We have a tinker Black hole Corvin Zahn Ute Kraus Dipl.-Phys. Dr.

Ute Kraus and Corvin Zahn working as an astrophysicist at the Un iversity of Tübingen. Preface ALBERT EINSTEIN relativity theory represents our ideas of space and time complet ely on its head. Clocks run at different speeds, light running around the curve, and the losing effort in the school learned of geometry theorems to be valid. B LACK HOLES, probably the most mysterious objects in our universe bend to bend ti me and space in their neighborhood so much that this would be measured with a po cket watch and a meter stick. On Earth, however, these effects are hardly felt, and here the matter not simply packed tightly enough. Our story takes you into a fictional future in which a black hole is discovered in the vicinity of the ear th. An unmanned space mission to verify Einstein's theories on the ground. You a ssume the leadership of the control center, which will monitor the mission. To u nderstand the strange properties of the black hole better, you build with the at tached paper models, a model of curved space around him. In the course of your c orrespondence with the equally fictional physicist Deepta Panchakshari you see t hat this space has properties that contradict our spatial thinking completely. W hat you have in your hands is a puzzle. It is a puzzle at several levels: Each m odel is a puzzle made of cardboard, the text is a puzzle of information, reports , letters and conversations, the term "curved space" is an important piece of th e puzzle for understanding black holes. A puzzle requires that you take the item s in the hand, just looking at, playing with them, and takes the necessary time to discover structures and patterns. This is exactly the attitude that is needed for our subject. The aim is to develop a concept of something that is up to the limits of our imagination. And such a concept of something new must be put toge ther like a puzzle of different ideas, comparisons, contradictions and attempts at solution. All rights reserved c 2004 Corvin Zahn, Ute Kraus picture credits see page 30 Co ntact and Information: http://www.tempolimit-lichtgeschwindigkeit.de printing an d distribution: Bears Publisher Warmbronn Hauptstr. 47, D-71229 Leonberg-Warmbro nn Phone: 07152-389106 Renningen, 22/03/2004 C.Z. U.K. Orders directly at the bear Publisher Warmbronn or via our website PS: The instructions for the paper models you see in the text. 1 Black Holes Rigel is one of the brightest stars in the sky. On a clear night, he is clearly visible to the naked eye, it is located in the constellation Orion very bottom r ight (picture right). Rigel is a few million years ago from a gas cloud, which z usammenballte under the action of their own gravity ever closer to her heart so close and hot, was that there thermonuclear fusion reaction ignited the gas to g low began and Rigel appeared as a new star in appearance . Rigel is a giant star : Compared with the sun, which is a very average star, he has 20 times as much m

ass, 60 times the diameter and the hundred-thousand-energy emissions. This enorm ous energy output, a giant star but not long maintained. After a few million yea rs Rigel will have exhausted its nuclear fuel. The fusion reactions will then en d in a tremendous supernova explosion; Rigel alone will briefly be as bright as an entire galaxy. In a supernova the outer gaseous envelope of the star is eject ed far into interstellar space, where she is a hundred thousand years to see a b right supernova remnant (bottom). The core of the giant exploding star collapses , however. If, as is likely to be in Rigel is the case, more than about twice th e mass of the sun contains, is unstoppable and the collapse of the core is small er and more dense: it creates a black hole. 4 5 2 A black hole in our neighborhood? The sun is one of a hundred billion stars in the great spiral galaxy. In the Mil ky Way there are many burned-out stars, including an estimated one billion black holes. It would be conceivable that even in the vicinity of the solar system is a black hole and may one day be discovered ... PICTURE-Journal 21/01/2012 Monsters, threatening the earth! Two hours ago, discovered black holes near the Earth! Mercilessly swallows every thing! Our reporter interviewed the discoverer Exclusive! The year 2012 begins with a scientific sensation: 21/01/2012 Heidelberger mornin g with our immediate cosmic neighborhood.€The European Space Agency ESA has anno unced the immediate deployment of an unmanned spacecraft, will provide fundament al new insights. This mission is a generation project: Until the probe reaches t he black hole will take decades, and then the first data to be returned to Earth , they need another 12 years for the return. A black hole in our neighborhood A black hole 12 light years away, is reported in the latest issue of the journal Nature. Twelve light-years is the distance that light travels in twelve years ( light travels with about 300 000 kilometers per second, ie, with about a billion miles an hour off). The newly discovered black hole is three times as far away from the solar system like our neighbor, the star Alpha Centauri, and is thereIMAGE: Professor Seeger is, danger to mankind? Could the world be swallowed up? Prof. S.: The black hole is located about 12 light years. This is seen astronomi cally both extremely close and for us scientists a stroke of luck, but the earth can not be dangerous. PICTURE: With such a short distance our readers want to k now whether it is approaching the Earth. Can you say something about it already? Does it move? Prof. S.: It is approaching our solar system about 240 kilometers per second. PICTURE: 240 km directly by the earth! How big is this monsters,? P rof. S.: It has about ten times the mass of the sun, is so astronomically more o f a small black hole. PICTURE: The mass of ten suns? That's huge! How can it be that this monster was discovered only now? Prof. S.: Black holes emit no radiation, s o they are hard to find. Discover they can only be a constant and continuous mon itoring of the entire sky, but for which we have been in two years the funds del eted. IMAGE: Once again we see the failure of the wrong end of saving policy. Th e editors of Journal PICTURE calls on behalf of their readers the government to withdraw these irresponsible saving measures immediately. All the observatories

