Roman History 753 BC. : Founding of Rome, Romulus and Remus, about 500-44 BC.

: Roman Republic , the Etruscan king expelled, Monarch consul 44 BC. - 476 AD. : Roman Empire, en ded after the death of Caesar; monarchy to republic of nobles, at 00:00, Emperor Augustus (first emperor) 100: The largest expansion of the Roman Empire under E mperor Trajan, Limes Rome separated from Germania to 400: abolished Christianity the state religion (Olympics); division of the Roman Empire into Eastern and We stern Roman Empire 476: the end of the Western Roman Empire, Germanic migrations German history in the European context Since BC 50th : The Romans at the Rhine, Roman wine bring 9: Battle of the Teuto burg Forest; opponents: Romans (varus) to Germanier (Herrmann of Cherusci) Impor tance: Germania was not romanized 375: Huns invasion: the beginning of the migra tion, Hun = nomads Mongolai; Hun Atilla at 500: Chlodowig founded the Frankish E mpire - Ostrogothic in Italy (Theoderisch the Great) 622: Mohammed (the beginnin g of the Islamic calendar), flees from Mecca to Medina 8th Century Christianizat ion of Germany, Boniface (Apostle of the Germans), buried in Fulda 800: coronati on of Charlemagne, Frankish king and later emperor, he renewed the Weström. Emp ire; migrant King moves from Pfalz to Pfalz. 843: Treaty of Verdun; division of the Frankish Empire in Western and East Frankish kingdom by 900: Formation of th e German Empire under Henry I.; Saxon King agrees tribal duchies, 962: coronatio n of Otto I the Great - the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation in Rome he defends the Slavs (from Hungary). 1077: Henry was buried IV in Canoss a (climax of the Investiture Controversy), opponents of Gregory VII (excommunica tion), Canossa castle in northern Italy, and Henry of Speyer (Salier) 1096: Begi nning of the Crusades; goal: Jerusalem conquered; Turkic peoples (Arabs) are hol y Cities took possession from 1230: German knights in Prussia; Christianization of the pagan Prussians on behalf of the Polish duke Conrad of Mazovia, Marienbur g modernized 1250: End of the Middle Ages - the collapse of the imperial and pap al power, 1356: The Golden Bull governs the election of a king; seven Electors ; choice in Frankfurt, 14th coronation in Aachen Century heyday of the Hanseatic League; merger of North German cities to operate to trade under the leadership o f Lübeck; vessel: Cog To 1450: Gutenberg invents the printing press, printing w ith movable type made of metal (Mainz) 1453: Conquest of Constantinople by the T urks ==> end of the Eastern Roman Reich 1492: Columbus discovered America; inten tion: India visit western route in 1500: Fugger, the richest man: Jacob Fugger ( Augsburg); great influence as a sponsor of Emperor / Pope 1517: Theses Luther's 95 theses Schlossberg at Wittenberg, the beginning of the Reformation; Diet of W orms in 1521, Emperor Charles V, Wartburg; NT translated; lettering of the writt en German 1525: The great German Peasants; causes: Allmenderechte be restricted duties and forced labor are constantly increased; agent to: Florian Geyer, Götz von Berlichingen (Goethe ) 1555: Religious Peace of Augsburg, the result of Ref ormtion: Who determines the religion reigns, meaning: the Church's unity is lost from 1618 to 1648: 30 year old war commemoration: Defenestration of Prague, cau se: conflicts between Catholics and Protestants get worse, acting People: Albrec ht Wallenstein (imperial general; cath.) and Gustav Adolf (king of Sweden) 1700: Absolutism and the doctrine of unlimited sovereignty of the king (Louis XIV), o f the state. L'etat c'est moi = I am the state, Versailles, mercantilism (Colber t) in 1740: Frederick the Great (King of Prussia) and Maria Theresa (Empress ös ter.); Silesian wars, three Polish divisions, meaning: Prussia europ . Great pow er, conception of Freidrich: I am the first servant of my state in 1769: James W att invented the steam engine, modern industrial era started in 1776: Declaratio n of Independence, Friedrich forms of Steuben, the settlers Army from 1789: Fren ch Revolution; event: the storming of the Bastille, Ideala : unity, freedom, fra ternity, institution, third Booth, Robespierre, Napoleon Bonaparte, general cons cription introduced; Enlightenment: Spiritual Movement in the 18th Century, Imma nuel Kant, "Have courage, your own reason to use 1806: founded in the late Roman Empire of German Nations saints, and the Confederation of the Rhine is 1813-1815: Napoleonic Wars, the European states (Russia, Prussia, AUT, DEU) want

