on any specific matter. The contents of this document are provided as a conven ience to readers and consist solely of non-binding information. The contents of this document are provided "as is" and does not offer any guarantee on it. The r eport's author disclaims any liability for losses that may occur because someone is based on information contained herein, since this information is for informa tional purposes only, not promised or guaranteed to be accurate, complete and up dated. The same applies to the contents of any reference made to it. Any dispute s arising out of or relating to use this document, or relating to copyright and / or intellectual property rights in materials that are part of this document sh all be governed by Portuguese law and subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of Portugal. Reading this document and its use implies the acceptance of these c onditions. © 2008 Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes. rftg.development.googlepages.com Instituto Politecnico do Porto Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto Department of Electrical Engineering Course Electrical Engineering - Electronics and Computers Discipline of Electrical Machines Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Work done by: Index Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Objective 2 --------------------------------------------- Introduction - ---------------------------------------- ------ 2 Predicted Values ----------------------------- 5 ---------------- Editing Scheme Material Used --------------------------------- 5 ------- 6 Description of Work - ------------------------ ----------------------- June Calculations ----------------------- ------------------------ 7 Results ------------------- 8 ----------------------------- Conclusion ---------------------------------- -------------- 9 Bibliography ---------- 9 I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 1

Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Objective - Taking the simplified equivalent circuit per phase referred to the primary - D etermination of transformer short-circuit rated - Z2I2n - Determination of nomin al ohmic voltage drop - R2I2n - Determination of nominal reactive voltage drop X2I2n - Determination of the triangle Kapp; Introduction As known, the main field of application processors is the transportation and dis tribution of electricity as well, and because of this system using almost exclus ively the three-phase system of tensions arises the need for three-phase transfo rmer. This type of transformer has emerged from the junction of three phase tran sformers equal to each other, so as to form a three-phase system. This set of si ngle-phase transformers, connected in order to realize a three-phase transformat ion, is a single-phase transformer bank. To feed the primary of each transformer for a three-phase system of voltages we obtain a system of three-phase flows: Φ Ι Φ ΙΙ + + Φ ΙΙΙ = 0

Electrical Machines 2 Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 2 - Transformer three-phase three columns The two ends of the windings of the same column have the same polarity at the sa me time (due to the common flow) have potential positive (or negative) compared to the other two extremes. Thus the first column, A and represent the two extrem es of the same polarity, being appointed by the opposing A 'and'. The same reaso ning is followed for columns B and C. The capital letters refer to higher voltag es and lower case at lower voltages. The three-phase transformers have three for ms of connection, and these lead star, triangle and zigzag. Bond star has the ad vantage of having the neutral accessible (access tension and tension composite s ingle) and the windings have less insulation (only because they are subject to s imple tension). The delta connection is more used when providing high currents ( current in the winding √ 3 times lower than the line) thus requiring drivers of turns of smaller section. The zigzag connection is used when large imbalances ar e expected load distribution between the three phases (the secondary), this bein g achieved by the fact that each winding be divided into two coils placed in two different columns, so "looking" of the primary winding we will have a more bala nced system. 3 - Different types of binding of three-phase transformer and its main features

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ig 1 - Banco de phase transformers

Once the merger made in one column, the three central columns, it does not circu late any stream and can be deleted, and thus we may have a magnetic circuit whic h contains only six windings. We therefore have a three-phase transformer. .P.P.- .S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C.

Each type of connection is symbolized by a letter, and correspondence as follows : .P.P.- .S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 3 Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Star - Y (y-side voltage is lower); Triangle - D (d is the side of the lower vol tage; Zig-zag - Z (z on the side of the lower voltage). The connections of a tra nsformer are still characterized by the index schedule. This kind of classificat ion is obtained when the diagrams of primary and secondary voltages are superimp osed, and measured the difference between a primary voltage and its correspondin g secondary hours as if they were two clock pointers (to move in clockwise), wit h the first zero and the second in value (time) that characterize the gap. The m ost common values are described in the table overleaf:

ig.4 - Table of values of daylight saving time for the most common types of con nections .P.P.- .S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C.

Electrical Machines 4 Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Predicted Values or the test on empty: U1n> 450 V, U20 = 300 V; A0, B0 and C0 - on the order of hundreds of mA. or the short-circuit test: ACC, BCC and CCC = n = 5th; U 1cc - on the order of 10% U1n. Arrangement V1 Autotransformer b c A B V1 400/230V 50 Hz ~ C The

ig.5 - Arrangement for test on empty

The V1 400/230V 50 Hz autotransformer C ~ B the b c The

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Electrical Machines 5 Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Material Used 1 - Digital Multimeter luke 79 (V1 and V2) 1 - Clamp Test 11 (A) 1 - Power Meter luke 43B, 1 - to 3-phase transformer with four windings columns (each 150 V 5 A and resistance 20 ° C 0.55 Ω) per column. The secondary is composed of a series of two windings of each core column and the primary external; wire connec tion; Probes. Job description This work was divided into two tests, the test-load and short circuit test. Test on empty: - Rode to the scheme of 5 - ed up the secondary processor, with U20 = 300V - There were the following: A0 B0 = 300 mA = 212 mA C0 = 220 mA Test i n Short Circuit: - Rode up circuit of igure 6 (note that the secondary is short -circuited - ed is the primary, through the self-processor until it obsorve to their nominal current ( n = 5 A) - There was the following: ACC = 5 BCC The C CC = 3.88 = 4.7 The PCU U1cc = 76.6 V = 316 W middle of selfU1n U20 = 519 V = 301 V = 75 W PE .P.P.- .S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C.