of the world will judge this night their eyes to this invisible voracious Wrong of the universe, who raced 240 miles per hour on our earth. At the moment there is no danger, but we will keep our readers on current developments to date. CZ The author U.K. would like to say that this picture-Journal reporter writes CZ s urely considerable nonsense. Prof. Seeger was a little more careful on who he ca n be interviewed. 6 7 3 The IBH Mission The rediscovery black hole has received the scientific name IBH 1645 +45 (Isolat ed Black Hole1 with the celestial coordinates 1645 +45). In no time are the Euro pean Space Agency ESA go-ahead for the big IBH mission: an unmanned spacecraft t hat will forge ahead to the next near the black hole. An international team star ts the work and you, dear reader, dear reader are included. Imagine that you res earch successful astrophysicist or astronomer for many years the planet. Because of your great experience with space missions will be taking charge of the contr ol center. The control center will monitor the flight of the spacecraft and rece ive data to Earth sparked. Your task is to first build the control center. IBH Mission First International Workshop Grenoble, 1.3.-03.03.2012 Prof. Deepta Panchakshari: In the immediate vicinity o f a black hole 03/02/2012, 10-11 Clock, Large Hall Ladies and gentlemen, ... By IBH mission, we will verify Einstein's theory of ge neral relativity with unprecedented accuracy. Therefore it is necessary to move into the next near the black hole. A black hole bends space and time around him so much that everything that comes too close, is captured and ultimately plunges into the black hole. This is true not only for gas and dust and spaceships, but also for light. The threshold above which an escape is impossible, is called ho rizon. IBH 1645 +45 has a horizon with 190 kilometers range. We will send the sp acecraft from several small research probes into near horizon. We must keep a sa fe distance, according to my calculations, the research probes on orbits of 250 to 1000 km range are brought. Let me now in the mathematical part of the Talk first to the Schwarzschild metric and the geodesic equation come ... 1 G = 8πT, Gαβ = Rαβ - 2 gαβ R, αμβ Rαβ = nd R = Rμ Rμ μ α α 1 G = 8πT, Gαβ = R αβ - 2 gαβ R = Rμ Rαβ αμβ x nd R = Rμ μ ∇ u = 0,€with ˙ = dx / dλ, α α α α βγ U ∇ u = 0, with ˙ x = dx / dλ, ¨ x + Γ u βγ = 0 ˙ ˙ xx -1 2 2 2 2 2 ds2 = - 1 - 2M dt 2 + 1 - α 2M rr dr + r (dθ + sin θ dφ). α -1 ∂ Γ βδ r ∂ Γ βγ 2M Γt Γt tr = rt = M 1-Rα βγδ = γ Γ φφ = - + Γ2 θ (r μ βδ - Γα μδ Γμ βγ. sin α μγ Γ - 2M) r r2 ∂ x - ∂ xδ ω2 sin2 θ φ2). ω1 p, u = p, u1. xα + ¨ 2

 

 

