Introduction operating systems have evolved through the years.

Since operating s ystems, adhering closely to the architecture of the computers on which they run. The first real digital computer was designed by the English mathematician Charl es Babbage (1792-1871). Although Babbage spending most of his life and his fortu ne trying to build his "analytical machine", never did work properly because it was a purely mechanical design and technology of his time could not produce whee ls, gears, cams and other mechanical parts with high precision he needed. Withou t having to say, the analytical machine had no OS. The first generation (1945 1955): vacuum tubes and boards plug After Babbage's frustrated efforts, little p rogress was made in the construction of digital computers to the Second World Wa r, about half of the 1940s, Howard Aiken in Harvard, Jon Von Neumann at the Inst itute for Advanced Study in Princeton, J. Ecker and William Presper Mauchley at the University of Pennsylvania and Konrad Zuse in Germany, among others, all Goo d results were obtained in the construction of calculating machines using vacuum tubes. In these early days, a unique group of people design, construct, program s, operations and maintenance on each machine. All programming was done in absol ute machine language. Programming languages were unknown (yet there was no assem bly language.) The first operating systems were strange. The usual mode of opera tion that the programmer was signed to access a block of time on the registratio n form located on the wall, then down to the machine room, insert your plug-in b oard on the computer and spent the next few hours waiting none of the 20,000 vac uum tubes to melt during the execution of your program. At the beginning of the 1950s, the routine had improved somewhat with the introduction of punch cards. N ow it was possible to write on cards and read them, instead of using plug-boards , otherwise the procedure was the same. The second generation (1955 - 1965): Tra nsistors and batch systems The introduction of the transistor in the mid-1950s t he picture changes dramatically. The computers became reliable enough, at first there was a clear separation between designers, owners, operators, programmers a nd maintenance personnel. These machines were installed in computer rooms specia lly equipped with air, the body of professional operators to operate them. a pro grammer to write the program first on paper (in FORTRAN or assembly language) an d then punch cards. Then take the card stack to the fourth input to the system a nd give it to one of the operators which initiated the process on the computer, this process wasted much time. Given the high cost of equipment, it is not surpr ising that people quickly find ways to reduce lost time. The solution generally adopted was the batch system. The idea behind this system was to put together a box full of papers in the fourth entry to the system and then read them on magne tic tape using a computer (relatively) small and inexpensive, such as the IBM 1401. After nearly an hour to collect a lot of work, the tape is rolling again and took the machine room. After the operator loads a special program (the ancestor of the o perating system today), which she read the first job and executed, the output is written in a second tape, rather than printed. After each job, the operating sy stem automatically read the next job in the film, and began to run. The structur e of a common entry work started with a $ JOB card, which specifies the maximum execution time in minutes, the account number to be debited and the name of the programmer. Then came a $ FORTRAN card, which tells the operating system to load the FORTRAN compiler. Venia followed by a program that was compiled after a car d and $ LOAD, ordering the operating system to load the newly compiled object co de, then came the $ RUN card, which tells the operating system to run the progra m with the data that followed. Finally, $ END card marked the end of work. Commo n operating systems were FMS (FORTRAN monitor system) and IBSYS, IBM operating s ystem of 7094.€The third generation (1965 - 1980): Integrated Circuits (IC) and multiprogramming at the beginning of the 1960s, many computer manufacturers two lines of work were different and totally incompatible. On the one hand there we re the large-scale scientific computers aimed at the words, as the 7094, which w ere used for numerical calculations and engineering sciences. On the other hand commercial computers were oriented characters, such as 1401, used for ordering a nd printing ribbons by banks and insurance companies. The development and mainte

