# Test of a Shunt DC Motor for Obtaining Characteristic of its Electromechanical & Mechanical Trace of Yield Curve rftg.development.

Electrical Machines 1 Test of a Shunt DC Motor for Obtaining Characteristic of its Electromechanical & Mechanical - Trace of the Yield Curve 05/26/2004 Objective - Study of DC shunt motor - The study of electromechanical characteristics: Gett ing the curve n = f (I) Collection of the curve T = f (I) - A study of its mecha nical characteristic: Getting the curve n = f ( T) - Collection of the yield cur ve η = f (T) - Determination of maximum yield and t e current drawn in t is situ ation. Introduction One advantage of t e dc mac ine is to ave a reversible function, ie can act as a dynamo (absorbing mec anical energy) or as motor (absorbing power). Now we wil l study t eir functioning as a motor. Since previous works ave already been des cribed dc mac ine will go only to describe issues related to its operation. T e DC motor (cc) as an operating principle based on t e Law of Laplace (F = B × I × L), w ic states t at a conductor (lengt L) t at is being driven by a c ain ( of intensity I) being wit in a magnetic field (B) is subjected to a force (F int ensity). T e direction of t is force is t e direction in w ic t e driver will m ove. T is can be ac ieved by applying t e rule of rig t andw ere t e index fin ger pointing in t is direction. Fig.1 - Illustration of t e application of t e rig t and rule for obtaining t e direction of t e force I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Mac ines 2 Test of a S unt DC Motor for Obtaining C aracteristic of its Electromec anical & Mec anical - Trace of t e Yield Curve 05/26/2004 If w ile considering an drivers consider a simple loop, mounted on a s aft wit i n a magnetic field to be traversed by an electric current, verified by t e princ iple enunciated, t at rotates on its axis, its movement due to rotational torque created by t e drivers (since t ese forces are applied in opposite directions b ut equal directions.) Fig.2 - torque exerted on a loop to be traversed by a current wit in a magnetic field Following t e same reasoning but now considering a rotor consists of several coi ls inserted in t e electromagnetic field generated by inductive coils, it appear s t at all cores assets (except t ose w o are on t e neutral line) exert a force , and t e results from t at forces a set of binary rotation, indicated by Fig.3 - Forces exerted by t e drivers of t e following expression: induced T = k × Φ × II where k = Z × p a

2 × p × m 2 a =

Z = No slots × × No turns No sec tions × 2 sec tion coil

The motor windings c. c. can be connected in the same way that the windings of t he dynamo, then we can have an independent kind of excitation, series, parallel or compound (which is divided into excitement consisted of long and AJ shunt sho rt shunt excitation). The excitement Rexc independent has the advantage of allow ing M to vary the speed of rotation from the zero rotations and to allow a regul ation uniform torque, whereas K the inductor current and current induced in B ar e independent. Presents as ig.4 - Excitement independent

C Rexc E M Rexc C Rexc E M Rexc D

B

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I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 3 Test of a Shunt DC Motor for Obtaining Characteristic of its Electromechanical & Mechanical - Trace of the Yield Curve 05/26/2004 disadvantage the need of using two separate power sources, thus it is only used when there is a need to have a high range of speeds for long periods of time or when it is imperative to speed variations in short time and even even reversals of direction of travel. The excitation range is advantageous in cases where high torques are required Rexc boot (because the current that runs through the induc ed EM is the same that runs through the inductor, which in turn is very high in the direct boot). Its main disadvantage is the difficulty of controlling the spe ed of rotation (which depends on constant load of B) and the danger to arise f rom wrapping ig.5 - Excitement series machine when it runs on empty (Note: the packing leads to destruction machine by excessive speed). Very similar to the in dependent excitation, the excitation parallel C Rexc provides good speed regulat ion (although with a smaller M leeway and less accurately) but D has the advanta ge of using the same energy source that B engine . The disadvantage of using ig .6 - Excitation of this parallel connection is inherent in the fact that this le ad to more losses by Joule effect. Regarding the connection type compound can sa y that this collection of the advantages of series connection and parallel conne ction, because at startup the current induced in the continuous circular in its entirety in the winding number, which together with the induction coil provides a strong parallel binary Startup; situation in nominal speed (in which the induc ed current in the low) stabilizes the flow series and parallel flow is maintaine d; reduces the armature reaction, and the total useful flux approximately consta nt, eliminating the risk of packaging, is achieved good speed regulation.