Electrical Machines 6 Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Calculations U1n 3 × 3 × 519 = 2.99 U = 20 301 + + 300 + 212 + 220 = A0 0 B 0 = co = 244 mA March 3 PE cos φ 0 = 75 = = 0.59 × U1n I 0519 × 244 × 10-3 m = U1n R0 = 519 = 3605 Ω = 0 cos φ × 0244 × 10-3 0.59 × 519 U 1n = j 2626 Ω senφ I 0 × 0244 × 0.81 × 10-3 senφ 0 = sin (arccos 0,59) = 0.81 Xm = Acc Bcc I + I + I Ccc 5 + 4.7 + 3.88 = 4.53 A 3 3 52 2 I I I n ≠ ⇒ PCU PCun = n2 = 316 × 385 × WI = 4.532 R 5 = U1ccn U1cc n = 76.6 × 4.53 = 84.5 VI PCU 316 = ⇒ φ = 0.91 cc = ar cos 0.91 cos φ = 24.5 º U1cc cc = I × 76.6 × 4I Z1 = 53 = = = U1cc 76.6 16.9 4.53 Ω

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ig.6 - Arrangement for testing short-circuit .P.P.- .S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C.

R1 = Z1 cos φcc × 16.9 × 0.91 = 15.4 Ω = X × 1 = Z1 senφcc j = 7.0 Ω R1 = 15.4 = 1.72 = 1.72 0 ° (Ω) 2.99 m 2 2 X1 X2 = 7.0 2 = 0.78 j = 0.78 ° (Ω) m 2 99 2 Z 2 = R2 + jX 2 j = 1.72 + 0.78 = 1.89 24.4 ° (Ω) R2 = U cc 2 n = Z n 2 × R 2 = 1.89 24.4 ° × 7.85 ° = 14.83 24.5 24.5 ° (A) 13.5 24.5 ° (V) 24.5 48.9 ° (V)

90

Ohmic voltage drop rating: Ωn U = R2 × R n 2 = 1.72 0 ° × 24.5 ° = 7.85 Reactive voltage drop rating: U = Rn × R 2n X 2 = 0.78 90

.P.P.- .S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C.

Electrical Machines 7 Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Results Circuit equivalent for the three phases referred to the primary and simplified: 12 j7 X1, 0 ohm

0

R1 15.4 ohm U1n 519 V R01 3605 ohm XM1 j2606 ohm U12 the Ucc2n = 14.83 49 ° (V) UΩn = 13.5 25 ° (V) URN = 5.87 115 ° (V) Kapp's Triangle: U 2 = U 20 - Ωn U - U U Rn = 1552 20 - 30 (V) U = 20 m = U1n × 519 × 2.99 = 15 52 V U 2 = 1552 -30 º -30.5 º U20 U2 U URN 0 NOTE: The scale of the diagram Kapp is slightly modified so that it can be shown their main details. - 30 ° -13.5 ° -5.87 25 115 = 1548 - 30.5 ° (V)

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= 3 × 3 × 4.53 ° = 7.85

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7.85 ° × 24.5 ° = 5.87

115 ° (V)

.P.P.- .S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C.

Electrical Machines 8 Economic Tests of a Three Phase Transformer 31/03/2004 Conclusion After having been made all the necessary calculations have been analyzed and the values obtained, as well as those registered, it became possible to infer that the theory inherent in the three-phase transformer has been found valid, despite the fact that the transformer tested a number of weaknesses working . The opera tional deficiencies noted were due probably to short-circuit some of the turns o f primary and secondary windings, because there were discrepancies between the v arious currents in the windings action, too important to treat only differences coupled with winding winding . t was also possible to verify that the processor in question had a value of high losses in the windings (PCun = 385 W) and losse s in the magnetic circuit (PE = 75 W). n examining the diagram obtained Kapp n otes that there is a small gap and amplitude difference between U20 and U2, bein g responsible for this UΩn and URN. These differences occur because the processo r does not exhibit the ideal behavior (like any other). Bibliography the "Technology Year 11" - P NTO, Antonio; Alves, Vitor - Porto Editora, the Not es on Electrical Machines 2004 - NEVES, Betina Campos; .P.P.- .S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C.

Electrical Machines 9

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