ii 1st Period Geometric figures Square - a polygon with four equal sides and four right angles.

Rectangle - a polygon with four equal sides and two by two with four right angle s. Trapezium rectangle - a polygon with all sides and with a different angle, takin g a two bases. larger and a smaller Triangle - a geometric figure with three sides Diamond - geometric figure with two diagonals greater and a smaller one. . Parallelogram - a polygon with two obtuse angles and two acute angles and four e qual sides two by two. iii Areas of geometric figures Square A = l * l Example: A = 2 * 2 = 4cm2 2cm The rectangle l c = c * l Example: 3cm to 7cm = 7 * 3 = 21cm2 Triangle Height = h A = 4 * 2 = 4 cm2 February 2 4cm base A = b = b * h 2 Parallelogram 7dm hc dm Example 1: A = a * 7 = 7dm 2 = c * h iv Diagonal largest diamond - DA D 2 = d * Example: 30 cm 2 lower Diagonal - 4cm d A = 4 * 15 = 60 = 15cm February 2 Trapeze hb Example B: 8 4 2 A = (8 +2) * 4 * 4 = 10 = 40 = 20 u 2 2 2 units of a rea A = (B + b) * h 2 (B + b) * h 2 Breakdown of figures to calculate areas To make the area of irregular figures breaks down the figure in others where it is already known to the area, adding at the end of the figures broken down into areas to find out the total area. Example: AB 3cm 4cm 5cm Area A = 5cm * 4cm = 2 0 cm = 10 cm 2 cm 2 cm area B = 3cm * 4cm = 12 cm v Medians of a triangle BG G PM PM - The median centroid of the triangle are line segments joining each vertex to the midpoint opposite. The medians are all by one point called the cen troid (point G). The point G divides the two sides of the median and the larger part of the median is twice the smaller part. The P.M

C Triangle relationship among the areas of squares on the sides Hypotenuse - the longest side of triangle Catete - form the right angle and are the smallest sides of the triangle AA 3 = 3 * 3 = 9 AB = 4 * 4 = 16 AC = 5 * 5 = 25 A 4 B 9 + 25 = 16 = 25 = May 25 C vi If we add the areas of the smaller squares will receive the largest square area and if this happens, the triangle is a rectangle. If this relationship fails the n the triangle in which the squares were designed not rectangle. Pythagorean theorem Definition - In a right triangle the square of the length of the hypotenuse equa ls the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs. B to A b b ² = c ² a ² + c C Suit Pythagorean Definition - is a set of three numbers that verify the Pythagorean theorem, ie a set of three numbers in the sum of the squares of smaller numbers going to the square of the larger number. Example: (3,4,5) 5 ² = 3 ² + 4 ² = 9 + 25 = 16 25 2 5 Position between lines r Parallels (not touching) tus Competitors (touching at one point) Perpendicular (play in a single point, forming an angle of 90 ° Oblique (play in a single poi nt) vii Coincident p q Relative position between two planes Parallel r driers Perpendicular Obliques b Position between lines and planes Parallel r ∂ r Competitors C Contained D / r opposite The B viii Representation of lines and planes A B C D straights line segments A

∂ Plan B A C B D Pythagorean theorem in space 10 c yx 5 x ² = 4 ² + 5 ² + 10 ² x ² = 25 + 16 + 100 = 141 x ² x = √ 141 x = 11.9 y ² = a ² + b ² c ² + b 4 ix Similar figures Two figures are similar if they have identical forms and is a reduction / enlarg ement of the other. Example: Similar polygons Two polygons are similar if they have corresponding angles equal and correspondi ng sides proportional. What value do you give the correspondence of the sides is the reason of similarity. Example: 2 1 4 Sides: 4 = 2 21 2 = 2 2 angles: 90 ° a ll The polygons are similar because corresponding angles are equal and because the corresponding sides are proportional, with the ratio of similarity that transfor ms the smaller rectangle in the second largest. x Criteria of similarity of triangles Criterion AA (angle - angle) The B 40 The triangles are similar if they have two equal sides. Note: When there are ver tical angles the triangles are similar by criterion AA. LLL criterion (side - side - side) May 6 15 18 10 30 30 = 18 = 15 10 6 5 3 = 3 = 3 The two triangles are similar when the three sides are proportional. xi LAL test (side - angle - side) 3 6 4 8 The triangles are similar when both sides are proportional and have an angle. No te: 105 105 12 October 26 AB In this case we can not conclude anything because t he triangle B does not measure the two sides forming the angle. 24

