Economic Tests of a Three-Phase Asynchronous Induction Motor with Squirrel-cage rotor test Separation of Losses rftg

.development.googlepages.com Creation date: April 7, 2004 Version: v0.02 - 3/MAI/2008 Author: Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes DISCLAIMER This document was prepared by Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes, who reserve all rig hts. © 2008 Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes This document is available for consult ation and use if they are in compliance with all copyright and / or intellectual property. A copy of all or part, by any means, texts and images available in th is document is expressly prohibited unless the user respects the rights of autho rship and / or intellectual property, citing it properly to the document, includ ing imperterivelmente a clear reference to the author's website: "rftg.developme nt.googlepages.com. The material contained herein is only a general information based on personal experiences and is not intended in any way influence the reade r on any specific matter. The contents of this document are provided as a conven ience to readers and consist solely of non-binding information. The contents of this document are provided "as is" and does not offer any guarantee on it. The r eport's author disclaims any liability for losses that may occur because someone is based on information contained herein, since this information is for informa tional purposes only, not promised or guaranteed to be accurate, complete and up dated. The same applies to the contents of any reference made to it. Any dispute s arising out of or relating to use this document, or relating to copyright and / or intellectual property rights in materials that are part of this document sh all be governed by Portuguese law and subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of Portugal. Reading this document and its use implies the acceptance of these c onditions. © 2008 Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes. rftg.development.googlepages.com Instituto Politecnico do Porto Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto Department of Electrical Engineering Course in Electrical Engineering - Electronics and Computers Discipline of Electrical Machines Economic Tests of a Three-Phase Asynchronous Induction Motor with Squirrel-cage rotor test Separation of Losses 07/04/2004 Work done by: Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes Test for Separation of Losses 07/04/2004 Index Objective 2 --------------------------------------------- Introduction - ---------------------------------------- 2 ----- Mounting Scheme Material Used ----------------- 4 ----------------------------- Job Description 5 ----- 5 ------------------------- ------------ Securities Registered --------------------- -------------------------- 6 Calculations -------------------- 7 --------------------------- Results 9 Conclusion ---------------- ------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------- 11 Bibliography ------- 12

I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 1 Test for Separation of Losses 07/04/2004 Objective - Taking the simplified equivalent circuit per phase - Application of the method of separation of losses - Analysis of various types of losses of an induction m otor with three-phase squirrel-cage rotor. Introduction The asynchronous motor rotor short-circuit is basically composed of an inductor fixed (stator) and a movable armature (rotor). The stator consists of a set of s teel plates, high quality (in the sense of the excellent ferromagnetic propertie s) stacked with grooves on the inside, containing a three-phase winding, which m ay be bipolar, tetrapolar, Hexapolis, etc ... The extremes of the three phases o f the stator (winding inductor) are available on a terminal board in order to fa cilitate connection of the winding in either Y or Δ. The r6tor is a cylinder of stacked plates, tree keyed on the motor, with grooves along the outer surface co ntaining a coil with an even number of poles that the stator (motor winding r6to r) or a set of conducting bars short-circuited by conductive rings at both ends (engine r6tor squirrel-cage). The stator and rotor are separated by a narrow air gap of around 0.5 mm. Stator Connector board Rotor Stator core Stator winding m Figure 1 - Appearance of the actual stator and rotor; prominors the position of the connector board. I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 2 Test for Separation of Losses 07/04/2004 The operating principle of these machines is irrespective of the binding of the three phases of the stator (Y or Δ), where they are fed by three phase current p ulse W = 2 × π × f roduces a rotating magnetic field angular velocity WAS = W, referring to a sync s eed of , where is the winding number of oles. This mag netic field asses through the rotor conductors and induces emf in them, which i n turn roduce induced currents. The rotor conductors, to be followed by these c urrents are thus subjected to forces which together cause a torque that tends to rotate the rotor in the same direction of the rotating field, ie, the rotor ten ds to follow the rotating field Fig.2-Princi le of o eration of three hase asyn chronous motor (since this was the cause of the emf generated in it). However, t he rotor in its rotation can not exactly follow the rotating magnetic field of t

