TECHNICAL DRAWING THE HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION From the beginning, man has tried to communicate with graphics

or p ictures. The first images we know are the cave paintings in them are not only tr ying to represent reality around him, animals, stars, the man himself, and so on ., But also feelings, as the joy of dance, or tension hunts. Throughout history, this desire to communicate through pictures, has evolved, leading on one side t o the other artistic design and technical drawing. While the first attempts to c ommunicate ideas and feelings, based on the suggestion and the imagination of th e viewer, technical drawing, is aimed at the representation of objects as accura tely as possible, in form and dimensions. Today, we are witnessing a confluence between the goals of artistic and technical drawing. This is due to the use of c omputers in technical drawing, they yield 3D virtual recreations that although o bjects represent the true size and shape, they also carry a heavy load of sugges tions for the viewer. TECHNICAL DRAWING IN THE ANTIQUITY The first manifestation of technical drawing, dating from 2450 BC, in a construction drawing that appea rs sculpted the statue of the Sumerian king Gudea, known as the architect, and i s in the Louvre Museum Paris. In this sculpture, schematically depicts the flat of a building. The year 1650 B.C. Rhind Mathematical Papyrus dates. The Egyptian scribe, wrote in a papyrus from 33 per 548 cm., An exhibition of geometric cont ent divided into five parts that include: Arithmetic, esteorotomía, geometry and calculation of pyramids. In this papyrus is reached to the number approximate value. In 600 BC, we find Thales, Greek philosopher born in Miletus. He was the founder of Greek philosophy, and is considered one of the Seven Sages of Greece . His knowledge in all sciences, but became famous for his knowledge of astronom y, after predicting the solar eclipse that occurred on 28 May 585 BC. He is said to introduce the geometry in Greece, science he learned in Egypt. Their knowled ge, enabled him to discover important geometric properties. Those not Image generated using 3DStudio 4 BLL

stopped writing, the knowledge we have of him comes from what is said in the met aphysics of Aristotle. Tales From the same century, is Pythagoras, Greek philoso pher, whose teachings influenced Plato. Born on the island of Samos, Pythagoras was instructed in the teachings of the early Ionian philosophers, Thales of Mile tus, Anaximander and Anaxímedes. He founded a movement for religious, political and philosophical, known as Pythagoreanism. A school that is attributed to the s tudy and design of the first three regular polyhedra: tetrahedron, hexahedron, a nd octahedron. But perhaps his best-known contribution in the field of geometry is the hypotenuse theorem, known as the Pythagorean theorem, which states that " in a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the Hicks. " In 300 BC, we find Euclid, Greek mathematician. His major work " Elements of Geometry" is a comprehensive treatise on mathematics in 13 volumes o n such subjects as plane geometry, incommensurable magnitudes and spatial geomet ry. Probably study in Athens with disciples of Plato. He taught geometry in Alex andria, and founded a school of mathematics. Archimedes (287-212 BC), noted Gree k mathematician and inventor, who wrote important works on plane and space geome try, arithmetic and mechanics. Born in Siracusa, Sicily, and educated in Alexand ria, Egypt. He invented ways to measure the area of curved figures, as well as s urface and limited the volume of solids bounded by curved surfaces. Showed that the volume of a sphere is two thirds of the volume of the cylinder that circumsc ribes. It also developed a method to calculate an approximation of the value of pi ( ), the ratio between the diameter and circumference of a circle, and stated that this issue was in March 10/70 and March 10/71. Apollonius of Perga, Greek mathematician, called the "Great Geometer", who lived during the last years of t he third and early second century BC He was born in Perga, Pamphylia (now Turkey ). His greatest contribution to geometry was the study of conical curcas, which reflected in his treatise on the conic, which initially consisted of eight books . TECHNICAL DRAWING IN THE MODERN ERA is during the Renaissance, when technical representations, become a real maturity,€are for the work of the architect Brune

