LESSON 2 PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT CONTROLS EXHIBITION MANU AL SLR CAMERA LESSON 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHT LENS AND OBJECTIVES NUMBER "f" D ISTANCIA FOCAL ABERRATIONS ___________________________________________________ L esson 1 NATURE OF LIGHT. Photosensitive material. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY. NATURE OF LIGHT There are two main theories about the nature of energy and matter. In a v ery short one tells us that energy and matter are composed of bodies and one tha t tells us that energy and matter are composed of waves. Both theories are not o pposed and contradictory, rather they are complementary, some physical phenomena can only be explained scientifically by using the particle theory and the wave theory. Albert Einstein developed a theory which states that matter and energy a re the same thing in very simple terms tells us that energy is diluted and the s ubject matter is concentrated energy. In the formula E = mc2 (E = energy, m = ma tter, c = speed of light raised to the second power). This theory was confirmed when he managed to burst the first atomic bomb. For now accept that light is a manifestation of matter-en ergy and is part of the electromagnetic spectrum within which the sound is, ultr aviolet rays, infrared rays, radio waves, cosmic rays and X-rays Can be measured as a wave is measured: by specifying its amplitude, wavelength and frequency. W hite light is composed of a mixture of all colors. For photographic effect of su nlight is white. It was Isaac Newton who managed to break white light through a prism and was the first study and explain the main phenomena that affect light i n his book "Opticks: or a Treatise of the Reflections, refractions, Inflection, and Colours of Light . ', London 1718. Home Lesson 1 Home photosensitive materia l to light sensitivity occurs in a variety of materials. Some examples: our own skin (expose our arm in the sun, covering a portion of a wrist watch or a belt), the role (expose a sheet of newspaper to direct sunlight for several hours by p lacing an opaque object on it and observe the result). But so far there are two materials whose sensitivity is the best: the silver in the form of bromide and c hromium in the form of dichromate. Home Lesson 1 Home PHOTOGRAPHY AND DIGITAL EL ECTRONICS recording deserves a special mention of light by electronic and digita l media. With which to obtain the image through analog or digital cameras and th e image is displayed on the computer monitor, TV or printing on a printer or plo tter in inkjet, laser printing or impression in wax. Advances in electronic and digital techniques is revolutionizing the traditional concept of photography, so it is possible to say that current techniques are in a process of extinction. A nd is that the advantages are many. Suffice it to say that with a digital camera the picture is stored in internal memory. No consumption of film. At the time w e want to see the image connect the camera to the computer or TV. The latest cam eras allow you to view photos taken at the same display. Between taking and view ing no development process making it possible to see the pictures immediately. I have not finished. If a picture is not good is cleared. Digital images can be touched up, combined, transformed, supplemente d by drawing or text, etc. with programs that provide the same manufacturers of the cameras. At the moment the price of equipment is a serious obstacle, but as with everything, once you become popular and the supply increases, prices should fall. There are digital cameras starting at $ 3,000.00. It is desirable but not essential to have computer. On this page you can learn more about digital photo graphy: http://www.fotografia-digital.info/ technique and digital camera control s and camera mechanics or electronics are basically the same. Home Lesson 1 Home _____________________________________________________ This material was prepare d by Manuel Vega Velázquez (mvegav@msn.com) to be used in staff training plans Printer Vega and to share with the people they are interested in the subject. We accept criticism and suggestions. First published June 4, 1997. Review: Septemb er 21, 1998. Review: January 7, 2003. __________________________________________ ___________ June 4, 1997.€LESSON 2 BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT CON TROLS MANUAL SLR CAMERA EXPOSURE photographic equipment to capture an image just a light-sensitive material (film coated with an emulsion based on silver) and a

camera so simple as it can be a box a hole made with a needle. However, the most suitable equipment can be a 35 mm camera. SLR (Single lens ref lex English) reflex of a single target. If it is a digital camera is one to disp lay for you to view the image through the lens. SLR cameras do not display wheth er or not it hard to see the image from the lens and can result in differences i n the parallax in close-ups, ie an image is projected onto the target and anothe r film that sees the photographer in camera viewfinder. Home Lesson 2 Home CONTR OLS MECHANICAL MANUAL SLR CAMERA SLR, English: Single lens reflex. It refers to the reflex cameras with a single objective. This control approach is in the barrel of the lens or objective. Is triggered by turning it to see the clear image on the display in the frosted glass. In the b ody of the kite going to find a level recorded in meters and feet with which we can make a pre approach. Frequently scales start from 20-30 cm. to