xii Decomposition of a right triangle by the height The 8:37 h 7 = h? = 8:37 h ² ² - 7 ² h ² = 70.0569-49 = h ² h = √ 21.0569 21.056 9 4.5888 h = B 3 Ratio of similar figures When one does the ratio of similarity between two similar figures is always tran sformed the figure that is divided as follows: Transformed 4:2 = 2 4 = 2 2 In th e grounds of similarity there is also the ratio of the perimeters and areas. The ratio of the circumference is equal to the ratio of similarity and the area rat io is the square of the ratio of similarity and the ratio of the perimeters. Exa mple: 4:2 = 2 - 2 because of similarity - the ratio between the perimeters 2 ² = 4 - the area ratio xiii Sequences Fibonacci sequence - 1,2,3,5,8 ... Sequence of even numbers 2,4,6,8,10,12,14, .. . ellipsis means that the sequence is infinite 5th term or term of order 5 1 term or term of order Definition: A sequence of nu mbers is a list of numbers, usually relaccionados together and written by a cert ain order. Each digit number is called. To form a result there is usually a gene ral term. Terminology Terms used in sequences: are the numbers of a sequence. Or der: represents the position in which it is the term. Primes Prime numbers are numbers that have only two divisors, 1 and the number itself. Prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, ... Decomposition in prime factors 10 2 55 1 10 = 2 * 5 80 40 20 10 5 2 2 2 2 5 80 = 2 ² * 2 ² * 5 xiv Greatest common divisor The greatest common factor of two or more numbers, it is calculated by determini ng the product of common factors with lower power. Example: 10 2 55 1 10 = 2 * 5 80 40 20 10 5 1 2 February 2 February 5 80 = 2 ² * 2 ² * 5 m.d.c (80.45) = 2 * 5 Least common multiple The least common multiple of two or more numbers is calculated by determining th e product of common and uncommon factors of greatest exponent. Example: 10 2 55 1 10 = 2 * 5 80 40 20 10 5 1 2 2 2 2 5 80 = 2 ² * 2 ² * 5 lcm (80.45) = 2 ² * 2 ² * 5 Note: * gcd lcm = product of two factors xv 2nd Period

Operative rules of powers Multiply powers with the same base - are given the same base and add to the exponents. Example: (-2) ² * (-2) ³ = (-2) 5 Multiply powers with the same exponent - is given the same exponent and multiply the bases. Example: 4 * 3 ² = 12 ² ² Division of powers with the same exponent - is given the same exponent and divide the bases. Example: 4 ²: ² = 3 (4:3) ² Division of powers with the same base - gives the same basis and to subtract the exponents. Example: 2 ³: 2 ² = 2 Power output - multiply the exponents. Example: [3 ²] ³ = 36 Note: Any number raised to zero is equal to one. xvi If you do not have equal bases or exponents is required to calculate the val ue of the powers. Positive Negative Base Par + Odd + Sign of the exponent result Par + Odd Negative exponents - a leading exponent of negative change is the order of facto rs, from the exponent to positive. Example: 4 5 - 5 ² = 4 ² Numerical 1 It is what is between the brackets 2 Do the rules of multiplication and divisi on if possible 3 Carry out the additions and subtractions Example: 2 ² + 6 ³: 3 ³ * (4: 2) = 2 ² + 6 ³: 3 ³ * 2 = 2 ² + 3 ³ * 2 ² = 2 + 27 * 2 = 2 ² = 4 + 54 + 54 = 58 xvii Powers of 10 basis All numbers can be made from a power of 10. When we want to make a very large nu mber is easier to use this method because it is faster. Example: 100 = 10 ² 1000 = 10 ³ 200 = 2 * 10 ² 2 = 200 * 10 - ² When we have a number to multiply by ten and ten with a positive exponent then the number you are multiplying will have to "earn" some houses decimals, how is the number of the exponent of ten. If the exponent of ten is a positive number the number is multiplying "lose" decimals and "wins" zeros. Scientific notation In scientific notation is all very similar to the powers of base ten as the numb er that you will be the basis of power is ten, but in the powers of the base ten number to multiply could be anyone but in scientific notation this number must be greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10. Example: Scientific notation - 3 .4 * 10 ³ Powers basic 10-34 * 10 ² Comparison of numbers in scientific notation If we have two positive numbers, the greater is the one with the largest exponen

