SERNAGEOMIN RULES FOR THE USE OF GPS IN MINING MEASURABLE AUTHOR: Assistant Director of Mines Department of Mining Property

NATIONAL MINING SUBDIRECTORATE DEPARTMENT OF MINING PROPERTY 2002 CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................ March 2 LEGAL AS PECTS .................................... .......... .......................... ........................ ................ March 3 GEORECEPTORES FEATURES OF WORK ......................... April 4 LAND ........................................ ........ ...................... May 5 MEASUREMENT CHARACTERISTICS .............. ........ ..................... June 8 TO PROVIDE INFORMATION TO THE EXPERT SERNA GEOMIN ................... .................................................. .. ................ 10 NATIONAL MINING SUBDIRECTORATE 2 DEPARTMENT OF MINING PROPERTY 1 INTRODUCTION The present contribution provides technical standards that support the implement ation of GPS as an alternate method, feasible to be applied to coordinate transp ortation in linking measurement milestone of vertices of the network of support and operation of mining and surveying the redefinition of boundaries. 2 LEGAL ASPECTS The first paragraph of Article 35 of the Mining Code, referred to the methods to be used in the transport of coordinates to set the HM. However, no GPS points d irectly as a viable method for determining the UTM coordinates, however, it is n ecessary to make clear that the coordinate transportation methods that are not i n the Code, in certain cases be accepted by the Service, for which the engineer or expert shall request an alternative method, relying for this in that article. Articles 28, 31 and 35 of the Regulations of the Mining Code, are those that di rectly regulate the transport of coordinates. 2.1 Article 28 "The engineer or expert to build a landmark vertices linked to the Na tional Geodetic Network or approved by the Service, or milestones that correspon d to incorporated property under the Code and this Regulation. The milestone wil l be placed on the perimeter of the property belonging or group or within the ar ea enclosed by the perimeter, and will serve as a starting point for implementin g the operation of measurement. The engineer or expert to relate the three-point milestone with characteristic surrounding immovable by three visual addressed t o them. Each visual should be angular distances of the closest, at least in 30 g rads. It will measure the zenith angle, horizontal angle, the approximate distan ce and direction or azimuth UTM UTM of each visual. The angular measurements are expressed and proximate to the second distance is measured in the corresponding letter from the Military Geographic Institute, if they exist. "

2.2 Article 31 "The engineer or expert will place the vertices of the perimeter of t he membership or group of items directly from the milestone, or through support networks that bear directly auxiliary vertices of the National Geodetic Network or approved by the Service or milestones for those referred to in Article 28 of this regulation, which correspond to property constituted under the Mining Code and Regulations. " 2.3 Article 35 "The link referred to the first paragraph of Article 28 of these Regu lations shall be made by methods of triangulation, electronic trilateration or t raversing, from vertices 1, 2 or 3 order of the Geodetic Network National cadast ral vertex approved by the Service, or milestones of those covered by that provi sion. Also, in specific cases in advance by the Service, you accept that the con nection is made by other means, subject in all cases they obtained accuracies eq uivalent to at least the third order geodetic. " 3 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF GEORECEPTORES GPS equipment will be accepted only geodesic, ie engaged in code and phase measu rement of the carrier wave, whether single frequency (L1) or dual frequency (L1/ L2). Static mode Horizontal Accuracy ± 5 mm + 1 ppm Vertical ± 10 mm + 2ppm Hori zontal Real Time Mode ± 1 cm ± 2 +2 ppm Vertical +2 ppm cm 3.2 4 4.1 FIELD WORK MH bond and vertices. The linkage of the HM and any vertex of polygonal vertex t riangulation or radiated only be made through post process. 4.1.1 4.1.2 For the carriage of vertex coordinates to be used starting from either the IGM or Sernageomin support network. These must come from closed traverse or triangul ation. Should never be radiated from points with GPS or traditional methods. In any case,€vertices that are used must be approved by the Service and be referred to the official Reference System chile, as appropriate to the latitude. 4.1.3 To Tie a HM or a vertex is at a distance of more than 25 (Twenty five) kilometers, only allow the use of dual-frequency equipment (L1/L2) , also must be made geometric shapes such as triangles or polygons closed to ver ify the closure in place. You should consider the reading time of GPS receivers is common and 1 (one) hour at least 4 (four) satellites or higher and a PDOP les s than 6 (six) and recording interval of 20 (twenty ) seconds or less. Increasin g the exposure time of the teams, with the increasing distance of the vectors in a ratio of 15 (fifteen) minutes every 25 (twenty) miles. The measured error vec tor should not exceed 1:100,000. A) When liguen points more than 25 (twenty five ) miles, you should consider the movement that is about to start, taking an exis ting vertex area as a control point with the properties listed in 4.1.2 .-, in o rder to prevent movement of mail. If the area has no mining property constituted and / or geodetic vertices, so it is not the above.