infinity repr esented by a symbol in a figure eight lying. The scale of focus on most cameras is presented with the scale of depth of field. It is necessary to note that the approach is selective so that it is possible to focus a near object and a distan t simultaneously. The human eye has an automatic focusing system. There are elec tronic cameras that also have the focus automatically. The three main systems ap proach are: frosted glass, and image pentaprism divided. With frosted glass syst em we see that the image is sharp. With the pentaprism system approach occurs wh en texturing effect disappears. With the imaging system is divided to match the top and bottom of the picture to get the focus. In the vast majority of cameras are present three systems approach. Home Lesson 2 Home This control diaphragm co ntrols the amount of light reaching the film. Such monitoring is done by enlargi ng or shrinking the central perforation (opening) formed by a group of plastic o r metal sheets. This control is identical to the iris of our eyes. The unit of m easure is the number "f" (efe) and it is a fractional number (broken) calculated by dividing the focal length (the distance from the center of the lens to where the image is formed) between the diameter of the commencement or opening. The s cale of the diaphragm is in the lens barrel and only shows the divisor. Being a fractional number as the number is bigger than the size is smaller. The scale ca n range from 22 (1 / 22) to 1 (1 / 1). Lesson 2 Home Home Aperture and Depth of Field The focus of an image is affected by the aperture. A s the diaphragm is smaller (eg f 16 of 22) the depth of field is greater. The co ncept of "depth of field you will better understand if we put a package of slice d bread (Bimbo) facing the camera. If we focus on the middle part of the package with a diaphragm f 2 we will see targeted a single slice of bread, if we close af 5.6 The approach will include 3 slices YAF 22 we will focus almost all slices . You must have a camera with manual iris adjustment. The vast majority of the c ameras adjust their diaphragm to the time of shooting, so what you see in the vi ewfinder is not what is put in the movie. We have designed and diaphragms to pre vent goals to set the aperture obscure the visual field. Home Lesson 2 Home Shut ter The shutter control is the other to dispense the amount of light reaching th e film. The way that control is achieved by opening and closing a window shutter call for a certain time. The choke control is in most cameras on the upper body . It is a knob is turned up to match the scale markings. The unit of measurement is the second. The scale is graduated in seconds or fractions of seconds. This is a fractional number (broken) and the denominator is indicated only 30 (mean 1 / 30 of a second). Being a fractional number when the number is large the size is small: 2 (1 / 2, half a second) is longer than 30 (1 / 30, one thirtieth of a second). The most common range goes from 1 (one second) to 1000 (one thousandth of a second).€Some cameras feature position B (bulb) with which the shutter wi ll remain open during the time when the trigger is held down. The shutter contro l is obtained by means of a clockwork mechanism in cameras or a mechanical oscil lator based on a quartz crystal electronic cameras. The most frequently used plu gs are two: central shutter located adjacent to the diaphragm in the form of pla

stic or metal foils and focal plane shutter located adjacent to the film plane i n the form of shade cloth, plastic or metal. The shutter is one of the parts of the camera movement and subject to greater wear. It is the first part that will cause a malfunction in the camera. In heavy use cameras such as the chamber of a press photographer, the shutter is constructed of titanium. For photos taken at the range of shutter pulse will be 1 / 1000-1 / 30. Fillings larger than 1 / 15 require the use of tripod. The shutter speed determines how they will capture the moving objects. If we use a long speed (1 / 30) to take a picture of a helicopter, the blades will be pic ked up sweeps. If we take that photo, 1 / 1000, the movement of the blades are g oing to freeze, ie the blades will appear motionless. In the photos taken to TVs or monitors should not be used speeds up to 1 / 15. It happens that the image o n a television is regenerated every thirtieth of a second. If we use a shorter s peed to 1 / 30 can capture an image of the former and part of the next. This phe nomenon is manifested as a double image divided by a diagonal black stripe. It i s necessary to use a tripod and work in a dark room. For photos taken with flash shutter control in camera focal plane should be placed at 1 / 30. Technically i t is said that these cameras are synchronized to 1 / 30. The central shutter cam eras need not be synchronized because it can use the flash at any speed. The mos t frequently used sealed SLR cameras is the focal plane. Home Lesson 2 Home EXHI BITION The exhibition is the amount of light that is needed for forming the imag e on the film. The exposure control we will make it through the manipulation of aperture and shutter combination. To determine the correct exposure we will assi st with an instrument called a light meter which can be integrated into the came ra or can be external and independent of the camera. An external exposure meter is usually more accurate and is preferably used by portrait photographers, scien tists, advertising, art, etc.. An internal or external exposure meter