nance of two different product lines was an expensive proposition for manufactur ers. In addition, many new computer buyers needed a small machine, but then expa nded and wanted a larger machine to run all your old programs, but with greater speed. IBM attempt to solve these two problems at one stroke entering the market on the System/360. The 360 was a series of machines compatible with the softwar e size ranged from 1401 to a much more powerful than the 7094, the 360 was desig ned for both scientific and commercial calculations. Therefore, a single family of machines could meet the needs of all customers. The 360 system was the first important line of computers that use integrated circuits (IC), which offered a m ajor advantage of price / performance on the second generation machines. The int ention was that all software, including operating system, had to work on all mod els. I had to run on small systems and very large systems. I had to work properl y on systems with peripherals, and systems with many peripherals. There was no w ay that IBM wrote a piece of software that met all these conflicting requirement s. The result was a huge operating system and extraordinarily complex. It consis ted of millions of lines of assembly language written by thousands of programmer s, containing thousands and thousands of hidden errors. Despite the size and eno rmous problems, and OS/360 operating systems similar to the third generation met many of his clients reasonably well, also absent popularized several important techniques in the operating systems of the second generation. The most important of these was the multiprogramming. When th e current work stopped to wait for the completion of an operation to tape or oth er form of E / S, the central processing unit (CPU) simply remained idle until t he end of the operation of E / S. The solution was evolved from the memory into several parts with different job in each partition. While a job waiting for comp letion of the E / S, other work could be using the CPU. If you could keep enough jobs in main memory at the same time, the CPU could be busy almost 100% of the time. Another feature of importance in the operating systems of the third genera tion was the ability to read cards work on the disc as soon as they took the com puter room. Whenever a job is completed, the operating system could load a new d isc in the empty partition and run, this technique is called by print queue mana gement. The operating systems of the third generation systems remained basically lot. Operating systems of the third generation, the time between delivery of a job and output return often included several hours. The desire to obtain a short response time under the road for timeshare, variant of multiprogramming, in whi ch each user has an online terminal. In a time-sharing system if there are 20 us ers within the system and 17 of them are thinking or talking or drinking coffee, the CPU can be distributed in turn to the three jobs that need service. Althoug h the first time-sharing system (CTSS) was created in MIT seriously in a unit sp ecially modified 7094, but did not become popular until the necessary protective hardware spreads during the third generation. After the success of CTSS system, MIT, Bell Laboratories and General Electric decided to embark on the developmen t of the "computer of public service." Known as MULTICS (Multiplexed Information and Computing Services, information and computing service multicanalizada). To make a long story, MULTICS introduced many original ideas in the literature of c omputing, but its construction was more difficult than anyone had suspected. MUL TICS had enormous influence on other subsequent systems.€Another development du ring the third generation was the growth of mini computers, starting with DEC PD P-1 in 1961. One of the scientists who had worked on the MULTICS project, Ken Th ompson, I find after a small PDP-7 and began to write after an unprotected versi on of MULTICS for a user. This system was called "UNICS (Uniplex information and computing service, information and computing service unicanalizada), but the sp elling later changed to UNIX. UNIX has shifted to more computers than any other operating system in history and their use continues to increase rapidly. The fou rth generation (1980 - 1990): personal computers with the creation of integrated circuits, LSI (large scale integration) chips containing thousands of transisto rs on a square centimeter of silicon, the personal computer era was beginning. T wo operating systems have dominated the scene of the personal computer: MS-DOS, written by Microsoft, Inc., for the IBM PC and other computers that use Intel CP

U 8088 and their successors. And UNIX, which dominates in personal computers that use older Motorola 68000 CPU. Although the initial version of MS-DOS was relativ ely primitive, subsequent releases have included more and more features of UNIX, which is not entirely surprising given that Microsoft is a major supplier of UN IX, which uses the brand name XENIX. An important development that began to take their place in the mid-1980s is the development of computer networks that run n etwork operating systems and distributed operating systems. In a network operati ng system, users are aware of the existence of multiple computers and remote mac hines can log on and play files from one machine to another. Each machine runs i ts local operating system and has an own user (or users). A distributed system i s one that is presented to its users as a traditional processor joined, but in r eality composed of multiple processors. In a real distributed system, users are unaware of where their programs are being implemented or where your files are lo cated, all this should be handled automatically and efficiently through the oper ating system. Network operating systems are not fundamentally different operatin g systems joined processors. No doubt they need a network interface controller a nd a low-level software to drive it as well as programs for a remote entry syste m and remote file access. Real distributed operating systems require more than s imply add some code to a processor operating system joined as distributed operat ing systems and centralized differ decisively. History Minix When UNIX was young (version 6), the source code was everywhere, with permission from AT & T, and s tudied frequently, John Lions, came to write a small brochure describing its ope ration, line by line, this brochure was used as a textbook in many college cours es. When AT & T give version 7, began to understand that UNIX was a valuable com mercial product, and issued Version 7 with a license that prohibited the study o f source code in courses in order to avoid endangering its status as a trade sec ret, Many universities simply discarding complained UNIX studying and teaching o nly theory. Unfortunately, the theory leaves only teach students with a dispropo rtionate view of what is actually an operating system. To remedy this situation, I decided to write a new operating system would be compatible with UNIX from th e user point of view, but completely different inside. The name comes from miniU NIX MINIX because it is small enough that even someone who is not a teacher can understand how it works. MINIX has another advantage over UNIX was written a dec ade after UNIX and has been structured in a more modular. The MINIX file system, for example, is not part of the operating system at all, but runs as a user pro gram. Another difference is that UNIX was designed to be efficient, MINIX was de signed to be readable, the MINIX code, for example, has more than 3000 comments on it. MINIX was designed to be compatible with Version 7 UNIX. Like UNIX, MINIX is wri tten in C programming language The initial implementation was done in the IBM PC , MINIX does not require a hard drive to run, which is consistent with the budge ts of many students.