D

ig.9 - Typical curves of

T = f (I)

ig.10 - Typical curves of

n = f (I) various types of connections various types of connections The mechanical characteristic most commonly represented expresses the change in velocity as a function of engine torque (n = f (T)). I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 5 Test of a Shunt DC Motor for Obtaining Characteristic of its Electromechanical & Mechanical - Trace of the Yield Curve 05/26/2004 Arrangement V +110 V -110 V 40 A

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ig.7 - Excitement composed of short derivation ig.8 - composed of long-shunt excitation

I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 4 Test of a Shunt DC Motor for Obtaining Characteristic of its Electromechanical & Mechanical - Trace of the Yield Curve 05/26/2004 Depending on the series inductor is or is not responsible for the primary induct ion, the engine will be called serial or stabilized shunt stabilized. To know wh at to expect from the operation of motor c. c. we know their operating character istics,these are divided into electromechanical characteristics (relations betw een magnitudes electrical and mechanical) and mechanical properties (mechanical relations between quantities). The electromechanical characteristics are the mos t common characteristic torque as a function of current drawn (T = f (I)) and th e characteristic of speed as a function of current drawn (n = f (I)), which for various types of bonds bear the aspect represented respectively in igure 8 and igure 9.

40 M R L A1 A2 q s t B The C D

Values recorded U (V) 219.5 218.3 218.2 217.8 217.6 218.0 219.5 219.1 219.5 219.4 218.8 218.8 219.1 21 8.3 219.2 219.1 219, 1 219.2 I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. IABSE (A) 2.30 3.04 3.79 4.61 5.36 6.18 6.95 7.74 8.53 9.27 10.05 10.83 11.65 12.07 12.44 13.23 14, 04 14.95 Ii (a) 0.931 0.909 0.892 0.870 0.865 0.860 0.855 0.847 0.839 0.836 0.828 0.822 0.814 0. 810 0.808 0.803 0.799 0.797 n (R.P.M.) T (Nm) 1490 1483 1473 1463 1456 1446 1451 1440 1430 1427 1392 1398 1391 1387 1384 1370 1360 1347 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12.5 13 14 15 16.3

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ig.11 - Arrangement of the DC motor with shunt excitation

Material Used luke 179 digital 1211Multímetro III (V); Clamp Test 11 (A1 and A2) Proof Tachom eter RM-1000; rheostat boot GL 2.5: 7.25 A - 220 V, 1.5 kW, 1 - Shunt Regulator : 440 2 - 220V, 1 - Machine DC MV1034: 2 kW - 1400 rpm Motor: 220 V - 12 A dc Ex citation: 220 V - 0.8 A dc, 1 - Machine brake MV1024; wire connection; Probes. I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 6 Test of a Shunt DC Motor for Obtaining Characteristic of its Electromechanical & Mechanical - Trace of the Yield Curve 05/26/2004

Job description The conduct of the work done was as follows: the assembly took place by the wiri ng diagram shown in ig.11; There were all the connections, the has been carried out starting the engine c. c., the stabilized engine speed at 1500 rpm (Un = 30 0 V); He turned to the machine brake, and set its value at T = 0 Nm; There were the values U, IABSE, Ii, n T; increasing the value of motor torque (T brake on t he machine), 1 by 1 Nm up until the rated motor c. c.; registering every adjust the values of U, IABSE, Ii, n T, the was continued to the increased load until t he motor reach an absorbed current 15 A; decrements to mechanical load to 0 Nm , desacelerouse the engine, turned off the engine, turned off power to the bench and took it apart is the electrical circuit.

Electrical Machines 7 Test of a Shunt DC Motor for Obtaining Characteristic of its Electromechanical & Mechanical - Trace of the Yield Curve 05/26/2004 Calculations Pabs = U × I abs (W) 505 664 827 1004 1166 1347 1526 1696 1872 2034 2199 2370 25 53 2635 2727 2899 3076 3277 Pútil = Tútil × 2 × π × n (W) 60 0 155 309 460 610 757 912 1056 1198 1345 1458 1 610 1748 1816 1884 2009 2136 2299 η = Pútil × 100 (%) Pabs 0.0 23.4 37.3 45.8 52.3 56.2 59.8 62.2 64.0 66.1 66.3 68.0 68.5 68.9 69.1 69.3 6 9, 4 70.2 In t e situation of maximum efficiency: V U = 218.3, n = 1387 r. .m., T = 12.5 Nm; I abs = 12.07 A, R i = 0.810 A Logo: (Ri + Rexc) = U Tele Ii = = 218.3 269.5 = 0.810 Ω II = I - I i = 12.07-0.810 = 11.26 × Φ × A k × k II ⇔ Φ × 11.26 × 12.5 = k ⇔ Φ = 6.96 Wb 2π 2π × 1387 E = k Φ × n rot. s -1 = 6.96 × 60 = 161.2 V 218.3 to 161.2 U = E + RI II RI = 5.1 ⇔ Ω 11.26 I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Mac ines 8 Test of a S unt DC Motor for Obtaining C aracteristic of its Electromec anical & Mec anical - Trace of t e Yield Curve 05/26/2004 Results Gra of n = f (I abs): 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 n (r m) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 IABSE (A) Gra ic T = f (I abs): 16 December 14 T (Nm) 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 IABSE (A) I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Mac ines

