"BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT APPROACH" From the work of group dynamics developed by Ku rt Lewin, still in its early booster of the

Theory of Human Relations with the r elease of the book of Chester Barnard, and later studies of George Homans Sabre institutional sociology Group, culminating in the book by Herbert Simon on admin istrative behavior, a new configuration comes to dominate the administrative the ory. Although the roots of this new approach can be traced much further, is from the 50s which develops initially in the U.S., a new conception of Directors, br inging new concepts, new variables and, above all, a new vision of theory manage ment based on human behavior in organizations. The behavioral approach marks the strongest emphasis on the behavioral sciences in management theory and the purs uit of democratic and flexible solutions to organizational problems. The behavio ral approach grew out of behavioral science, particularly organizational psychol ogy. The behavioral sciences have toasted the administrative theory with a varie ty of conclusions about the nature and characteristics of human beings, namely: 1. the human being is endowed with a social animal needs. Among these needs emer ge gregarious needs, ie, tends to develop cooperative and interdependent relatio nships that lead to living in groups or social organizations, 2. man is an anima l endowed with a psychic system, ie, is able to organize their perceptions in an integrated manner that allows a perceptual and cognitive organization common to all human beings, 3. human being has the ability to articulate language with ab stract reasoning, in other words, has communication skills 4. man is an animal w ith a willingness to learn, ie to change their behavior and attitudes toward hig her standards and effective; 5. human being has his goal-oriented behavior, very complex and changeable. Hence the importance of understanding the goals of basi c human society in order to clearly understand their behavior 6. humans characte rized pair a dual pattern of behavior: both can cooperate to compete with others . Cooperates when their individual goals can only be achieved through the joint efforts and collective responsibility when their goals are pursued and contested by others. The conflict becomes a virtual part of all aspects of human life. It is with the behavioral approach that the concern shifts from structure to proce sses and organizational dynamics, ie with the organizational behavior. Although the predominant emphasis on people, opened to the Theory of Human Relations, but within an organizational context. BEHAVIORAL THEORY OF MANAGEMENT Although the emphasis remains on people, the Behavioral Theory (or Theory Behavi orist) Administration came to signify a new direction and a new focus within the management theory: the incorporation of the behavioral sciences, the abandonmen t of prescriptive and normative positions of previous theories and the adoption Positions explanatory and descriptive. A Behavioral Theory of the Administration has its greatest exponents in Herbert A. Simon, Chester Barnard, Douglas McGregor, Chris Argyris and Likert Rensis. St rictly within the field of human motivation are emphasized Abraham Maslow, Frede rick Herzberg and David McClelland. ORIGINS OF BEHAVIORAL THEORY The origins of the Behavioral Theory of Directors are as follows: 1. The fierce opposition of t he Theory of Human Relations (with its strong emphasis on the people) in relatio n to classical theory (with its strong emphasis on the tasks and organizational structure) walked slowly to a second stage: a Behavioral Theory. This now repres ents a new attempt to synthesize the theory of formal organization with the focu s of human relations. 2. A Behavioral Theory is, at bottom, an offshoot of the T heory of Human Relations, with which it shares some fundamental concepts, using them as starting points or reference and recasting them deeply. It also rejects the naive and romantic conceptions of the Theory of Human Relations. 3. A Behavi oral Theory criticizes the Classical Theory, the theory of formal organization, the general principles of management, the concept of formal authority, and the p osition of the rigid and mechanistic classical authors. 4. With the Behavioral T heory came the incorporation of Sociology of Bureaucracy, broadening the field o f management theory. Also with regard to the Theory of Bureaucracy, the Behavior al Theory proves to be much criticism,€especially with regard to the "machine model " that one adopts as a representative of the organization. 5. In 1947 the United