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The IBH te m e ins its ork ith con erence. They eci e to in orm themselves out l ck holes there, especi lly since you h to o s pl net ry rese rch ers in these exotic celesti l o ies th n ever e ore. In the pro r m you c ncel t the lecture y Pro . P nch ksh ri, possi ly i icult lecture, s Mrs. P. is theorist, ut you ill pick out or no the un erst n le p rts n then t urn irectly to Mrs. P. to you s n extern l expert ill e v il le. One y one -1 P, u ˙ ˙ ¨ = p, u1. Xα + uu = α + ∂ ˙ ∂ kγ = 0.t = - 2M 1 - 2M ¨ Γ βγ xβ x 1 = +2 k R2V, ˙ rt, -2 cotθ φθ. ˙ ˙ r 2 v 1α ∂ μ ∂ μ α v / dλ, ¨ + Γα ˙ ˙ = 0 α β x γ 1 R, R = R = 8πT, αβ Rαβ = - 2 xx nd R αβ = R μ ∇ uu = 0, with ˙ x = dx βγ αβ αμβ -1 / 2 ρ0 th ee α α ∂ Γ ∂ Γ xγβδ 3 Rα βγδ = ∂ - δβγ + Γα μγ Γμ βδ - Γ α μδ Γμ βγ. Γθ rθ = Γθ θr = 1, r ω1 ω2 u = (r/2M - 1) e cosh (t/4M), h l er/4M sinh (t/4M) or r> φ2M, v = (cos θ θ r/ 2M, Γφ rφ = Γφ φr = 1, Γφ θφ = Γ φθ = cot θ. - sin - 1) r 2M ˙ s2 = - r = - t1 M - 2M-t 2 + sin2 2 +2, -2 2 + φθ. 1 2M r θ φ r2 ( θcotθ ˙ ˙ ¨ - r r2 2 + ˙ rrr = - sin2 θ (r - 2M), θ = Γ θ = 1, Γθ = Γ φφ h l r/4M Γ φφ θr rθ r -1 τ = 2.1 × 10 s · g / cm ∂ x θ φ φ Γ φφ = - Sin θ cos θ, Γ θφ = Γ φθ = Co θ. βγ ° + Γαβγ ˙ ˙ α = 0 x xx ∇ u α α βγ u = 0, ith ˙ = xα / st tion ry 8 9 4 The M p Room While the m them tic l p rt o Pro . P nch ksh ris lecture on l ck holes you sc ri le your session lock i r ms or the settin up the control. The Pl net r y Missions ere usu lly covere n entire ll ith hu e m p o the pl net's s ur ce. Then you coul select the l n in site n the routes o explor tion ro ot. For the explor tion o the l ck hole you re pl nnin somethin simil r: m p on hich the or its o sp ce pro es re m rke . This m p must represent the sp ce in the vicinity o the l ck hole. instruct A ter your return rom the mee

λ, ¨ + Γα βγ ˙ ˙ = 0 x x xx comp nion st r

l ck hole, th t is, ithout

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tin imme i tely m ke the r phic esi ner so, pl ns or such sp ce m p ccor in to your sketches n sen them to Mrs. P., to iscuss the concept ith her.

Mission Control Director te IBH-D rmst t, D rmst t, 03.10.2012 De r Pro . P nch ksh ri, in the control o the IBH-mission, I oul like three - imension l m p o your surroun in s tt ch the l ck hole. I m thinkin o i ll o out 3 meters in i meter, hich is compose o m ny sm ll Plexi l s sectors (the enclose computer r phic sho s the h l -sphere). In such sp ce m p, e c n m rk the p ths o sp ce pro es. This ives us n overvie o the mo vements n looks y too oo ( e h ve to in lly o er somethin on TV). Our r phic rtist h s cre te templ tes or ten ol sc le mo el m e o c r o r , hich I ttri ute to you. You c n uil up to sm ll section o the ll. Wh t o you think o the i e ? Sincerely pl nts 10 11 A ter you h ve rou ht the letter to Mrs. P. on the y, o the irst co ee, in vite ll o you ith your te m n uil mo el o the sp ce m p. Puzzle 1: The M p Room Instruction: 1 Tips: The o r c n en ell hen the ol in lines e ore inscr i es e sy. For the hesion points is est suite li ui ll-purpose lue. Solve nt lue n lue sticks h ve not orke . 2n The components o puzzle to e cu t, ol e n lue to the l ck lines ith the help o hite hesive l ps to Hohlkörperchen. 3r Insert the Hohlkörperchen in p r llel so th t ut yello n reen sur ces o the s me color, size n sh pe.