t. Example: 2 * 10 5 * 10 ² ³ If we have two numbers have the same exponent and then compare the numbers, the biggest being that has the highest number. xviii Example: 2 * 5 * 10 10 ² ² If we have two negative numbers with exponent positive / negative the larger the smaller exponent. Example: -2 ² ³ -3 -2 - -3 ² - ³ Operations with numbers in scientific notation and powers of base 10 Multiplication The numbers multiplied by ten to one side going to multiply each other and with the powers of the base ten go to the other side to multiply.€After this the powe r to base ten will multiply the product of the numbers that were multiplied by t he power. Example: (3.11 * 10 ²) * (0.42 * 10 ³) = (3.11 * 0.42) * (10 * ² ³ 10) = 1.302 * 105 Division The numbers are going to multiply by ten to one side to divide each other and wi th the powers of the base ten go to the other side to divide. After this the pow er to base ten will multiply by the ratio of the numbers that were multiplied by the power. Example: (2 * 10 ²): (3 * 10 ³) = (2: 3) * (10 ²: ³ 10) = 0.6 * 10-1 * 10 = 6 - ² xix Adding and subtracting numbers in scientific notation and powers of base 10 Exponents equal The numbers multiplied by ten to one side will add up to / subtract from one ano ther and with the power base ten goes to the other side .. After this the power to base ten will multiply the resulting numbers were multiplied by that power. E xample: 3.2 * 1.2 * 10 ² + 10 ² = (3.2 + 1.2) ² = 10 * 4.4 * 3.2 * 10 ² 10 ² - 1 0 ² = 1.2 * (3.2 - 1 2) ² = 2 * 10 * 10 ² Different exponents The numbers we're going to multiply by ten to one side, with the number that was multiplied by the power of smaller exponent have to be with more decimal places , how is the difference of an exponent of another, passing the number of smaller exponent equal the greatest. After this the power to base ten will multiply the resulting numbers were multiplied by that power. Example: 3.2 * 1.2 * 10 ³ + 10 ² = (3.2 + 0.12) = 3.32 * 10 ³ * 10 3.2 * 10 ³ ³ - 10 ² = 1.2 * (3.2 - 0, 12) = 3.08 * 10 ³ * 10 ³ xx Functions At a function there is always a dependent variable and one independent, one fiel d and a counter area and a set of arrival and one departure. Function to be a se t of numbers states that the objects set (game) will only give an image (set of arrival). Y depends on X or Y is a function of X Side 1 2 3 4 X Perimeter 4 * 1 4 * 2 4 * 3 4 * 4 YX - Y independent variable - dependent variable Domain - is the set of independent variables. Df Contra area - are the numbers t hat we are "tied" the numbers of the domain. D'f Set arrival - is the set of the dependent variable. C. C. Example: f 3 10 15 20 30 40 June 20 Df = D'f = = C.C 3, 10, 15.20 6,20,30,40 6,20,30,40

xxi Ways of representing a function Arrow diagramming f 3 10 15 20 30 40 June 20 Tables Side Perimeter 1 2 3 4 4 * 1 = 4 8 12 16 y = 4x Analytical expression f: 1,2,3,4 4,8,12,16 Graphics y 3 2 1 1 2 3 x xxii Function directly proportional The role of proportionality is one reason it has a direct proportionality consta nt (k). If these functions are graphed points are aligned on a straight line wil l pass skin origin of the referential. Quantity of pencils (x) Price $ (y) Examp le: K = 3:6 = 7:14 = 10:20 24:24 = K = 0.5 = 0.5 = 0.5 = 0.5 12 9 6 3 6 12 18 24 6 3 14 7 20 10 24 12 Related functions Affine function - the function where the analytical expression is y = ax * b. Li near function - the function where the analytical expression is y = ax b and b * is zero. Constant function - the function where the analytical expression is y = ax * b and is equal to zero. Affine function Linear function constant function y = ax = ax * by b * b = 0 y = ax * b, a = 0 Note: a - slope of line b - intercept of xxiii Conclusion This work was laborious but important, as I recalled the issue already forgotten the first period. Bibliography Daily diary of mathematics for the academic year 2007/2008