lleschi, the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, and many others. But it is not until well into the eighteenth century, when a significant advance in technical repre sentations. One of the great progress is due to the French mathematician Gaspard Monge (17,461,818). Born in Beaune and attended schools in Beaune and Lyon, and in the military school of Mézières. At age 16 he became professor of physics at Lyon, a position he held until 1765. Three years later he was professor of math ematics and physics teacher in 1771 in Mézières. He helped found the Ecole Polyt echnique in 1794, where he taught descriptive geometry for more than ten years. It is considered the inventor of descriptive geometry. Descriptive geometry is w hat allows us to represent on a two dimensional surface, three-dimensional surfa ces of objects. Today there are different systems of representation, that serve this purpose, as the conical perspective, the system dimensioned drawings, etc. but perhaps the most important is the dihedral system, which was developed by Mo nge in his first publication in 1799. Finally mention the French cave Jean Victo r Poncelet (1788-1867). He is due to introduction into the geometry of the conce pt of infinity, which had already been included in mathematics. In Poncellet geometry, two lines, or cut or cross, but can not be p arallel, and to cut off at infinity. The development of this new geometry, which he called projective, as embodied in his "Treatise's projected Propriété des fi gures" in 1822. The last major contribution to technical drawing, which has defi ned, as we know it today has been standardization. We define it as "the set of r ules and regulations applicable to the design and manufacture of certain product s." Although, as Chaldean and Egyptian civilizations used this concept for the m anufacture of bricks and stones, under a predetermined size, is the end of the n ineteenth century Industrial Revolution in full when it started implementing the concept of rule, in the representation of planes and parts manufacturing. But i t was during World War 1, before the need to supply the armies and weapons repai r, where the normalization takes on its final drive, with the creation in German y in 1917, the German Committee for Standardization. CLASSIFICATION OF TYPES OF TECHNICAL DRAWINGS We will see in this section the classification of different types of technical d rawings according to DIN 199. We clarify that the use of foreign law is only due to the lack of a Spanish standard equivalent. DIN 199 classified technical draw ings based on the following criteria: Objective Method of preparation of the des ign drawing. Content. Destiny. Classification of the drawings according to their purpose: - Sketch: freehand re presentation respecting the proportions of objects. - Drawing: Representation at all the data needed to define the object. - Map: A map of objects in relation t o their position or the role. - Charts, diagrams and abacus: Graphical represent ation of measures, values, work processes, etc.. By lines or surfaces. Replaced in a clear and summarized numerical tables, test results, mathematical, physical , etc.. Classification of the drawings in the form of clothing: - Pencil Sketch: Any of the previous drawings made in pencil. - Drawing in ink: Ditto, but execu ted in ink. - Original: The drawing made for the first time and, in general, tra nslucent paper. - Reproduction: Copy of an original design, obtained by any meth od. They are the drawings used in daily practice, since the originals are usuall y preserved and stored carefully, taking also appropriate security measures. Classification of the drawings according to their contents: - general or overall Drawing: Representation of a machine, instr ument, etc.., In its entirety. - Drawing cutting: detailed and individual repres entation of each of the elements and non-standard parts forming a whole. - Group Drawing: Representation of two or more pieces, forming a subset or construction unit. - Drawing workshop or supplementary: additional representation of a drawi ng, showing details assistants to simplify repeated representations. - Schematic drawing or outline: Symbolic of the elements of a machine or installation. Clas sification of designs depending on your destination: - Drawing workshop or manuf

acturing: Representation for the manufacture of a piece, containing all the data necessary for such manufacture.€- Machining Drawing: Representation of a piece with the information necessary to perform certain operations in the manufacturin g process. They are used in manufacturing complex, replacing the previous ones. - Drawing of assembly representation that provides the data necessary for the as sembly of the various sub-assemblies and assemblies that constitute a machine, i nstrument, equipment, etc. - Drawing class: Representation of objects that diffe r only in dimensions. - Drawing of tenders, ordering, receiving: Representations for the above functions. REPRESENTATION SYSTEMS GENERAL All systems of representation, is to represent on a two dimensional surf ace, like a sheet of paper, which are three-dimensional objects in space. To thi s end, we have developed over the history different systems of representation. B ut they all meet a key condition, the reversibility, ie, that although from a th ree-dimensional object, different systems allow two-dimensional representation o f the object, the same way, given the two-dimensional representation, the system should allow obtaining the position in space of each of the elements of that ob ject. All systems are based on the projection of objects on a plane, called picture plane or projection, by projecting rays called. The number of planes of projection used, the relative position of these to the object and the direction of the projecting rays are the characteristics that differentiate the different systems of representation. Projection systems in all systems of representation, the projection of objects o n the picture plane or projection is made by projecting rays, these are imaginar y lines that passing through the vertices or points of view, provided at its int ersection the picture plane, the projection of the apex or point. If the source of projecting rays is a point at infinity, which is called improper point, all t he rays are parallel to each other, resulting in what is known as, cylindrical p rojection. If these rays are perpendicular to the projection plane will be ortho gonal to the cylindrical projection, in the case of being oblique with respect t o this plane, we are facing the oblique cylindrical projection. If the source of the rays is a point itself, we at the central projection or conical. Cylindrical projection orthogonal projection central cylindrical or conical obli que projection TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS The different systems of representation, we can divide into two groups: systems of measurement and representative systems. Measurement systems, they are the dihedral and the system of dimensioned drawings. They are characterized by the possibility to perform measurements directly on the drawin g, for easily and quickly, the dimensions and position of objects in the drawing . The disadvantage of these systems is that you can not see at a single glance, the shape and proportions of the objects represented. Representative systems are the system axonometric perspective, the perspective system caballera, the syste m of military and frog perspective, variants of the cavalier perspective and the perspective system or central cone. They are characterized by representing obje cts in a single projection, it can be admired from a single glance, the shape an d proportions of them. They have the disadvantage of being more difficult realizing that the measurement systems, especially if it involves the drawing of many curves, and sometimes it is impossible to take direct action on the drawin g. Although the goal of these systems is to represent objects as an observer wou ld see in a particular position on the object, this fails completely, since huma n vision is binocular, so that the maximum has been reached, namely through the conical perspective, is to represent objects as an observer would see with one e ye. The following table depicts the key features of each of the systems of repre