12 13 5 The curve sp ce PROF. DEEPTA PANCHAKSHARI Mission Control Director te IBH D rmst t Institute ei el er Hei el er , 15.03.2012

De r ..., the sp ti l m p or the l ck hole is very oo i e . I ree ith y ou th t the ll ill e n eye-c tcher in the control room! Ho ever, you must n ecess rily t ke into ccount th t sp ce is curve stron ly ne r the horizon is! In this l ck hole m ss is comprise o ten suns in n re the size o city. In the imme i te vicinity o the sp ce is curve so stron . Im ine you ere ver y ne r IBH 1645 +45 n the sectors oul e your room c r e e or e e n n le me sure or n les. I h ve c lcul te or you hich sector orms you nee to in n sen you here ith templ tes or physic lly correct mo el o l ck Lochs2. When I the ition l nnex me surin templ te or the "sector surve y" t ( ormul te s thou ht experiment). I ppe r reluct nt pe ntic, ut the precise escription o me surements to seemin ly unimport nt et ils nunm l is

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Puzzle 2: The Bl ck Hole Instruction: 1 Tips: The o r c n en ell hen the ol in lines e ore inscr i es e sy.€For the hesion points is est suite li ui ll-purpose lue. Solve nt lue n lue sticks h ve not orke . 2n The p rts o t o puzzles re cut, ol e n lue to the l ck lines ith the help o hite hesive l ps to Hohl körperchen. 3r Insert the Hohlkörperchen in p r llel so th t ut yello n r een sur ces o the s me color, size n sh pe.

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n in rel tivity theory. Best re r s, Deept P nch ksh ri pl nts

2 The mo el h s the sc le o 1:1 million. The inner rim h s 23 inch circum erenc e n is "just outsi e the horizon, hich h s 19 inch circum erence. 14 15 Pl nt D. P., 15/03/2012 Me surin templ te or the sectors (thou ht experiment!) 1st In the re to e me sure l ttice r me ork is uilt. 2n As experimenter s e move throu h the ri n me sure the len ths o the rs n the n le et een them. We kno the sh pe n size o e ch ri cell. We uil the ri cell imension to c r o r .

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I the ri is in empty sp ce, r y rom ny m ss, then see the mesh cells s in your mo el. For my mo el I h ve set in the mi le o the s me l ttice o l ck hole o ten sol r m sses. With the s me ri , I me n th t the ri constru cte in the s me y n lso just re t. Where "e u l" ( little p tience, ple se!), C re ully e ine , h s the ollo in me nin : your c r o r mo el ills sphere ith sur ce re o 2700 s u re centimeters. I one removes the outer most l yer ri cells, is ll o 1500 s u re inches sur ce. I one removes t he secon l yer, then the rem inin ll 700 s u re inch sur ce. The thir n innermost l yer o ri cells surroun in spheric l c vity ith 200 s u re inc hes sur ce. In my c r o r mo el o the our spheric l sur ces re the s me s ize s your. 16 17

Mission Control Director te IBH-D rmst t, D rmst t, 17.03.2012 L y P nch ksh ri, the mo el is re y! We h ve lre y een iscusse vehemently out it. But, to e honest, e re lly h ve un erstoo the curve sp ce yet, e h ve uilt there. For us, l ck holes, pl net ry scientists re very exotic o j ects. An s or the ener l rel tivity theory, hich in ee is one o the most i icult theories in ener l, you must un erst n th t e re not ll theorists , ut pr ctitioners ho norm lly e l ith missile technolo y, instrument n t n lysis. M y e you coul help us ith vivi expl n tion? I summ rize our iscussion to ether in short: The t o erosp ce en ineers in our te m imme i tely ecl re th t the mo el c n not e ri ht ( t le st not the y e uilt it), e c use o such P ppkörperchen is complete ll never. For our irst mo el, hic h h ve in the ri ht colors, e uilt rom the nine P ppkörperchen c rvin th t looks like piece o chocol te om . Th t is, sever l slices e mi ht like pi eces o c ke to hemisphere pushe to ether. For your mo el, in rk colors, e h ve lso P ppkörperchen com ine into c rvin . But in this c rvin the insi e e e is not perpen icul r to the roun ! Such pieces o c ke reve l ny hemisp here. At irst e thou ht it oul result inste rin c ke. But it is even o rse: et een nei h orin "pie pieces" hen pushe to ether ps rem in. Our mech nic is lso o the opinion th t the secon mo el lre y P ppkörperchen o not it to ether properly to c rvin .€In ct, sm ll cr cks n ps still rem in, no m tter ho e push, too. Civil en ineer hol s, ho ever, th t the cr cks re