4.1.4 To Tie a HM or a vertex that is at distances less than 25 (Twenty five) miles, allowing the method of radiation to a single arm, consideri ng a time period common reading of the receiving equipment not less than 45 (for ty five) minutes for dual-frequency equipment and 90 (ninety) minutes for teams simple frequency with at least 4 (four) satellites and a PDOP least less than 6 (six) and recording interval of 20 (twenty) seconds or less. For distances less than 10 (ten) miles, the measurement times may be down to 25 (twenty) minutes fo r dual-frequency equipment and up to 50 (fifty) minutes for single frequency equ ipment with at least 4 (four) satellites , a PDOP less than 6 (six), recording i nterval of 10 (ten) seconds maximum and precision of 1:100,000 vector for both c ases. It is recommended that there is more than one HM in an area linked from th e same point you started, make a polygon pivoted, according to paragraph 4.1.6, point a. 4.1.5 To Tie a HM or a vertex as shown using a triangle, there are two methods in which to observe the following rules and tolerances: a) For the first method, you must have a base with geodetic vertices (see item 4.1.2). From each end of the base will be HM or vertex coordinates to create, yi elding a pair of coordinates for the same point. If the error vector does not ex ceed 1:100,000 and the difference of the coordinates obtained geodesic meets 3rd order, the average of the two corresponds to the final coordinates of the verte x created. b) For the second method, you must have a base with geodetic vertices (see item 4.1.2.). Should be measured independently the three vectors involved. If the err or in position of the vectors does not exceed 1:100,000 for the sum of the trian gle, it must do a mathematical adjustment of the vectors. The model is independe nt, but must be named in the report to be submitted to the Service. 4.1.6 To Tie a HM or a vertex figure used as a polygon, geodetic vertices must be according to 4.1.2 of this document. a) If the polygon is closed at the same point (pivot), vertices created must be within a radius of 25 (twenty five) miles, about the point of de parture and the measurement of these will be governed according to the length of the sides, that is, if this is less than 25 (twenty) miles will be governed by Section 4.1.4 and if they are older than 25 (twenty) miles will be governed by t he 4.1.3. If the closing error in the position of each polygon does not go beyond 3 rd order geodesic to the sum of the sides measured in the traverse, it must do a mathematical adjustment. The model is independent, but must be named in the re port to be submitted to the Service. b) If the polygon is binding, the measure is performed in accordance to the leng th of sides, ie, if this is less than 25 (twenty) miles will be governed by Section 4. 1.4 and if they are older than 25 (twenty) miles will be governed by Section 4.1 .3. If the closing error in the position of each polygon does not go beyond 3 rd order geodesic to the sum of the sides of the traverse, you must perform the ma thematical adjustment. The model is independent, but must be named in the report addressed the Service. 4.1.7 4.1.8 The shape and characteristics of HM,€are kep t according to Rule 29 of the Mining Code. The vertices or milestones to support the need to build especially for the purpose of the bond, shall be in accordanc e with Article 35, paragraph two of the Regulations of the Mining Code, or accor ding to the latest techniques used by the IGM. With simple equipment frequency ( L1), no measurements can be made more than 25 (twenty) miles. 4.1.9 01.04.1910 When the PDOP is behaving within specification, time to stay has to b