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9 Test of a S unt DC Motor for Obtaining C aracteristic of its Electromec anical & Mec anical - Trace of t e Yield Curve 05/26/2004 Gra of n = f (T):

1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 n 1000 (R.P.M.) 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 T (Nm) C art η = f (I abs): 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IABSE (A) 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 η (%) I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Mac ines 10 Test of a S unt DC Motor for Obtaining C aracteristic of its Electromec anical & Mec anical - Trace of t e Yield Curve 05/26/2004 T e value of t e maximum yield occurs for a value of t e induced current ermitt ed, t erefore t e maximum income will be considered at t e oint w ere it reac e d t e nominal o eration of t e engine, ie: η max = 68.9% to R abs = In A = 12.07 C aracteristics of t e engine o erating at maximum efficiency: Ii = 0.810 R = 12.07 A II = 0.810 A Ri (Ri + Rexc) = 269.5 M Rexc E = 161.2 V RI = 5.1 U = 218.3 V Conclusion Subsequent to a careful analysis of t e values obtained during t e test, t e cal culations and results rovided to infer several conclusions about t e o eration of motor s unt tested, w ic are t en atents. Regarding t e c aracteristic s ee d (n = f (I)) can be noted t at t is ty e of motor, t e s eed decreases slig tly (in t is engine from 1490 to 1347, ie 9.6% n0), t e As t e current increases in

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induced. T is enomenon is due to t e fact t at decreasing t e counter emf due to t e induced voltage dro in its windings. However it is im erative to state t at t e feature was demonstrated linear t roug out its area and as not been ve rified t e abru t decrease in s eed for t e current values above t e rated motor current, concluding t at t ere was manifested t e enomenon of magnetic satura tion common to t ese mac ines. Observing now t e c aracteristic torque (T = f (I )) s ows t at t is increased linearly wit increasing current. T is be avior was unex ected, since it would I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Mac ines 11 Test of a S unt DC Motor for Obtaining C aracteristic of its Electromec anical & Mec anical - Trace of t e Yield Curve 05/26/2004 normal limits for t e current torque c aracteristic curve became nearly orizont al, t is is also due to magnetic saturation. Due to t e facts mentioned on t e a nalysis of electromec anical c aracteristics and t e relations i of t ese wit t e mec anical c aracteristic of t e variation in s eed wit t e binary (n = f ( T)), it is ossible to justify t e fact t at t ere also occurred an abru t decre ase in s eed w en torque reac ed t e maximum values. However it was found t at t e s eed decreases wit increasing torque generated by t e engine. Wit regard t o t e yield curve (η = f (I abs)) revealed t at income grows very ra idly wit i ncreasing current, becoming its growt more stable as t e current reac es values of order nominal. However its maximum value, contrary to ex ectations, was obta ined w en t e maximum current was reac ed tested, a value t at was ig er t an t e rated motor current (a factor t at led to t e calculations if it is ηmáx = 68 .9% , reac ed t e current rating of about 12 A), w ic indicates t at t e verifi cation of t e o timal o erating oint of t e engine (in terms of income) as not been ac ieved wit com lete success, resumably because t e yield s ould increa se to a maximum and t en decreases gradually due to t e significant increase in core losses and Joule. In summary, in accordance wit t e resent data, it is wo rt noting t at t e test conducted did not rove any t eory it is in erent, beca use by not aving s own t e effects of magnetic saturation in all tested engine erformance curves and t e curve yield a eared affected, but not w en t eir oi nt of critical deflection usually resent. Bibliogra y: T e Tec nologies 12 years "- PINTO, Antonio; BOILER Jose - Revised Edition - Por to Editora, t e Notes on Electrical Mac ines 2004 - NEVES, Betina ields, t e" E lectrical Mac ines - Electric Mac ines Continuous Current - CARVALHO, José Beaut y - DEE - I.S.E.P. I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Mac ines 12

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