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19 6 Are L n In the It li n rest ur nt tol Mrs. P nch ksh ri: "Wh t is curve sp ce, one c n im ine r phic lly, usu lly e he r out the ollo in st tement:" his or crooke s "A one- imension l line c n e just like this Serviet iese sp het ti there, t o- imension l sur ce just like this one lettuce le , the threeimension l sp ce te or curve , it is e u lly, only one imension hi her. "" C n you im ine? Just s curve sur ce, only one imension hi her? - I o not, r nkly. But sometimes helps ch n e o position: We live in three- imension l sp ce, lso c ll them 'sp ce ein s'. Simil rly, one coul im ine orl th t h s only t o imensions, ie sur ce. A cre ture th t lives in such n re ou l h ve ith the i e o curve sur ce h ve the s me i iculties s e s sp ce cre ture ith curve sp ce. "" Perh ps you kno the novel "Fl tl n " y E in A ott rom the century e ore l st. Not? W it, I h ve the ook here. The novel is set in n re just orl . A ott escri es the orl vie o n re ein s ollo s: " "I c ll our orl Fl tl n (...). Im ine eit us e ehntes sheet o p per on hich i ures (...) (...) reely ck n orth, ut ithout the ility to rise eyon or to sink them, such s sh o s (... ). L y re er, coin mi le o one o your t les in the room, en yoursel o n out it n look: it ill ppe r s circle. No pull yoursel ck to the e e o the t le n o ith your ce eeper n eeper (me nin you o more n more kno le e o the circumst n ces o the country re re chin sur ce), n you ill see th t the coin ppe rs more n more ov l. An in lly, i you rou ht your eye ex ctly on the level o the t le e e (so th t thou rt so to spe k, ecome territori l st tes), the coin ill no lon er ppe r ov l, n , i you c n reco nize it, one to e m e st r i ht. "(E . A ott: Fl tl n , Klett 1982 [tr nsl tion: Fl tl n , 1884]) Dimension 'You coul then o nothin . Even i the sur ce orl here you live,

 

oul simply not cut out c re ully enou h. A out this point, e ere le to r ee, ec use s lon s you nein n erhält only t o P ppkörperchen is, str n ely enou h, never ilure to reco nize the ces l ys it to ether per ectly. Ou r secon issue is the volume o the mo el - n mely, he is too i ! We h ve revie e the mo els your me surin templ te: The yello outer sur ces o the sectors (o P ppkörperchen) re in ct oth mo els the s me size. So, the t o lls th e s me sur ce. The s me oes or the yello inner sur ces, ie lso the recesse c vity h s the s me sur ce in oth mo els. Then e h ve notice th t the lue n reen si es re re ter th n in the secon mo el in the irst. Conse uently , e ch sector l r er volume th n the correspon in sector in the irst mo el, n the s me pplies to the complete mo el rom ll sectors. We h ve t o spheres ith e u l sur ce, ut i erent c p city. In other or s, the secon ll is i er insi e th n outsi e. The he o our computer center, hich is home o m them tici n sees this s not pro lem, he s i somethin out non-Eucli e n e ometry n m them tics th t e ls ith these i e s or some time. He h s lso tr ie to expl in to us the c use, ut is eyon my im in tion, ho m I to un ers t n th t, ple se, th t in spheric l sur ce o the ssoci te sphere volume i s there, ut more? Our rchitect h s, moreover, hi hly muse , n he vertises , he s ys, ple se ith the ct th t the houses re i er insi e th n outsi e, ut h s never thou ht th t nyone coul t ke seriously. I in your mo el o cu rve sp ce very interestin n it oul necess rily e constructe or the cont rol, ut I h ve yet to m ke convincin . The people rom computer science ep rtm ent think th t e ou ht to just stick ith the irst mo el th t everyone un erst n s n looks just s e uti ul. An my he o the Dep rtment o Pu lic te rin his h ir t the thou ht th t they must expl in to journ lists h t they've ot ex ctly the ri ht ... For your continue support, I oul e very r te ul. M y e e coul meet occ sion lly or lunch? Best re r s

 

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"Im ine or moment im ine th t you oul live in such n re , coul move li ke sh o , only in this re . You coul ck n orth, le t n move ri ht, ut not up or o n. You coul lso look not up or o n, not even thinkin out i t. The terms ' ove' n ' elo h ve' or you, tot lly insi ni ic nt. With 'th ir 20 21 Puzzle 3: S l Le ves Instruction: 1 These p per mo els you c n tinker l t (li ht reen) n curv e ( rk reen) lettuce le . The sectors re the curve l e is ition lly s l sep r tely, t the puzzle. 2n The l t sheet (li ht reen cut). The curve l e ( rk reen) Cut, ol n lue the l ck lines ith the help o hite hesive l ps. 3r The sectors o the curve l e (cut rk reen) sep r tely. T ry to com ine them into coherent sheet!