e the default for the type of observation. If the PDOP is behaving out of tolera nce, should prolong the session to achieve the preset time with good reading. 4. 2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Layout boundary vertices. The characteristics of the boundar y vertices of group membership or memberships, are constructed in accordance wit h Article 32 of the Regulations of the Mining Code. Rethinking the boundary vert ices can be performed with traditional instruments and compliance with the Regul ations of the Mining Code. Rethinking the boundary vertices of the measurement c an be achieved through the combined action of GPS and traditional instruments, c reating a vertex auxiliary post-processing method and then redefine the boundari es on traditional instruments, according to Article 31 of Regulation Code Mining . 4.2.4 Rethinking the boundary vertices can be done with GPS in real time to meet the a ccuracy specifications of 3.2. In the corners that no communication has auxiliar y stations may be used, leaving on record and map the coordinates of the auxilia ry stations used. 4.2.5 The vertex assistant 4.2.3, form a base line with the HM and its distance not less than 400 (four) feet, except in extreme conditions it is impossible to locate the base at this distance. 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MEASUREMENT The period of stay for each item will depend on the method of positioning or GPS receiver architecture employed. However, con sider the following observations: 5.1 Post-process measurement 5.1.1 Static Positioning L1 receivers, record information for a period common time reading at least 50 (fifty) minutes for lines up to 10 (ten) miles a nd at least 90 (ninety) minutes for lines of 10 (ten) to 25 (twenty) miles. 5.1.2 Positioning Static L1/L2 receivers, record information during a period Reading common time: less than 25 (twenty) minutes for lines up to 10 (ten) mile s, at least 45 (forty five) minutes to line 10 (ten) to 25 (twenty) miles and at least sixty (60) minutes to lines above 25 (twenty five) miles, growing by 15 ( fifteen) minutes for every 25 (twenty five) additional miles. 5.1.4 5.1.3 Crawl at least 4 (four) common satellites for each station and record data at times an d ordinary times. Observed when the satellite geometry is good (PDOP), given a P DOP less than 6 (six), SNR greater than 8 (eight), an elevation angle of satelli tes above 15 ° (fifteen) on the horizon of the antenna and a recording interval longer than 20 (twenty) seconds for lines greater than 10 (ten) kilometers and a maximum of ten (10) seconds for lines under 10 (ten) miles. In all cases we con sider the parameters or software that delivers each, to ensure a good result. 5.1.5 The link of any vertex HM and triangulation, radiation, or traverse was made thr ough the post process methodology. This requires taking the following precaution s: a) Because the GPS system determines the coordinates in the WGS 84 reference system and coordinates of the point should be expressed in the official referenc e system for chile as latitude, should be performed datum transformation softwar e through the post process, using the parameters temporarily NIMA (National Imag ery and Mapping American). In the event that the IGM or publish Sernageomin defi nitive parameters for chili, these should be used. b) The map projection to use is the Universal Transverse Mercator UTM.

c) The geoid undulation model used should be the EGM96, which corresponds a mathematical representation of the geoid surface of the earth. H orthometric h eights (elevations) relate the geoid with the surface of the earth. These height s are commonly known as heights above mean sea. The geoid undulations N, the geo id associated with a reference ellipsoid, the result is a basic relationship: H = h - N,€Where: H = orthometric height N = geoid separation (geoid model if avai lable) h = ellipsoidal height (GPS) 5.2 Real-Time Measurement 5.2.1 The base station must be a vertex or HM known coordinates, or alternatively a GP S position previously created, related to the same coordinate system being used. To perform a real-time measurement, you must have a team base and at least one mobile receiver. (All must contain a radio modem, valid for single frequency equ ipment and dual-frequency L1 L1/L2). Real-time kinematic positioning: 5 (five) t o 10 (ten) times per point, baselines under 10 (ten) miles. Track least 4 (four) common satellites for each station. Observed when the satellite geometry is goo d (PDO). Whereas a PDOP less than 6 (six), SNR greater than 8 (eight) and an ele vation angle of satellites above 15 ° (fifteen) on the horizon of the antenna. E ach session should begin when you have an accurate indicator of real time accord ing to the specifications in 3.2. Must be maintained consistent with the satelli te while in motion, because a loss of the satellites it requires a reboot. Obser ve baselines under 10 (ten) kilometers due to ionospheric effects. Simultaneous data collection at intervals of 1 (one) second, for a common period of five (5) to 10 (ten) times per point reconsidered. 5.2.2 5.2.4 5.2.3 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.8 5.2.7 June 01/06 TO PROVIDE INFORMATION TO THE EXPERT Portfolio SERNAGEOMIN field. Features of th e equipment. Differential techniques in search process, you must provide the fol lowing information: 6.1.2 6.1.1 a) Name of the project. b) Date and time of operation. c) measuring time interva ls. d) Detail the resulting figure (radiation, polygon or triangle), should be c losed figure indicate the errors of closure. e) Sketch to scale in Fig. f) Metho d and approach taken in the adjustment. g) Values x, ΔY and ΔZ of the vectors measured. h) Identify or vertices that serve as points of departure, as well as those crea ted by completing a form for each one, whose title is: Monograph of the vertex, indicating the name of the vertex, UTM and Geographic coordinates thereof, in th e official reference system for chili as well as latitude in WGS84 (see Table 1) . MONOGRAPHS the apex (Table 1) LOCATION COMMUNE SIERRA REGION PROVINCE:::: THE FOURTH ELQUI VICUÑA PEACH VERTICE: PANTRUCA SKETCH OF LOCATION