States comes a book that marks the beginning of the Behavioral Theory in Admini stration: The Administrative Behavior, Herbert A. Simon. This book, which achiev ed great effect, constitutes an indiscriminate attack the principles of the Clas sical Theory and acceptance - with necessary repairs and fixes - the main ideas of the Theory of Human Relations. The book is also the beginning of the so calle d Theory of Decisions. Thus, the Behavioral Theory appears in the late 40's with a total redefinition of administrative concepts: to criticize previous theories , behaviorism in the Administration not only reschedule the approaches, but rath er expands and diversifies its content to its nature. To explain the organizatio nal behavior, the Behavioral Theory is based on the individual behavior of peopl e. To explain coma people behave, it is necessary to the study of human motivati on. Thus, a key theme of the Behavioral Theory of Directors is human motivation, in which the field theory has received voluminous administrative assistance. Du ring the Theory of Human Relations, found that the man is considered a complex a nimal endowed with complex needs and differentiated. These needs guide and strengthen the human behavior toward some personal goals. Once a need is satisfied, then comes another in its place within an ongoing process that has no end, from birth to death of people. The authors found that the behaviorists administrator needs to know the human need to better understand human behavior a nd use of human motivation as a powerful means to improve the quality of life wi thin organizations and thereby gain the membership of those who work there. Masl ow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow, a psychologist and an American consultant presen ted a theory of motivation, according to which human needs are organized and arr anged in levels, a hierarchy of importance and influence. This hierarchy of need s can be visualized as a pyramid. At the base of the pyramid are the most primit ive needs (physiological needs) and the top, needs more refined (the need for se lf-realization), each with the following meanings: 1. Physiological needs: they are the lowest of all human needs, but of vital importance. At this level are th e need for food, rest, shelter, sex, etc.. The physiological needs are linked to the survival of the individual and the preservation of the species. They are in stinctual needs, which are born with the individual. Are the most pressing of al l human needs: When some of these needs are not met, it strongly dominates the d irection of behavior. A person with an empty stomach has no greater concern than food. But when you eat regularly and adequately, hunger remains an important mo tivation. When all human needs are unmet, the greater motivation is the satisfac tion of physiological needs, and the individual's behavior is intended to find r elief from the pressure that produce these needs saber body. 2. Safety Needs: Th ey are the second level of human needs. Are the needs of security and stability, for protection against the threat or deprivation, to escape danger. Arise in th e behavior when the physiological needs are relatively satisfied. When the indiv idual is dominated by security needs, your body is strongly oriented towards the search for satisfaction of that need. Security needs are of great importance in human behavior, since every employee is always in a dependent relationship with the company, in which arbitrary administrative actions may cause uncertainty or insecurity in the employee about their job retention. If these actions or decis ions reflect discrimination or favoritism or any administrative policy unpredict able and can become powerful activators of insecurity at all levels of the compa ny. 3. Social needs: the behavior arise when the lower needs (physiological and safety) are relatively satisfied. Among the social needs are the need of associa tion, participation, acceptance from peers, exchange of friendship, affection an d love. When social needs are not adequately met, the individual becomes resista nt,€antagonistic and even hostile about the people around you. In our society, the frustration of needs for love and affection leads to a lack of social adjustment and loneliness. 4. Needs of self-esteem: the needs are related to the way the i ndividual sees and evaluates. Involve self-assessment, self-confidence, the need for social approval and respect, status, prestige and respect, of confidence be fore the world, independence and autonomy. The satisfaction of these needs leads to feelings of self-confidence, value, power, prestige, power, capability and u tility. Their frustration may

produce feelings of inferiority, weakness, dependence and helplessness which, in turn, can lead to discouragement or compensatory activities. 5. Need for self-r ealization: human needs are higher and those at the top of the hierarchy. Are th e needs of each person performs their own potential and self-development continu ally. This tendency usually expresses itself through the impulse of the person t aking up ever more of what is and to become all that it can be. Finally, these r equirements take the form and terms vary greatly from person to person. Their in tensity or expression are also extremely varied, according to individual differe nces among people. The theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs assumes the followi ng: 1. Only when a lower level needs are satisfied or adequately answered is tha t the immediate higher level emerges in behavior. In other words, when a lower l evel need is satisfied, it ceases to be motivating, providing opportunity for a higher level can develop. 2. Not everyone can get to the top of the pyramid of n eeds. Some people - thanks to the circumstances of life - come to care greatly i n need of self-realization, others parked on the needs of esteem, even in other social needs, while many others are occupied exclusively with physiological and safety needs, they can not respond to them appropriately. They are called "exclu ded." 3. When lower needs are reasonably satisfied, the needs located at the hig hest levels begin to dominate the behavior. However, while some lower-level need no longer be satisfied, she returns to dominate behavior while generating tensi on in the body. The need for more important or more urgent monopolizes the indiv idual automatically organize the mobilization of the various faculties of the bo dy to meet it. 4. Each person always has more than one motivation. All levels wo rk together in the body, dominating the higher needs of the lowest, provided the y are sufficiently satisfied or satisfied. Every need is closely related to the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of other needs. Its effect saber body i s always global and set and never isolated. 5. Any motivated behavior is like a channel through which many basic needs may be expressed or met together. 6. Any possibility of frustration or frustration of satisfaction of certain needs is co nsidered a psychological threat. This threat is what produces the general emerge ncy reactions in human behavior. Several researches have not come to scientifica lly confirm Maslow's theory and some even overturned. However, Maslow's theory i s sufficiently well structured to offer a framework and useful for guiding the a ction of the business executive.