"The irst sheet is l t here. You see, i you usein n erschnei en e ch sector n then mer e it just rises. The secon le is curve . Here I h ve cut curve l e into sectors. Try to ssem le, the sectors on the l t t le, " little puzzle ith the sectors roun the curve l e n re lize th t they o not it to ether. "An intelli ent en ineer c terpill r oul e pretty esper te i you c re no lon er n e le into sever l pieces on the t le its to ether. I y ou re t kin the position o sur ce ein , then th t's re lly un eliev le. For us, ein the hole sp ce is o course uite cle r th t one c n not prop t e in curve sur ce o the pl ne ithout rippin them. The ct th t e see ly in , not ec use e re sli htly more intelli ent th n the c terpill r, ut th t e c n look t the p per rom outsi e, rom 'hi her imension' rom. You un o u te ly h ve your c r o r mo els o it? "22 23

7 R uml n They p ck the t o- imension l c r o r mo els o improvise e ore. "This is ex ctly the s me! The irst mo el, hich correspon s to the ri ht colors, the l t sheet. It sho s p rt not curve sp ce you h ve cut like pie into in ivi u l sectors. These c n e no ps in the rest ur nt to ether in here, since sp ce is lso ( lmost) not curve . The mo el in the rk colors correspon to the cur ve l e n sho s piece curve sp ce. Im ine hu e ll-sh pe c ke to the l ck hole roun outsi e. It is ex ctly like its counterp rt rom the not curv e sp ce ivi e into in ivi u l sectors, n they result in re uce sc le, th en your P ppkörperchen here on the t le. Just s the pieces it to ether the cu rve l e on l t t le top, it the pieces o curve sp ce to ether here in the rest ur nt not curve ! Enl r e to sc le ck ut they coul e roupe rou n the l ck hole completely roun . Or vice vers : Coul e h ve sc le -sc le l ck hole here t the center o the c r o r mo el set, it oul en the sp ce so th t the m tch oul P ppsektoren. This 'mini- l ck hole oul h ve to' th ree times the m ss o the e rth h ve. This me ns you oul nee three pl nets in Er röße the size o n or n e crush up to en the sp ce so! No e re in the position o the e n c n not im ine hy the sectors ill it roun the l

 

someho en s into thir imension,€is it or you in the ront re only, ck , le t n ri ht. "" Here, t ke this little c terpill r on your vie s lettuce le . You c n cr l roun on the sur ce, looks n pro ly only intereste in ell next to their environment. As A ott's sur ce cre tures it is restricte to the t o imensions o the le sur ce. The ct th t the le is curve , oes not concern them. W it, I'll sho it ccur tely. "" W iter! Di you h ppen t o p ir o scissors n e n pkins there? "A some h t ism ye -lookin , ut rin s in university to n o some ccustome iter h t you nt n Mrs. P n ch ksh ri herumzukritzeln e ins on n pkin. "Look, very system tic c terpill r coul come up ith the i e n t her in nothin ut lettuce le sectors. I r here once le . "She r s circle n ivi e it into sectors. "Simil rly, one c n cr t curve l e n is ivi e into sectors, so ..." With your c mer t ke e shots, hich converts your ssist nt the next y in e uti u lly printe p per mo els.