ed to free the domination of France under Napoleon, the Battle of Leipzig 1813 B attle of Waterloo in 1815, Freichor led by Adolf von Lutzow,€Colors black, red and gold 1815-1850: Restoration 1815: Congress of Vienna - Holy Alliance (Allian ce RUS, AUT, Prussia, to prevent liberal and aspirations NATIONL) - German Confe deration, and Prince Metternich, Alliance between RUS, AUT, FRA, 39 individual s tates; Presidency, Austria, envoys of the princes met festival in Frankfurt 1832 : Hambach, R.: unity and freedom, first mass meeting, speakers, the journalists Siebenpfeiffer and Wirth 1834: German customs union (common economic space with no internal); Prussia leads Zollverein, Friedrich List; importance: the German Z ollverein of the political agreement paved in 1871 the way 1835: The first railw ay in Germany, Nuremberg-Fuerth 1848: National Assembly in St. Paul's Church, Co mmunist Manifesto (Solemn Declaration); main task: the first fundamental rights drawn up by the Constitution; Freidrich Wilhelm rejects IV imperial crown from, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, united proletarians of all countries you (agains t the capitalists) in 1850: Start of Indistrialisierung Germany 1866: Austro-Pru ssian war of brothers, the end of the German Federal ==> North German Confederat ion, wars of unification against Denmark, Austria, France, 1870 -1871: German-Fr ench only war trigger: Ems telegram (telegram), Battle of Sedan 18th Jan. 1871: Bismarck (father of social security) built the second German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, Kaiser Wilhelm I, 1888: Three Emperors, Wilhelm I ==> son, Frederick III ==> grandson Wilhelm II; Hohenzollern 1914-1918: World War I, Occasion: The nationwide. Heir-couple is shot in Sarajevo; slaughter Verdun; in vasion of Belgium (Schlieffen Plan), generals Hindenburg, Ludendorff, engl. Seeb lokade; GER-submarine weapons in 1917: October Revolution in Russia entered the war the United States; Lenin + President Wilson; main reason: unrestricted U-boa t war, global political change because Russia by October Revolution as a global power rising, U.S. through entry into the war also 9th Nov. 1918: November Revol ution in Germany; Kaiser abdicates; Philipp Scheidemann proclaims the Weimar Rep ublic from 1919: Weimar Constitution, civil war in Berlin, Weimar city of German humanism (Goethe, Schiller), Versailles Treaty, 100 000 man army, Polish Corrid or ( Posen-West Prussia), Alsace-Lorraine was ceded to France, 1923: Ruhr occupa tion of France; Seperatismus; Palatinate and the Rhineland wants to FRA; inflati on, massive inflation leads to currency reform, Hitler putsch in Munich in 1925: Treaty of Locarno by Gustav Streà emann ( Foreign Minister) and Astrid Briand (Fr ench foreign minister), Germany voluntarily surrendered Alsace-Lorraine, France renounced the pursuit of the Rhine frontier in 1929: Start of the Great Depressi on; Occasion: currency crash in New York; Cause: overproduction crisis and impac t on Germany: a steep rise unemployment, political radicalization (NSDAP, KPD) 3 0 Jan.1933: Adolf Hitler came to power (Chancellor) by President Hindenburg in 1 938: Anschluss = Greater German Reich; Sudentenkrise, Hitler relied on self-dete rmination; Munich Agreement: Areas of the Sudeten Germans were incorporated into the German Reich spring 1939 occupation of Czechoslovakia; German-Polish crisis , the Polish campaign, prerequisite: Hitler-Stalin Pact, 1939-1945: Second World War; occasion: "Polish attack" on the German radio station in Gliwice, cause: r epression of Poles against German, lightning war, turning Stalingrad