sentation. System Plans dihedral dimensional axonometric perspective Military Perspective P erspective Perspective caballera frog cone Perspective Type of measure as One Two projection planes Projection Projection System Projection orthogonal cylindrical cylindrical cylin drical orthogonal projection orthogonal oblique cylindrical projection Cylindric al projection oblique projection oblique cylindrical or tapered central projecti on One representativeness representativeness One vo vo vo One representativeness re presentativeness representativeness One One vo vo INTRODUCTION DEFINITION AND CONCEPT rule the Latin word "normun" etymologically means "rule t o follow to reach a particular purpose" concept was more specifically defined by the German Committee for Standardization in 1940, as: "The rules that unify and logically arranged a series of phenomena" Th e Standardization is a collective activity aimed at establishing a solution to r epeated problems. The normalization has a decisive influence on the industrial d evelopment of a country, to strengthen relations and technological exchanges wit h other countries. OBJECTIVES AND ADVANTAGES The goals of standardization can be translated into three: the economy, and that through simplification is reducing costs. The utility, allowing interchangeability. The quality, and which ensures the establishment and features of a particular product. These three objectives bring a number of advantages, which could be reflected in the following: Reducin g the number of types of a particular product. In EE. UU. at any given time, the re were 49 sizes of milk bottles. For manufacturers' voluntary agreement were re duced to nine types with a diameter of mouth only, yielding a saving of 25% in t he new price of packaging and end caps. Simpler designs, when used in them, whic h were also standardized. Reduction in transport, storage, packaging, files, etc . .. with a corresponding impact on productivity. Ultimately to the normalizatio n is achieved: PRODUCE MORE AND BETTER THROUGH TIME AND COST REDUCTION. HISTORIC AL DEVELOPMENT, DIN and ISO Its principles are parallel to mankind. Just remembe r that already in the Chaldean and Egyptian civilizations, had established the s ize of bricks and stones, according to a predefined size modules. But normalizat ion with systematic and scientific base is born in the late nineteenth century w ith the Industrial Revolution in the highly industrialized countries, given the need to produce more and better. But the final impetus came with the First World War (1914-1918). Given the need to supply the armies and weapons repair, was ne cessary to use private industry, which was required interchangeability specifica tions and precise adjustments. STANDARDS DIN was at this time, namely December 22, 1917, when German engineers Naubaus and Hellmich, is the first organization dedicated to standardization: NA DI - Normen-Ausschuss der Deutschen Industrie - Standardization Committee of Ger man Industry. The agency began issuing rules under the symbol: DIN Deutsche Indu strie Normen meant (German Industry Standards). In 1926 the NADI was renamed: DN A - Deutsches Normen-Ausschuss - German Standards Committee that while it contin ued to issue the letters DIN low standards, they came to mean "Das Ist Norm" Thi s is standard and more recently, in 1975, change its name: DIN - Deutsches Insti tut für Normung - German Institute for Standardization quickly began to emerge o ther national committees in industrialized countries, and in 1918 was establishe d in France AFNOR - French Association for Standardization. In 1919 in England w

as a private organization BSI - British Standards Institution. ISO STANDARDS With the emergence of these national standards bodies, the need arose to coordin ate the work and experience of them all, with this objective was founded in Lond on in 1926: International Federation of Associations of the National Standardiza tion - ISA After the Second World War this body was replaced in 1947 by the Inte rnational Organization for Standardization - ISO - International Organization fo r Standardization. Headquartered in Geneva, and dependent on the UN. This organization have joined the various national bodies dedicated to the Stand ardization and Certification N + C. Currently 140 countries are attached, irresp ective of geographical location, race, steering, etc. . ISO's work covers all st andardization fields except electrical and electronic engineering is the respons ibility of IEC (International Electrotechnical Committee). RULES UNE SPANISH As a result of the collaboration Hispano-German during the Spanish Civil War, and e specially during the 2nd World War in Spain began using the German DIN standards , this is the reason why until today in different curricula Spanish, reference i s made to DIN standards, the last proposal of the Ministry for the baccalaureate ,€removal of the reference to those rules, and only refers to the UNE and ISO. O n December 11, 1945 the CSIC (Scientific Research Center), created the Institute of Rationalization and Standardization IRANOR, under the patronage Juan de la C ierva based in Madrid. IRANOR began to edit the first under the symbol Spanish s tandards UNE - A standard Spanish, which were consistent with international requ irements. Since 1986 the activities of standardization and certification N + C, fall in Spain in the private entity AENOR (Spanish Association for Standardizati on). AENOR is a member of different international standards organizations ISO International Organization for Standardization. IEC - International Electrotechn ical Committee CEN - European Committee for Standardization CENELEC - European C ommittee for Electrotechnical Standardization ETSI - European Institute of Telec ommunications Standards COPANT - Pan American Standards Commission UNE rules are created for Standardization Technical Committees - CTN. Once these elaborate a standard, this is subject for six months to the public. After this time and analyzed the comments we proceed to its final version, with any correct ions that are deemed, published under the symbol UNE. All standards are subject to periodic review to be updated. The rules are numbered in decimal classificati on. The code number for a rule is structured as follows: ABC 82 UNE 1032 - Stand ardization Technical Committee to which the norm. B - Number of rules issued by the committee, supplemented where R is a revision, modification or supplement C. M C - Year of publication of the standard. CLASSIFICATION RULES Independent dec imal classification standards referred to above, is quite another thing broader classification, based on the content and scope: Based on its content, standards can be: General Type Fundamental Rules to this type are the rules regarding form ats, line types, lettering, views, etc. .. Type Fundamental Technical Standards are those that refer to the characteristics of the mechanical elements and their representation. These include rules on tolerances, threading, welding, etc. Mat erials Standards are those that relate to the quality of materials, specifying d esignation, properties, composition and testing. To this type belong the rules g overning the designation of materials, both metal, steel, bronze, etc., And nonm etallic, lubricants, fuel, etc. .. Standards Dimensions of parts and mechanisms, specifying shapes, dimensions and tolerances. To this type belong the rules of shipbuilding, machine tools, pipes, etc .. According to its scope, the rules may be: International. This group includes standards issued by ISO, IEC and ITU-Int ernational Telecommunication Union. Regional. Its continental area is usually is the case of standards issued by CEN, CENELEC and ETSI. National. Are drafted an d issued by the various national standards bodies, and in accordance with the re commendations of relevant international and regional standards. This is the case of the German DIN standards, the Spanish UNE, etc. .. Company. They are freely written by the companies and to complement national sta