is well us ed to give good results. The exposure meters can be specific (point) or average. SLR cameras use exposure meters off and / or average and the measurements obtai ned in extreme cases (predominantly white or black objects) are often mistaken a s it requires the intervention of the photographer to make a correction. The use of the "18% gray card" in combination with exposure meters average gives a more accurate measurement. In the scenes where the background is lighter than the av erage exposure meter object to a measurement error often overexposed as it is ne cessary to measure the light near the object or offset of approximately one to t wo steps (range between two adjacent values the scale of diaphragm or shutter). Home Lesson 2 Home TRIGGER AND CHARGER The shooting is the last stage of the pro cess of shooting. The trigger will be in front or above the camera body. Is oper ated with the index finger. Pressing the shutter trigger the following actions: 1-The diaphragm closes the opening according to pre selected, 2-The shutter open s and closes during the pre-selected time. Some cameras may delay the shot 10 seconds. This feature allows the photographer to be included in the scene. Home Lesson 2 Home _______________________________ ______________________ This material was prepared by Manuel Vega Velasquez, for use in staff training plans Printer Vega and to share with the people they are i nterested in the subject. Suggestions welcome. First published June 4, 1997. Rev iew: September 21, 1998. _____________________________________________________ J une 19, 1997. BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY LESSON 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHT LENS AND OBJEC TIVES NUMBER "f" FOCAL DISTANCE ABERRATIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHT Light can undergo the following transformat ions: It spreads in a straight line is refracted, reflected, becomes polarized. To understand how a goal is important to understand these changes, which we will now examine in some detail.€Home Lesson 3 Home Dissemination diffuses light tr avels in straight lines or at a rate of 300,000 miles per second. This character istic is used to direct light and form images through pentaprism, mirrors and le nses. Home Lesson 3 Home refraction light is refracted, ie deviates. It is this

characteristic function as lenses deflecting light and form images. Refraction i s what causes us to see party a straw submerged in a glass of water. It is the s hape of the lens that produces the refraction. A lens with its two faces complet ely parallel refraction does not need to manipulate a light beam. Lens is concav e or positive (in the form of lentil) and negative convex or combined as a goal is ac hieved that satisfies the optical characteristics as desired. There is a phenome non called "total refraction" that occurs when a crystal is cut to 45 degrees. T he behavior is very similar to a mirror but also allows a beam of light to pass through it, continue their path and also causes a deviation of the beam, to take it to another location, either: viewfinder, rangefinder, exposure meter, pentap rism, etc. You get so duplicating a light beam and thus an image. This phenomeno n is widely used in reflex cameras, digital cameras, binoculars, telescopes, mov ie cameras, scientific equipment, etc. Home Lesson 3 Home Discussion The light i s reflected. This feature is used to using concave or convex mirror like lenses. You can divert a beam of light similar to how a lens does, but without passing through it. The lenses may be concave, convex or flat. A flat mirror can deflect a light beam changes direction only. The mirrors have the advantage of not inco rporating "aberrations" to the images formed with them. Newton was the first to build a reflecting telescope. The best current telescopes are reflectors. Howeve r it is possible to form an image only with convex mirrors, so it is necessary t o the simultaneous use of flat mirrors and eye, mainly to direct the image towar d the observer. The combination of lenses and camera lenses mirrors (reflectors) has allowed build targets with large focal length measuring only one-third. For example an objective refractor physically measured 1000 mm 1000 mm. One goal of that reflector focal length measured only 300 mm. This type of lens is called r eflectors and their use has been restricted to taking pictures of distant object s, especially pictures of nature or sports. There are also telescopes reflectors , which are not suitable for direct observations, but to the practice of astrono mical photo. In a single-lens reflex camera to capture target images are used: 1 Purpose (captured image), 2 - pentaprism (image straightening up - down and lef t - right. Without this attachment the viewer would get a mirror image in both d irections , ie head and to the right to the left and vice versa), 3 - mirror pla ne (the image shifts to the pentaprism and the eyepiece) and 3Ocular (lets you s ee exactly the image that will be photographed). Home Lesson 3 Home Polarization being emitted light can carry a single plane of reflection, but to be reflected generated several planes, which can cause glare. In filter polarized closely resembles a microscopic shutter which only allows the passage of light rays with a certain inclination. Polarized lenses for the sun are gener ally horizontally polarized. The photographic polarizing filters rotated 360 deg rees to freely choose the most suitable position for a certain purpose. If we pu t