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

he stator, as in this case, the drivers would not cross that, if not roducing i nduced currents or binary. Once the rotor always rotates at a s eed less than Wr Was, which is why we designate these asynchronous motors. The f.e.m. induced in the rotor de ends on the difference in s eeds of rotation relative to the rotat ing field, known as the sliding velocity (s). Defined sli (s) of an asynchronou s motor through the relation: (n - n) s = ns Where n is the rotor s eed in r m a nd ns is the sync s eed in r m The motor stator is fed by the network or other d evice, but the rotor has no connection with the conductive stator or network. No big arguments we can easily infer that while the rotor stationary (locked rotor ), the motor is a transformer of the rotating field in the stator and rotor is t he rimary is the secondary. The frequency of currents in the rotor (fr) de ends on the sli through the relation: fr = s × f I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 3 Test for Se aration of Losses 07/04/2004 In o eration in the em ty engine torque is very weak, and the frequency and inte nsity of currents in the rotor, the sli is very low and the rotating field is roduced almost exclusively by the stator currents, which are magnetizing, so the ower factor is very low. On load, the sli increases (due to the resistant tor que a lied to the shaft), as well as the frequency and intensity of currents in the rotor. The increase of currents in the rotor will therefore cause an increa se of currents in the stator and the ower factor increases. Arrangement UVW M A V W XY Z R ST Auto-Transformer 400/230 V 50 Hz ~ Fig.3 - Arrangement for the various tests I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 4 Test for Se aration of Losses 07/04/2004 Material Used Fluke 179 digital 111111Multímetro III (V); Clam Test 11 (A); Meter Fluke 43B P ower (W) RM-1000 Tachometer Test, Self- rocessor MV1103; three- hase asynchronou s induction motor with squirrel-cage rotor: 380 / 220V - 50 Hz - 1.5 kW, 6.6 A Δ - 3.8 AY; waistband φ = 0.79, 1415 rpm; wire connection; Probes. Job description This work was divided into three tests, the test blank, the test with locked rot or test and separation o losses. Test on empty: - Assemble the circuit in accor dance with the scheme o Fig 3 - assured that there would be no possibility o a

 

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ny o the connecting wires come into contact with the rotating part o the engin e - i the Fed- motor to its nominal voltage (Un = 380V) - There were the values Un, P0 and I0 (I0 was obtained by averaging the three phase currents). Test wit h locked rotor - She kept riding the circuit o Figure 3 - locked up the rotor w ith the help o an appropriate tool or this purpose - He connected the circuit and through the auto-trans ormer was whether Gently raising the voltage applied to the engine until it absorbs its rated current (3.8 A) - There were values UCC , Pcc and In (Em was obtained by averaging the three phase currents). I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 5

07/04/2004 Separation test loss - She kept riding the circuit o Figure 3 - Reduced the sup ply voltage o 40 V and noted the value o U, I0 (I0 was obtained by averaging t he three phase currents ) P0 en - was repeated the previous step until the engin e is ound on the verge o stopping; Values recorded Test load: Un (V) 380 P0 (W) 525 I0 (mA) (2100 +2220 +2245) / 3 = 2188 Test with the rotor locked: UCC (V) 96.2 Pcc (W) 401 In (mA) (3700 +3800 +3787) / 3 = 3762 Loss separation test: U (V) 380 340 300 260 220 180 140 100 70 P0 (W) 525 375 24 7 236 185 158 130 122 133 P'0 = P0-= 3R1I02 pFe + CEIP (W) 455 330 215 214 169 1 47 121 112 113 I0 (mA) (2100 +2220 +2245) / 3 = n (rpm) 1495.0 1494.1 1491.2 1491.4 1487.1 1479.5 1467.2 1428.2 1296.2 2188 (1656 +1775 +1810) / 3 = 1747 (1400 +1490 +1530) / 3 = 1473 (1170 +1220 +1290) / 3 = 1227 (980 +986 +1120) / 3 = 1027 (816 +866 +938) / 3 =

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873 (734 +765 +833) / 3 = 777 (765 +838 +833) / 3 = 812 (1156 +1224 +1117) / 3 = June 1166 I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines Test or Separation o Losses 07/04/2004

Calculations Calculation o R0 and Xm: Graph which distinguish the value o the CEIP pFe: 500 450 400 P '0 = 0.0023 U12 + 74.285 350 300 P'0 (W) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 000 40 000 60 000 80 000 Analyzing the equation o a straight linear regression graph o P'0 (U12), we ca n see that when it intersects the axis o P'0 (U12 = 0) the value o P'0 is 74.2 85, then 100000 120000 140000 160000 U1 (V) 2 Logo: pFen = P0 - 3R1I 0 - CEIP 2 2 ( ) U = Un = 525-3 × 4.9 × 2.1882 - 74.3 380.3 W ≈ R0 = Un = 380 2 379.7 380.7 Ω pFen Un Xm =

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Measurement o

resistance o the motor windings: R1 = R2 = R3 = 4.9 Ω.