ndards. In Spain, some of the companies that issue their own standards are: INTA (National Institute of Aerospace Technology), RENFE, IBERDROLA, CTNE, BAZAN, IB ERIA, etc. .. OBTAINING THE VIEWS OF AN OBJECT Usually called main views of an object at the same orthogonal projections on six levels, arranged in a cube. Could also be seen as defining the orthogonal proje ctions of an object, according to the different directions from where you look. The rules to follow to represent the views of an object, is included in the UNE 1-032-82, "Technical drawings: General principles of representation," equivalent to ISO 128-82. NAME OF THE VIEWS If we place an observer according to the six d irections indicated by the arrows, we get the six possible views of an object. T hese views are the following headings: Vista A: Viewed from front or elevation V ista B: Top view or plant Vista C: Right View or Right Side View D: left or left lateral Vista Vista E: F View Bottom View: Rear View RELATIVE POSITIONS views to the n use two orthogonal projection n method of the first dihedral, The method of projection of the provision of different views on the role,€You ca variants of the same importance: - The projectio also called the European (formerly, method E) third dihedral, also called American

(Formerly, method A) In both methods, the object is disposed within a cube, on w hose six faces, there will be the corresponding orthogonal projections thereof. Estriva The difference is that while the European system, the object is between the observer and the projection plane in the American system is the projection p lane which lies between the observer and the object. EUROPEAN SYSTEM AMERICAN SY STEM Once the six orthogonal to the faces of the cube, and keeping fixed, the face of the projection of the elevation (A), we proceed to develop it get the cube, whi ch as shown in the figures is different according to sitem used. EUROPEAN SYSTEM AMERICAN SYSTEM The projection of the cube desarroyan, provide about one drawing plane, the six principal views of an object, in their relative positions. In order to identify which system has represented the object, add the symbol can be seen in the figures, representing the elevation and left lateral view of a t runcated cone in each of the systems. EUROPEAN SYSTEM AMERICAN SYSTEM CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THE VIEWS As can be seen in the previous figures, there i s a correspondence between different views required. This will concern: a) The e levation, the plant, the bottom view and rear view that is in line widths. b) Th e elevation, right side view, left side view and rear view, agreeing in heights. c) The plant, left lateral view, right side view and bottom view coincide in de pth. Usually with only three views, the elevation, the plant and a side view, a piece is perfectly defined. Given the above correlation would imply that given a ny two views, we could get the third, as shown in the figure: Also, all of the above, it follows that the different views can not be placed ar bitrarily. Although the views alone are correct, if not properly located, will n ot define the piece. GENERAL, FEATURES AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE GENERAL COTAS Narrowing is the proce ss of scoring, with lines, numbers, signs and symbols, through an object on a pr eliminary drawing of it, following a series of rules and conventions established by rules . Narrowing is the work of technical drawing more complex, since for a correct dimensioning of a drawing, you must know not only the dimensioning rule s but also the manufacturing process of the piece, which implies a knowledge of

machine tools used for machining. For proper dimensioning, it is also necessary to know the role allotted to each picture, ie whether the piece will make to ver ify the dimensions of the same once made, etc. .. Therefore, here we will give a series of rules and regulations, but will practice and experience that lead us to the exercise of proper demarcation. GENERAL PRINCIPLES In general dimensionin g can be seen that the drawing of a part or mechanism, is correctly quoted, when the particulars of dimensions used are the minimum, sufficient and appropriate to permit the production of it. This translates into the following general princ iples: 1. A coat only be provided once in a drawing, unless it is necessary to r epeat it. 2. Nor should we omit any dimension. 3. The measurements will be place d on the views that most clearly represent the corresponding elements. 4. All di mensions of a design shall use the same units, if used another unit, shall be clearly expressed, then the altitude. 5. Not delimit the dimensions of those forms, resulting from the manufacturing process. 6. The meas urements will be placed on the outside of the piece. It is permissible for the o ne on the inside, provided they do not lose clarity in the drawing. 7. No hidden edges is bounded on, unless this would prevent additional views or substantiall y clarify the picture. This can always be avoided by using sections. 8. The dime nsions are distributed, taking into account criteria of order, clarity and aesth etics. 9. Dimensions related. as the diameter and depth of a hole, indicate on t he hearing. 10. Avoid the need to obtain bounds for sum or difference of others, and which may involve errors in manufacturing.€Elements involved in the annotat ions in the annotation process of a drawing, plus the number of dimension, invol ving lines and symbols, which vary depending on the characteristics of the piece and a narrow element. All lines involved in the dimension, shall be made thinne r thickness of the series used. The basic elements involved in the annotations a re: Dimension lines: These are lines parallel to the surface of the part being measu red. Figures in elevation: A number that indicates the magnitude. It is situated on the line centered in elevation. May be in the middle of the dimension line, interrupting this, or about the same, but in the same drawing is followed by a s ingle criterion. Symbol final dimension: The dimension lines will be terminated at their ends by a symbol which may be an arrowhead, a small oblique stroke at 4 5 º or a small circle. Auxiliary dimension lines: They start drawing lines perpendicular to the surface to narrow and limit the length of the dimension lines. Should protrude slightly from the dimension lines, approximately 2 mm. Exceptionally, as we shall see la ter, can be drawn at 60 ° with dimension lines. Baselines Dimension: Used to indicate a dimensional value, or an explanatory not e on the drawings, by a line connecting the text to the piece. The reference lin es, end: At arrow, ending in an outline of the piece. At one point, the ending i n the inside of the piece. Without an arrow or point, when they end on another l ine. The part of the reference line is labeled don the text is drawn parallel to the narrow element, if this is not well defined, will be drawn horizontal line or no support for text. Symbols: Sometimes, the amount of elevation is accompani ed by a symbol indicative of formal characteristics of the piece, which simplify their marking, and sometimes can reduce the number of views needed to define th e piece. The most common symbols are: CLASSIFICATION OF COTAS There are different criteria for classifying the dimensi ons of a drawing, here we will consider two basic classifications, and suitable for those starting in the technical drawing. Depending on its importance, the dimensions can be classified as: functional dim ensions (F): They are those essential dimensions, so the piece can fulfill its f unction. Cotas non-functional (NF) are those that serve for the full definition