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The other y they coul etermine the curv ture o the le , y irst me surin the volume n then etermine the sur ce, or ex mple, y e ts it n then r up the l nce. W tch on your s l , the c terpill r is pretty r, " esp i rin iter rin s you ne s l , you nt the stu ies o not istur the c te rpill r. "Just s e c n hen e me sure the sp ce roun the l ck hole, eterm ine its curv ture! Im ine th t! So r, e coul explore only the rely me sur le curv ture o sp ce n time ne r the Sun. An no e h ve re l l ck hole , "While Mrs. P nch ksh ri excite or the ne Erkenntismö lichkeiten n litt le irrit te iters every here zus mmen e t on the loor lyin out scr ps o p per, remem er th t it ill t ke, un ortun tely, some ec es e ore the sp cec r t it T r et met n stu ie the l ck hole irectly, ith its enormous curv t ure o sp ce n time. There ill e m ny interestin lunch ith Mrs. P. t the next opportunity you h ve to sk them h t it is the m tter ith the curve time in comin ... 25 8 B ck to the present ... The st r V4641 S r in the constell tion S itt rius h s n uno trusive comp nion th t until recently s unkno n. In Septem er 1999, he tol himsel : A short, i ntense X-r y emission o r i tion, these r ther insi ni ic nt st r s tempor r ily the ri htest X-r y source in the sky, c n only e expl ine y the ct th t he h s l ck hole s comp nion. App rently, s h s come rom this st r in the c tchment re o the l ck hole. In circul r motion roun the l ck hole, it is stre me continuously to the insi e, it s extremely hot, n is in lly p rti lly plun e into the l ck hole n s shot p rtly in the orm o ultr st jets into sp ce. This l ck hole is the Sol r System, it is 1600 li ht ye r s y rom us. The thickest l ck hole in our imme i te cosmic environment sits in the center o the Milky W y in 26 000 li ht ye rs y. It h s m ss 2.5 mi llion times s l r e s the sun. Also this l ck hole is invisi le in itsel . It etr ys itsel ut y the ct th t the st rs revolve roun in his environment c n e, just s the sun's pl nets. Our ch nces o sen in sp ce pro e into l ck hole, ne r hich one coul me sure the ri ht curve sp ce, re currently n ot oo . But Einstein's rel tivity theory pre icts not only th t m ss curves sp ce, ut lso ho the curve sp ce e ects. For ex mple, in curve sp ce li ht runs on other lines not curve s in thir So i st r y its m ss en s the sp ce, then the li ht is e lecte in its vicinity ", this is c lle e lection. In the sun the li ht e lection is so sm ll th t they c n not o serve ith the eye. But it h s een me sure ith re t precision, n ully con irme our i e s out the curve sp ce ne r the sun. Further out in sp ce c n lso irectly o serve the e lection o li ht. I et een us n ist nt l xy is l r e m s s, then the li ht th t comes rom the ist nt l xy, is e lecte n e see th e l xy istorte into n rro rc. In the picture re sever l such rms re s een. The li ht e lectin m ss is in this c se "cluster", l r e roup o l xies, hich is lso un i se ( ut) on the im e to see re. There re pl ces in our orl , pply here other eometric l l s, s e kno rom our experience o n E rth. The curve sp ce is re lity. 3 More precisely, p rt rom the m ss en s sp ce n time,€ n exten the li ht

  ¤

ck hole roun n not here on E rth. We c n not our re o ' tch out' n se e€ here it en s. "Th t soun s re son le. They pl y it ith the curve sp ce n come ck in to the pro lem o l r e volume,. "Both mo els represent s ection o the room ith the s me outsi e imensions. The yello exterior sur ce s o the t o mo els re i entic l. One mi ht ssume th t even then the volume mu st e the s me. Look in t the t o mo els o the le ves. Both h ve the s me l evel. As ith the sp ti l mo el coul e close to the s me re . But you c n cle rly see th t the curve l e h s much l r er re . I your c t nts to kno ho i is the sheet th t they inten to e t, it's not enou h, once they rumkr elt to the p per n in s the circum erence. You nee to kno ition lly ho the le is stron ly curve . 24

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p ths in 26 27

curve sp ce-time other th n in

not curve .

outer shell o s is ejecte n orms color ul pl net ry ne ul , hile the c ore coll pse o the sun until he re ches the size o the e rth: It pro uces h ite r , hich is initi lly very hot n ri ht n then coole over time n over e ker li ht. 28 29 Im es n im e sources Cover The constell tion Cent urus ith the Sol r System st r Alph Cent uri Sp c e Telescope Science Institute (STScI) The supernov remn nt C ssiopei A N tion l R io Astronomy O serv tory (NRAO / AUI / NSF), the constell tion Orion Sp ce Telescope Science Institute (STScI) The spir l l xy N C 4414 Sp ce Telescope S cience Institute (STScI) The Control o the Cluster mission, D rmst t Europe n Sp ce A ency (ESA), chocol te om Ai C é-Kon itorei Wien The l xy cluster A ell 2218 Sp ce Telescope Science Institute (STScI) Liter ture E in A. A ott: Fl tl n , A Rom nce o M ny Dimensions, 1884. erm n tr nsl tio n: pl in, A novel multi- imension l, Klett Verl , 1982. Je n-Pierre Petit: "The l ck hole", Vie e Verl , 1995. From the ook series "The A ventures o Ansel