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3 I 0 × senφ0 U = U n = 525 P0 = 0.365 3 × U n × I0 3 × 380 2.188 × 380 = cos φ0 senφ0 = sin (arccosφ 0) = Xm = 0.931 3 = j107, 7 2.188 × 0.931 Ω I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 7 Test or Separation o Losses 07/04/2004 Calculation o R1, R2 and X1 + X2: R1 + R2 = R2 = Pcc = 9.44 Ω = 401 February 3 March 2 × 3.762 × In Pcc 401 - R1 = - 4.9 = 9.44 to 4.9 March 2 Ω = 4.54 × 3.762 × In March 2 1 to 0.3 1 - s R2 = 10.59 Ω Cc U 96.2 3 - (R + R) 2 = bruary 1 In 3.762 February 2 = 4.54 × s 0.3 3 - 9.44 2 = J11, 35 Ω X1 + X 2 = Fe

Calculation o the slip at the rated voltage: ns = 60 × 60 × 50 = 1 = 1500 r. p 2 p.m. s = (N s - U n = U n ns ) = 1500 - 1495, 0 = 0.0033 1500

PJN = 3 × R1 × I n = 3 × 4.9 × 3.7622 ≈ 208 W 2 I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 8

07/04/2004 Results Equivalent circuit or the stage, come on, the engine tested: I1 I2 X1 + X2 J11, 35 ohm

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As a percentage:% s = 0.3% Calculation o

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PJN:

I0 Ia Im U1F R0 397.7 ohm R1 + R2 9.44 ohm Xm j107, 7 ohm R2 (1-s) / s = 10.59 ohm I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 9 Test or Separation o Losses 07/04/2004

P (W) 3R1I02 pFe pme 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 U1 (V) I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 10 Test or Separation o Losses 07/04/2004 Conclusion A ter analysis o all measured and calculated values, and a care ul analysis and interpretation o graphics and layout approximate equivalent ( or the engine te sted) it was possible to in er a set o conclusions, which amendments below. The values ound or the resistances and inductances, series and parallel equivalen t circuit, as well as the value ound or the slip-load are in ull agreement wi th the usual values or this type o electric machine, and there is there ore no comment to be made, except that now it is likely to note that the machine under test was in good working order, and that the theory that (in the Introduction) to three-phase asynchronous induction motors has been demonstrated as valid. It is also important to mention that the method o separation o losses has been su ccess ully applied since all the parameters necessary to per orm the approximate equivalent circuit were possible to determine. Regarding the no-load losses o the engine tested (when supplied at rated voltage) was ound through measurement s that they took a total o 525 W, o which approximately 70.4 W were due to ohm ic losses in the windings, 74, 3 W 379.7 W mechanical losses and the losses in t he erromagnetic circuit. It was also possible to determine what the engine test ed had a nominal value o the circuit ohmic losses o about 208 W, just knowing that the erromagnetic losses and mechanical losses are practically independent

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Graph representing the importance o

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the various losses in question:

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o the system load can be in erred that the engine being tested will have a valu e o losses nominal total o about 662 W. Another special relevance is cosφ0 hav e given an extremely low value, a act that this was due to the current drawn by the engine was essentially a magnetizing current. Finally given the table on wh ich are the igures recorded or the test o separation o losses is possible to conclude that the current in the motor windings,€as well as its speed and low p ower absorbed will be reduced as the voltage at its terminals, however when he i s about to stop the movement, ie when its speed decreases signi icantly compared to the nominal current absorbed increases considerably. This phenomenon is due to the act that the induction motor rotor squirrel-cage behaving as a I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 11 Test or Separation o Losses 07/04/2004 trans ormer with the secondary short-circuited, when its rotor is stopped. Bibliography: the "Technology Year 11" - PINTO, Antonio; Alves, Vitor - Porto Editora, the "Pr actical workshops and laboratories 11 years" - PINTO, António - Porto Editora, t he Notes on Electrical Machines 2004 - NEVES, Betina Campos; the www.ieeekc.org / images / motors / motorslip / AC 20Induction%%% 20Motor 20c utaway.jpg I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 12

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