of the part, but are not essential for the part to perform its function. Cotas auxiliary (AUX): Also often called "form." Are the dimensions that give th e overall dimensions, exterior and interior of a piece. Are indicated in parenth eses. These dimensions are not necessary for the manufacture or testing of parts , and can be derived from other dimensions. In terms of its role in the plane, the measurements can be classified into: Dime nsions of dimension (d): Those that indicate the size of the picture elements (d iameters of holes, width of the piece, etc.).. Dimensions of situation (s): Thos e which specify the position of the elements of the piece. ELECTION OF THE VIEWS OF AN OBJECT, AND HAVING SPECIAL ELECTION OF THE STANDARD In the UNE 1-032-82 clearly specifies that "The most characteristic view of the object should be chosen as seen from the front or main view." This view represen ts the object in its working position, and if it can be usable in any position, the position will be performed in machining or assembly. Occasionally, the above concept may not be enough to choose the elevation of a piece, in these cases wi ll take into account the following principles: 1) Get the best use of the drawin g surface. 2) The rate chosen, present the lowest possible number of branches co ncealed. 3) And that allows us to obtain the remainder of view, plan and profile s, as simplified as possible. Following the above specifications, in the part sh own in Figure 1, adopted as standard in view A, will enable us to determine the inclination of the wall to and the L-shaped element b, which are the most signif icant elements of the piece. Sometimes an incorrect choice of standard will lead us to increase the number of views needed, it is the case of the part of Figure 2, where the view would be t he right standard A, as it would be enough with this view and the representation of the plant, so that the parts are properly defined, to choose the view B, and the plant would need to represent a side view. ELECTION OF THE VIEWS for the el ection of the views of an object, follow the view that these should be the minim um, sufficient and appropriate for the piece to be fully and correctly defined. Also follow the criteria of simplicity and clarity,€views in choosing to avoid t he representation of hidden edges. In general, except in very complex pieces, ju st the standard representation of the plant and a side view. Sufficient single c omponents with one or two views. When it is indifferent to the choice of the pro file view, whichever is the left lateral view, which as you know is depicted on the right of the elevation. When a piece can be represented by its elevation and the ground or the elevation and profile view, that solution should be selected to facilitate the interpretation of the piece, and being indifferent to those th at have the least number of hidden edges. In the case of parts represented by a single glance, this is often supplemented with additional information which allo ws the full and correct definition of the piece: 1) In parts of revolution inclu des the symbol diameter (Figure 1). 2) prismatic or truncated, include the symbo l of the square and / or "cross of St. Andrew" (Figure 2). 3) In parts of unifor m thickness, enough to make this specification in a conspicuous (Fig. 3). Top HAVING SPECIAL In order to get clearer and simplified representations, in tu rn saving run time, can be a series of special representations of the views of a n object. Here are the most significant: PARTS HAVING SYMMETRICAL In the case of parts with one or more axes of symmetry, the piece can be represented as a frac tion of their sight (Figures 1 and 2). The trace of the plane of symmetry which limits the contour of the eye, is marked on each end with two small thin paralle l lines, perpendicular to the axis. You can also extend the edge of the piece, s lightly beyond the outline of the plane of symmetry, in which case, no parallel lines indicate the end of the line (Figure 3). Vision changes in position when for exceptional reasons, a view does not take it s position based on the method adopted, indicate the direction of observation by