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loss ry Force ( r vity) The cl ssic l escription o r vity oes ck to Is c Ne ton: Every o y exerts n ttr ctive orce on e ch other, the r vit tionskr t.4 So or ex mple: The e rth moves roun the sun, ec use it is ttr cte y the sun. The Ne toni n theory is only correct i the e k r vit tion l orce n the mo vement o the o y is slo . To y's escription o r vity is the theory o ene r l rel tivity y Al ert Einstein. For e k r vity n slo motion o the o y is i entic l to the Ne toni n theory. It is lso true i the r vity is extremel y stron ( or ex mple, ne r l ck holes) n hen movin the o y very uickly ( ie ith ne rly the spee o li ht). In the theory o rel tivity is the ex mple ove: The sun is the sp ce n time roun them en s. The E rth moves throu h t he curve sp ce-time. It is movin he t ll times, ut since the sp ce-time curv ture, results in tr ck t hich the sun circles the e rth. Spee o li ht , li ht tr vels t spee o pproxim tely 300 000 kilometers per secon , ie i th out illion miles n hour. This is the solute spee limit l s o n tur e: n o ject th t h s m ss, it c n re ch or even excee . Rel tivity The ener l Theory o Rel tivity, y Al ert Einstein complete in 1916, is currently ccep te theory o r vity (see r vit tion). The Speci l Theory o Rel tivity o 190 5 escri es sp ce, time n motion in the sence o r vity. Extremely st mov ements (ie movements ith ne rly the spee o li ht) s irst escri e correct ly y the Speci l Theory o Rel tivity. Sun is st r o me ium size rom type th t is common in the Milky W y. It is hun re times s l r e s E rth n h s the reihun ertt usen che m ss. In i ures: Their i meter is 1.4 million km , m ss 2 · 1030 k . The sun orme 4.5 illion ye rs o rom clou o s n ill tot l 10 illion ye rs shine s st r, hile nucle r usion re ctions t k e pl ce insi e them. I the nucle r uel in the center is lo , the sun ill s el l into re i nt st r th t re ches the e rth's or it. Soon ter the nucle r r e ctions, the 4 Accor in to Ne ton is the orce et een t o o ies ith m sses m n m, the ist nce r rom e ch other 1 2, K = M1 m2 / r 2, here = 6.67 ° 10-11 m3 / k / s2 Ne ton 'sche r vit tion l const nt is.

 

 

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Technic l Det ils The mo el or the re roun the l ck hole metric is se on the l ck pl te ith centr l m ss Sch rzschil r ius rs = 2.8 cm. The puzzle ivi es sp ce -like hypersur ce o const nt Sch rzschil time into sectors. This is the hype rsur ce ith ri o ots on the l ck pl te coor in tes ri = i · 1.25 rs, θ j = j · 30 , k = φk · 30 excessive. The mo el inclu es the sectors or i = 1 .4, j = 0 k = 0 .3 n .1. (The ivision is the re outsi e o r = 1.25 rs limi te .) The len ths o the sector e es re the len ths o the sp celike eo esics et een the ri points. From the e e len ths n the con ition th t the tr pe zoi l si e sur ces shoul e mirror, cle rly ollo s the sh pe o the sectors. The mo el is se on the principle o Re e-C lculus, in hich the sp ce-time is ivi e into sm ll elements, e ch o hose intern l eometry is l t. The sec tors o the mo el re un erstoo in the s me y, to the ho y expenses to e li mite , ho ever, they re so l r e th t this sp ce-time is only rel tively cru e pproxim tion to the Sch rzschil sp cetime. 30 31

   

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m Wüßte ern. A physics-comic. Kip S. Thorne, "Curve sp ur, 1994. Much in orm tion out l ck holes. (Un ortun n lish e ition o "Bl ck Holes n Time W rps" is still Ute Kr us: http:// .tempolimit-licht esch in i keit. s to speci l n ener l rel tivity.

ce n rpe time," Kn tely out o print, the E v il le.) Corvin Z hn, e text, im es n movie

 

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