two polarizing filters with their axes perpendicular cause you do not pass any lightning. Home Lesson 3 Home LENS AND OBJECTIVES. The lenses are plastic or gl ass objects of natural or synthetic. Its shape can be concave, convex or flat. T he lenticular concave-shaped (like lentils) thick center and thin at the edges, also called positive. The most popular lens that we know is the famous' magnifyi ng glass. " The convex or negative, are thin at center and thicker at the edges. The flat lenses are called filters and color is to correct, modify textures. Th e term "lens" refers to a piece and "target" to a group or set of lenses. No clu tch often use the two words interchangeably and is accepted. The term applies to the whole objective lens that is directed to the object. The term refers to the ocular lens assembly that address our eye.€A camera or a telescope are objecti ve and ocular. In some digital cameras the lens has been replaced with a display . The lens or objective is the most important part of a camera. Its quality depe nds on the quality of images taken with them. The best lenses that have occurred so far are natural crystals of a German region called Jena (http://es.wikipedia .org/wiki/Jena) and are manufactured by the German company Karl Zeiss (http://es .wikipedia.org / wiki / Carl_Zeiss). This brand gives a full guarantee of quali

ty. Unfortunately the price is high. The camera uses Leica (Germany), Hasenbland (Germany) and Contax (German - Japanese) among the major, Sony (Japan). Hasenbl ad cameras were used by U.S. astronauts during the conquest of the moon. They ha ve been there. Home Lesson 3 Home NUMERO "f" The significance of the number "f" is the number of diaphragms that fit into the focal length of a slow or objectiv e. He is identified with the letter "efe" sensitive. Is a unit of measurement is expressed fractional number (broken) and only mentioned the denominator. f 2 me ans: f 1 / 2, f22 means f 1 / 22. The smaller is the number "f" is bigger than t he size of the iris. The number "f" of a lens aperture is the maximum that can b e opened. Lenses with number "f" little more light grasp than "f" big. The objec tives with greater brightness of "f" large are more expensive. Print data includ ed in the objectives are: Maximum number "f", focal length and diameter of the thread of the lens. The dia phragm expressed by the number "f" is closely related to the "depth of field." H ome Lesson 3 Home DISTANCIA FOCAL The focal length of a slow or objective is the distance measured from the center to the plane in which the image is formed. Ta king into account the focal length of a lens can be classified into the followin g three types: Wide, Normal and Telephoto. Home Lesson 3 Home The wide angle len s wide angle lens is defined as one whose focal length is less than the diagonal of the film format. For a 35mm wide angle is less than 50 mm. It is used mainly for architectural photos or in tight spaces, and to make certain effects. It ha s a great depth of field. Exaggerates the perspective by pointing out large obje cts near and distant objects extremely small. They are very bright. It is often not have fully corrected for spherical aberration, chromatic aberration and asti gmatism. Home Lesson 3 Home The Lens Normal The normal lens has the same focal l ength of the diagonal of the film. For the film of 35 mm normal lens is 50 mm. I t is the lens that is equipped with most of the cameras. The viewing angle match es the human eye. It is the most used lens. It is the most versatile lens. It ha s managed to obtain the lowest incidence of aberrations. Home Lesson 3 Home The telephoto lens is that the telephoto lens focal length is greater than twice the focal length. It can be considered telephoto lens that measures more than 100 m m. It is mainly used to photograph distant objects. The greatest measure up to m ore than 1,000 mm. (1 meter) and are very light, expensive and heavy. The 135 mm lens is best for portrait picture because it does not alter the proportions of the face. These lenses produce the effect of geometric objects that have investe d the vanishing point, ie instead of backward leakage leak forward. They also gi ve the effect of compressing the scene so it appears as the distances between th e elements were more close to each other than they really are and distant object s appear closer than they really are. Home Lesson 3 Home Lens Zoommas A fourth classification is for the zoom lens focal length or variab le. Not recommended for quality pictures, because they have an excess of aberrat ions. However, the general public prefer since practically have 3 lenses in one and are comfortable to frame without changing the distance between photographer and model. They are also comfortable travel. Home Lesson 3 Home ABERRATIONS The most frequent aberrations in the lenses and objectives are: spherical aberration , chromatic aberration and astigmatism. Lesson 3 Building Home Home Digital Photography Lesson 4 In the last five years digital technology has come to change drastically. Nothing will be the same. _______________________________ ____________________ This material was prepared by Manuel Vega Velázquez (mvega v@msn.com)€for use in staff training plans Printer Vega and to share with the p eople they are interested in the subject. We accept criticism and suggestions. D igital Photography. First edition: June 19, 1997. Review: September 21, 1998. Re view: October 19, 1998. Review: January 7, 2004. Review: January 23, 2004. Revie w: September 3, 2007.