an arrow and a capital letter, the arrow will be larger than the marking and po int higher than benchmark figures. At the hearing indicated position is changed from that point, or the display of "Having regard to .." (Figures 4 and 5). VIEW DETAILS If a detail of a piece is not well defined by the normal view, you can draw a partial view of the detail. In the detail view, indicate the letter i dentifying the direction from which that view is, and is limited by a thin line freehand. The visual that originated was identified by an arrow and a capital le tter as in the previous section (Figure 6). At other times, the problem turns ou t to be the small size of a detail of the piece, which prevents its correct inte rpretation and annotation. In such cases it may make an enlarged detail view pro perly. The enlarged area is identified by a circle of thin line and a capital le tter, in the expanded view indicate the letter of identification and the scale u sed (figure 7). Seen locally on symmetric elements are allowed to make local views rather than a full view. For the representation of these views, the method of the third dihed ral, regardless of the general method of representation adopted. These local vie ws are drawn with thick line, and connected to the main view by a thin line and the dotted line (Figures 8 and 9). They aim VIEWS rotated, to avoid the object representation of items that would n ot appear in normal view with its true form. Usually occurs in parts or nerve br anches, which form angles of 90 degrees to the main directions of the axes. It r epresents a view in actual position, and the other eliminating the angle of the detail (Figures 10 and 11). HAVING DEVELOPED In parts obtained by bending or bent, it is necessary to repres ent the original contour of the piece, before its formation, to appreciate its s hape and dimensions before folding process. This representation is made with fin e line traces and double point (Fig. 12). AUXILIARY VIEWS oblique elements sometimes portrayed in the piece, which are obl ique to the planes of projection. In order to avoid distorted projection of thes e elements, we proceed to make your planes auxiliary oblique projection. This pr ojection is limited to the oblique area, thus the element is defined by a normal , full view and a partial (Figures 13). Sometimes certain elements of a piece ar e oblique with respect to all planes of projection,€in these cases will be two c hanges of planes, to obtain the true extent of this element, these views are cal led double auxiliary views. If the insides of a special piece oblique positions with respect to the planes of projection, auxiliary court may make an oblique, w hich will be shown parallel to the court and shot. This court views the outer pa rts of the piece does not represent, and only draws the outline of the cut and t he edges that occur as a consequence of it (Figure 14). CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATIONS In order to clarify and simplify the representation s, it should perform certain types of performances that deviate from the rules g overning the system. Although there are many possible cases, the three indicated , are sufficiently representative of this type of convention (Figures 15, 16 and 17), they indicate the actual and preferred view. DUMMY INTERSECTIONS Sometimes intersections of surfaces, there is no clearly, is the case of rounds, chamfers, joints obtained by bending or intersections of cy linders of equal or different diameters. In these cases the intersection lines w ill be represented by a fine line not to touch the contours of the pieces. The f ollowing three examples show clearly the mechanics of such intersections (Figure s 18, 19 and 20). CORTES, SECTIONS AND BREAKS I INTRODUCTION At times, due to the complexity of th e internal details of a piece, their representation is confusing, with many hidd

en edges, and the limitation of not being able to refine on these edges. The sol ution to this problem are cuts and sections, discussed in this topic. Also somet imes the great length of certain parts, hindering its representation at a level to solve this problem will make use of breaks, a device that will allow us to ad d clarity and to save space. The rules to follow for the representation of the cuts, secion and tear, are rep roduced in the UNE 1-032-82, "Technical drawings: General principles of represen tation," equivalent to ISO 128-82. OVERVIEW CUT AND SECTIONS A cut is the artifi ce by which, in the representation of a piece, we remove part of it, in order to clarify and make it easier to representation and annotation. In principle the m echanism is very simple. Adopted one or more cutting planes, notionally remove t he piece, the part nearest the observer, as shown in the figures. As shown in the figures below, the inner edges affected by the court, be present ed with the same views espedor that the edges and the area affected by the court , is represented by a scratch. Here on this issue, we'll be representing the pro gress of the court, the rules for the streak itself, etc. .. Section is called the intersection of cutting plane with the work (the area indi cated in red), as shown when rendering a section, unlike a court, not representi ng the rest of the piece left behind itself. Whenever possible, we prefer to represent the section, since it is clearer and s impler representation. Top BREAKING LINES IN THE MATERIALS When it comes to drawing objects and uniform long, are usually represented interrupted by broken lines. Breaks representatio n save space by removing constant and regular parts of the pieces, and limit the representation, the parties sufficient for definition and demarcation. Breaks a re standardized, and its rates are as follows: a) The defined UNE only two types of breaks (Figures 1 and 2), the first is indicated by a thin line, like axes, by hand and slightly curved, the second is often used in computer work. b) wedge and pyramidal parts (figures 3 and 4), using the same thin, slightly curved lin e. In these parts should remain the inclination of the edges of the piece. c) In pieces of wood, the break is indicated by a zig-zag line (figure 5). d) In cylindrical solid, the broken line indicated by the characteristic loo p (Figure 6). e) conical parts, the break will be indicated as in the previous c ase, using loops, but these will be of different size (Fig. 7). f) hollow cylind rical parts (tubes), the break is indicated by a double loop, that reveals the i nner and outer diameters (Fig. 8). g) When the pieces are one form, the break ma y be indicated with a dash-dot line thin as the lines of the axes (Fig. 9). Top Representation IV standard bodies Standardized representation bodies II SCALES For the development of this subject have been taken into account the recommendat ions of the UNE-EN ISO 5455:1996. CONCEPT The representation of objects to their size is not possible when they are very large or very small. In the first case, it would require unwieldy size formats and in the second because it would lack clarity in their definition. This solves the problem of SCALE, applying the enla rgement or reduction necessary in each case so that the objects are clearly repr esented in the picture plane. Scale is defined as the ratio between the size dra wn regarding its real dimension, that is: E = drawing / true if the numerator of this fraction is greater than the denominator, it is a level of enlargement and reduction will otherwise. 1:1 scale corresponds to an object drawn at actual si ze (scale). GRAPHIC SCALE Based on Thales' Theorem uses a simple graphical metho d for applying a scale. See, for example, the case for E 3:5