PROJECTION UTM PROJECTION DATUM International Ellipsoid 1924 1956 THE CANOE AREA 19 IGM LETTER SECTION D VICUÑA SCALE 1:50000 No. 62 INSTRUMENT OPERATOR Melquiades GPS DATE JULY 2002 ELEVATION (m) GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES COORDINATES UTM PSAD 56 PSAD 56 LATITUDE (S) LENGTH (W) NORTH (m) EAST (m) CORDENADAS GEOGRAPHICAL COORDINATES UTM WGS 84 WGS 84 LATITU DE (S) LENGTH (W) NORTH (m) EAST (m) ACCESS: DEPARTURE FROM THE ALTITUDE (m) GEODESIC bond SCALE: 1:50000 DESCRIPTION VERTICE Draw or photograph the monument, describe how and materials it is constructed; d escribe access clearly, making reference to the nearest town or village. For new vertices, draw a sketch to scale the bond proper geodesic or mentioning the nam e of the vertices which they were based. Name of Engineer responsible. Instrumen t used and date of the transaction. i) Computer Files raw measurements in RINEX format. j) Summary table processing baselines in setting forth at least the foll owing information: i. Geographical coordinates of vertices measured and baseline vector components in WGS84. ii. Parameter analysis of results. iii. Processing time interval and baseline. iv. Table of waste processing and continuity in reco rding information for each station. v. Table of Geographic and UTM coordinates r esulting in the formal system for chile as latitude and WGS84 reference system. 6.1.3 Techniques real-time differential, you must provide the following informat ion: a) They should make a clear and precise description of how the field is loc ated in the vertices of group membership or memberships, will describe how they placed their respective boundaries. It should draw up a statement explaining how one carries out the implementation of real time for each edge, pointing to this base station was used for the redesign. b) If the restatement auxiliary vertice s are created, they must be determined by post process and must comply with requ irements. 6.1.4 6.1.5 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 Include€coordinates certificate issued by the entity responsible for the quality of the tip in use. Attach Map Act and measurement, visual summary and summary o f coordinates. UTM Coordinates Act of measurement of the vertices of the perimet er of the measurement in the official reference system for chile according to la titude. The record of survey format remains. Chapter measurement operation can o ccur two cases: a) If the redefinition of the boundaries was done with tradition al instrument. b) If the redefinition of the boundaries is done with GPS in real time, a table should be established which relates the HM with each of the boundaries in distan ce and azimuth UTM. There will be a clear and precise description of how the lan d is located in the vertices of belonging or group of items and describe how the y placed their respective boundaries 6.2.3 Instrumentation used, indicating that

characteristics of the equipment were used. 6.2.4 geodesic HM bond. a) display the coordinates of the vertices of the base and all created for this purpose. b) Describe the method used in the mooring and indicate the azimuth and distance f rom the HM UTM to the corners of the base. 6.3.1 3.6 linkage map of survey to th e geodetic network a) This table should be drawn at the vertices employees and t he HM. b) Indicate the UTM azimuth and distance from the HM to the corners of th e base. 6.3.2 Table of coordinates and heights in the official reference system as appropriate chile latitude. a) Enter the UTM coordinates, geographical and heights in meters of all vertices used in the connection of geodetic and HM. VOC / ABB