VACCINES GENERAL RULES ON ADMINISTRATION DE In the case of inactivated vaccines not being affected by the antibodies can be administered

before, after or simultaneously with another vaccine of any kind. · The live attenuated virus vaccines should be pursued simultaneously or wait thi rty days between them not to interfere with the response or viral replication. T his rule does not apply to OPV and measles vaccines, which can be administered s eparately or together in the same month. · The live attenuated virus vaccines sh ould not be applied simultaneously with antibodies found in immunoglobulins or b lood products with the exception of yellow fever vaccines and anti VOP. • Do not contraindicated for simultaneous administration of two or more viral vaccines, except for vaccines against cholera and yellow fever, because there has been a d ecrease in the immune response to both vaccines. For international travelers, MMR and yellow fever can be administered simultaneously or applied to four weeks apart. • Never mix two vaccines in the same syringe unless the producer and dir ected laboratory. In general, the increased interval between doses of a vaccin e serial (multi - dose), does not diminish the effectiveness of the vaccine, but he declined to interfere with the immune response and protection afforded by th e vaccine. DEFINITIONS Management Technical Way: The way of introducing a biol ogical body, either by enteral or parenteral. Your choice is specific to each im munobiologic, in order to avoid undesirable local or systemic and to ensure maxi mum effectiveness of the vaccine. Application Site: This is the anatomical sit e selected for the implementation of the vaccine, so that the possibility of tis sue damage, vascular or neural minimal. - Subcutaneous injections are usually ap plied in the deltoid region. - The preferred sites for intramuscular injection in children, are the anterolat eral thigh to three years and the deltoid muscle in patients older than 3 years. - It uses the upper outer quadrant of the buttocks, and outer top shots only fo r high volume or when you need to manage multiple doses, eg Ig injections. Tec hniques of Application: General Basics: - Use new disposable syringes, needles a nd adequate volumes to immunobiologic to be managed. - Handle needles and syring es, vaccines aseptic technique. - Avoid applying the vaccine in areas erythemato us, indurated and painful. - Clean the skin where it will inject the vaccine, sa line or sterile water and dry with cotton or dry in atmosphere. - Insert the nee dle into the application site, aim to verify the presence of blood, if this happ ens remove the needle and select a nearby place. - When administered simultaneou sly more than one shot, use a syringe for each inoculated with different anatomi cal sites unless you apply a tetravalent or pentavalent. - If for any reason a b iological, applied intramuscularly or subcutaneously, is inwhichthe, repeat the dose. Dosage: The recommended dose of immunobiological are derived from theore tical considerations, experimental studies and clinical experiences. The adminis tration of lower doses than recommended, the fraction doses administered or wron g, you can make the protection obtained is inadequate. Similarly, do not exceed the maximum recommended dose, as this does not guarantee better response and cam -bio can be dangerous to the receiver, because of excessive local or systemic co ncentrations of antigens. • Age of Vaccination: Several factors must be taken in to consideration when choosing the age of vaccination. These include: specific r isks of disease according to age group, immune system maturity and ability at a given age to respond to a specific vaccine and interference by passive immunity transferred by the mother. Composition of Immunobiological: The specific natur e and content of the vaccines differ, depending on house producer. A immunobiologic against the same disease can vary in composition by t








he use of different strains or the amount of international units. Immunobiologic al constituents of are: • Liquid Suspension: It can be as simple as distilled wa ter or saline solution, or as complex as the biological environment where immuno biologic has occurred, such is the case of serum proteins, egg, media cell or cu lture. Preserve,€stabilizers and antibiotics: Use this type of component to in hibit or prevent bacterial growth in viral cultures in the final product or to s tabilize the antigen. These are substances such as thimerosal and / or specific antibiotics, eg neomycin measles vaccine. Adjuvants: In some shots with dead m icroorganisms and fractions of these compounds are used in aluminum or alum, or calcium, to increase the immune response. The immunobiological containing such a djuvants should be injected deep in muscle mass, because their fat or intraderma l inoculation causes severe irritation, granulomas or necrosis. Efficacy of im munobiologic: It means the proportion of vaccinated immunobiologic who actually causes the cellular immune response, antibody production or both, who are able t o protect, after receiving the recommended number of doses. The effectiveness of measles vaccine applied to the years of age is 90-95%, the efficacy of oral pol iovirus vaccine is 90 to 100% under appropriate conditions of conservation and a pplied at the appropriate age. In warm tropical regions with poor cold chain, ef fectiveness can be reduced to 75% or less. The effectiveness depends on the abil ity vaccine antigen component of the recipient's age, maturity of the immune sys tem, the presence of passive immunity and compliance with operating rules of the cold chain. Herd Immunity: The concept of herd immunity refers to the resista nce of a group of people from one community subject to attack by a disease, in w hich case a large proportion of its members are immune, thus reducing the probab ility of a disease patient contact with an individual susceptible or immune. The herd immunity of a population is determined by several factors such as: the hom ogeneous distribution of the susceptible or the frequency and manner of contacts between individuals. An ideal vaccination program attempts to reduce or elimina te the number of susceptible in all subgroups of the population