1) Originating from an arbitrary point O r and s are plotted two lines forming a n angle. 2) On the line r lies the denominator of the scale (5 in this case) and on the line s the numerator (3 in this case). The ends of these segments are A and B. 3 º) situated on any real scale r will be converted into the drawing by a simple parallel to AB. . Although standard scale, in theory, be possible to app ly any value of scale, in practice it is recommended the use of certain standard values in order to facilitate the reading of dimensions through the use of rule s or Dial Indicators. These values are: Extension: 2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 50:1 .. . Reduction: 1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50 ... However, in special cases (particula rly in construction) will use certain intermediate stops such as: 1:25, 1:30, 1: 40, etc ... EXPERIMENTAL EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 1 We want to represent in a format A3 the floor of a building 60 x 30 meters. The scale most suitable for this case is 1:200, which would provide a dimension of 40 x 20 cm, well suited to the size o f the format. EXAMPLE 2: We want to represent in an A4 piece of clock dimensions 2 x 1 mm. The appropriate scale would be 10:1 EXAMPLE 3: On a chart 1:50000 E m easured a distance of 7.5 cm between two islands, what actual distance between t hem? Resolved with a simple rule of thumb: if 1 cm 50 000 cm drawing are real Drawing will be 7.5 cm X 7.5 cm X = real x 50000 / 1 ... and this results in 375 000 cm, equivalent to 3.75 km. USE OF Dial Indicators The most common form of D ial Indicators is a Rule of 30 cm in length, with section 6 star facets or faces . Each of these facets is graded with different scales, which usually are: 1:100 , 1:200, 1:250, 1:300, 1:400, 1:500 These scales are also valid for values to be multiplied or divide by 10, so for example, the scale is 1:300 scale drawings f or use in 1:30 or 1:3000, etc. Examples of use: 1) For a plane E 1:250, directly apply the Dial Indicators 1:250 scale and the figures indicating that it is rea d are real meters of drawings. 2) In the case of a plane E 1:5000, 1:500 scale w ill apply and must be multiplied by 10 the reading of Dial Indicators. For examp le, if a dimension of the plane has 27 units in the Dial Indicators, we are actu ally measuring 270 m. Of course, the scale of 1:100 is also 1:1, which is typica lly used as ruler in cm. STANDARD LINES In technical drawings using different types of lines, types and thicknesses, hav e been normalized in the different standards. This page does not will stick to U NE from 1032 to 1982, equivalent to ISO 128-82. TYPES OF LINES Only use the type s and thicknesses of lines indicated in the table below. When using other types of lines other than those specified, or used in applications other than those li sted in the table, the conventions chosen should be indicated in other internati onal standards or must include a legend or appendix on the drawing that concerne d. In the following figures, you can see the different types of lines and their applications. The attached table are specified the different types, their design ation and applications. Line Thick Full Description General applications Viewed A1 A2 Edge Edges views overlooking fictitious lines B1 B2 B3 Dimension Lines Lines Lines projection reference B4 B5 B6 Rayados dejec ted sections contours on the surface of the picture B7 C1 short axis view limits or partial cuts, or interrupted,€D1 if these limits are broken lines and points E1 E2 F1 F2 Edge Edges hidden hidden hidden hidden edges Edge Fill out fine (straight or curved Fill fine show of hands (2) Fill fine (straight) with zigzag

Thick dashed lines Fina Fine lines and points Axis of revolution G1 G2 level Trace Careers G3 Fina symmetry lines and points, thick at the ends and address changes Trace H1 cutting plane Thick lines and dots J1 indication of lines or surfaces that are subject to individual specifications K1 K2 Outlines Intermediate positions adjacent pieces and ends of lines moving parts K3 K4 centers of gravity initial contours formed by K5 Parties located in front of a shear plane Thin lines and double point (1) This type of line is used particularly for designs implemented in an automat ed fashion (2) Although there are two options available, simply use a line type in the same drawing. Width of the lines In addition to its line, the lines diffe r in their width or thickness. In the tracings in pencil, this differentiation i s done by varying the pressure of the stylus, or by using pencils of different h ardnesses. In the tracings in ink, the line width should be chosen, depending on the size or type of drawing, including the following range: 0.18 to 0.25 - 0.35 to 0.5 - 0.7 - 1 to 1.4 and 2 mm. Given the difficulties encountered in certain reproductive procedures, not recommended line width 0.18. These values of width s, which may seem random, actually respond to the need for expansion and reducti on levels, since the relationship between A4 and A3, is about. This way to exten d an A4 format with thick lines 0.5 to A3, those routes would then be 5 x = 0.7 mm. The relationship between the widths of the thin and thick lines in the same drawing, shall not be less than 2. Should be kept the same line width for differ ent views of a piece drawn with the same scale. Blank lines minimum spacing between parallel lines (i ncluding the representation of the scratched) should never be less than twice th e width of the thicker line. It is recommended that this space is never less tha n 0.7 mm. ORDER OF PRIORITY LINES matches in the representation of a drawing, it can happen that different types of lines overlap, so the rule has established a n order of preferences when it comes to represent, the order is as follows: 1 2 3 4 May 6 Viewed contours and edges. Contours and edges hidden. Traces of cleava ge planes. Axis of revolution and traces of the plane of symmetry. Lines of cent ers of gravity. Projection lines The contours contiguous parts assembled or joined must match, except in the case of black thin sections. TERMINATION OF THE LINES OF REFERENCE A reference line used to indicate an item (Dimension line, object, outline, etc.).. The reference lines must end: 1 - At one point, if just inside the boundary of the object rep resented 2 - In an arrow, if you end up in the contour of the object represented . 3 - No dots or arrows, if they end up in a dimension line. 1 2 3 GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF LINES 1 - lines of symmetry axes, they have slightly abov e the contour of the part and also the center of circles, but they should not co ntinue from one view to another. 2 - In the circle, the axes have been cut, and not cross, if the circles are very small, thin solid lines are drawn.

