Fundamentals Liliane G. da Costa Reis administration comes from its beginnings, to organize work in a rational way.

From the late nineteenth century, begins to acquire the status of science, with attempts to apply scientific methods to stud y and improve the work, as well as the performance of the employee. Since then, successive definitions for this activity. Maximian (1997), for example, suggests that "management is the process to take and implement decisions about goals and use of resources." Under that view, several people are involved in managing a n onprofit organization, even though at first glance, do not consider themselves a s such. The administration is characterized as an activity means, not an end in itself. Administer regards performance of the organization as a whole in a given context. Performance, in turn, is related to the concepts of effectiveness, eff iciency and effectiveness. Effectiveness is the ability to accomplish goals, eff iciency is to use resources productively, effectiveness is to perform the right thing to transform the existing situation. Therefore, the concepts and managemen t techniques should serve to organizations to achieve the performance they want. Briefly, these functions can be described as follows: · Planning - refers to d ecisions about goals, future actions and resources needed to accomplish goals. O rganization - includes decisions about the division of power, translated into au thority, tasks and responsibilities between people and the division of resources to accomplish tasks. Direction or coordination - is to enable people to achieve the proposed objectives and provide a sense of mission, in the words of Peter D rucker. Control - includes decisions about the compatibility between goals and e xpected results. · · However, organizations are not equal; have goals and have different features bet ween them, working in different fields. This makes the administration of each on e is characterized by distinctive emphases. A typology rather synthetic, but it serves the purpose of this text, we can group the organizations: governmental, p rivate for-profit and private nonprofit. Permeating these groups is the cultural level where they work - we have thus an initial frame of reference. Government organizations are designed to meet public needs and manage the operation of the state. As needs and priorities are set from the game of political forces in soci ety, we can say that the traditional principles governing public administration - impersonality, hierarchy, rules etc.. - Present themselves differently in each cultural environment treaty. Have private companies are characterized by meetin g the needs of consumer groups, being inserted in a context more or less competi tive markets. This causes have to be organized from the idea of winning a place in the market among other companies that offer products or services, in some way s, similar. As greater competitiveness of the sector, more needs to establish differentiation s trategies to consumers, responding to the initiatives of the competition and ant icipate, capturing future trends. The cultural plan will characterize its perfor mance in both the marketplace and its relationship with society in general, espe cially in labor relations and the influence they wield with the policies of a pu blic character. The non-profit organizations working within civil society where the political aspect has an important role. Are guided by interests that may var y from one set of members (a union, for example) to broader proposals for social change (the case of NGOs) through the proposed assistance to the needy (chariti es). His performance with respect to achieving public purposes, from the use of private and public. The cultural environment will determine their goals and stra tegies to achieve them. Faced with this multiplicity of organizations, the notio ns of efficiency, effectiveness, and the basic processes of management - plannin g, organization, direction and control - will take on specific characteristics f or each type of organization. The important thing to note is that these four gen eral functions are inherent in the existence of any of them, form a whole and mu st be tailored to the organizational mission in order to obtain the best perform ance. There are no pre-established formulas for the administration of organizati

ons. Each one finds,€from general information, ways most suited to their perfor mance. However, there is already a fairly extensive body of theory in administra tion and much effort can be saved if members of nonprofit organizations - partic ularly its leaders - to engage in establishing procedures from the existing theo ry. This requires a particular effort in the case of nonprofit organizations in order to face the challenges that remain active. But the task is possible, even with few resources.