3 - The axis of symmetry can be left in pieces whose symmetry is perceived clear ly. 4 - The axis of symmetry, when we represent half or quarter view, bear on th eir ends, two small parallel lines. 5 - When two dashed lines are parallel and a re very close, alternating strokes drawn. 6 - The dashed lines, whether you end up in a continuous line or lines, end up in line. 7 - A broken line will not cut when crossed to a continuous line or another of strokes. 8 - Stroke arches fini shed in the points of contact. FORMATS CONCEPT format is called the sheet of paper on which a drawing is made, the form and dimensions in mm. are normalized. In 1026-2 UNE 83 Part 2, equivalent to IS O 5457, specifies the characteristics of the formats. DIMENSIONS The dimensions of the formats comply with the rules of folding, likeness and reference. Accordi ng to which: • • • 1 - A format is obtained by cross bending immediate superior. 2 - The relationsh ip between the sides of a format is equal to the ratio between the side of a squ are and its diagonal, ie half.€3 - And finally for obtaining formats are part of a format based on 1 m2. Applying these three rules, determine the size of the A0 format called base whos e dimensions would be 1189 x 841 mm. The other formats of the series A, are obta ined by successive folded A0 format. The stable standard for envelopes, folders, files, etc. two auxiliary series B and C. The dimensions of the format of the series B, are obtained as geometric mean of the corresponding sides of two successive formats Series A. The Series C, are obtained as geometric mean of the corresponding sides of the c orresponding Series A and B. Serie A A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A1 0841 x 1189 594 x 841 420 x 594 297 x 4 20 210 x 297 148 x 210 105 x 148 74 x 105 52 x 74 37 x 52 26 x 37 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B1 0 Serie B 1000 x 1414 707 x 1000 500 x 707 353 x 500 250 x 353 176 x 250 125 x 176 88 x 125 62 x 88 44 x 62 31 x 44 C 0 C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 C 5 C 6 C 7 C 8 Series C 917 x 1297 648 x 917 458 x 648 324 x 456 229 x 324 162 x 229 114 x 162 81 x 114 57 x 81 Exceptionally and elongated, the law contemplates the use of special formats kno wn and outstanding, which are obtained by multiplying by 2, 3, 4 ... and up to 9 times the size of the short side of a format. SPECIAL EXTENDED SIZES A3 A3 x 3 x 4 x 3 A4 A A4 A4 x 4 x 5297 x 630 297 x 841 2 97 x 1051 A 420 x 891 420 x 1189 EXCEPTIONAL long format A0 x 3 1) 3 A A1 A0 x A1 x 4 x 3 x 3 A2 A2 A2 x 5 x 4 x 5 A A3 A3 A3 x 7 x 6 x 6 A4 A A4 A4 x 8 x 7 x 9 A4 297 x 1261 297 x 1471 297 x 1 682 297 x 1892 420 x 1486 420 x 1783 420 x 2080 841 x 1783 841 x 2378 2) 594 x 1 261 594 x 1682 594 x 2102 1189 x 1682 1189 x 2523 2) FOLDING The UNE - 1027-1995 sets out how to fold the flat. This will be done in zigzag, both vertically and horizontally, until it was reduced to the size of fi le. Also shown in this statement that the labeling box, you should always be on the front and the view. INDICATIONS IN THE MARGINS FORMATS: In the formats should be drawn inside a box

that defines the area of drawing useful. This box lets margins in the format, th e rule provides that not less than 20 mm. for A0 and A1 formats, and not less th an 10 mm. for A2, A3 and A4. If folding is expected to file with holes in the pa per, it should define a margin of archiving a minimum width of 20 mm., In the bo x opposite the lettering. TABLE OF SIGNAGE: Known also as a box, place den of th e drawing area, and in the bottom right, and its read address, the same as the d rawing. In UNE 1035-95, establishing the provision can take the picture with its two areas: the identification, maximum width 170mm. and for additional informat ion to be placed above or to the left of that. CENTER SIGNS: Signs of focus. The y are placed strokes at the ends of the axis of symmetry of the format, in both directions. Minimum thickness of 0.5 mm. and surpassing the box in 5 mm. There m ust be a position tolerance of 0.5 mm. These marks are used to facilitate the re production and microfilming. GUIDANCE SIGNS: Signs of orientation. Two arrows or equilateral triangles drawn on centering signals to indicate the blade position on the board. RANK METRIC OF REFERENCE: Graduation a benchmark. It is a measuring slide 100 mm long, divided into centim eters, showing the reduction of the rise in cases of reproduction.