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areas corresponding to different stages of urban deve lopment: the old town, the widening of the mid-nineteenth century and first thir d of the periphery. 1. The Old Town. a) location and situation. Its location nea r the sea did the Romans founded the city between the rivers Llobregat and Besos , on top of an Iberian settlement, and settlement of access to conquer the penin sula. Its main function was defensive, but from the second century the city expe rienced a golden age. His status as the capital of Catalonia, one of the more de veloped regions of the country, and its size (the second largest population afte r Madrid), makes its influence is supra, linking all the Mediterranean axis, one of the largest in the country. This causes their functions are very specific an d specialized b) Analysis of the plane. The plane itself anarchic medieval city, which would correspond with the current historic site in Barcelona, typical of an unplanned city. Its streets are narrow, short and twisted own organic growth. Little remains of the plane orthogonal created by the Romans in their foundatio n. Since then, major historical transformations have been: The improvement and extension of Paseo de las Ramblas, in the late eighteenth ce ntury, configured as the widest street in the city. This led to the demolition o f part of the city wall. The creation of the Via Laietana in 1907, linking the p ort with the extension. It is the clearest example of large openings in historic routes of the industrial age, toppling buildings and outsourced above the cente r of the city. is now one of the most important streets of the city. c) Analysis of the plot. Is closed and compact, especially in the Gothic quarter, because t he growth of the city for centuries is located in the indoor space. Public space is very limited. d) Analysis of the building. Not be seen directly in the plane , but we can say that in the beginning, was low and gradually experienced a vert icalization. Are located in some of the most important historical buildings in t he city (Cathedral, Gothic Quarter ...) e) Analysis of land use. The traditional land uses were residential, commercial and craft without any zoning. These uses have evolved towards outsourcing, where residential use is losing ground due to lack of accessibility and high land prices. The function is also important to t ourism in the city, so many applications are related to the same (restaurants, b ars and hotels, etc.).. f) Current problems affecting old and possible solutions . As in other cities, the main problems of the old town are the physical deterio ration of streets and houses, which leads to social decay that causes an aging p opulation, an emptying of the center (from 1974-1994 lost 40% of its population) and the location of the marginal classes in the center, especially immigrants. This causes environmental degradation which adversely affects the image of the c ity. These facts, coupled with the outsourcing of soil caused by the emptying of the center outside business hours, current policies have resulted in physical a nd social rehabilitation center. In Barcelona, these policies began in the late 80s through measures such as rehabilitation of buildings, creation of green spac es and promoting residential use. 2. The widening a) causes that determine the urban expansion. The population gro wth and the city within a walled enclosure was untenable for Barcelona, which se ttled the nineteenth century as the second largest city. The unsanitary conditio ns and land uses not compatible with residential (cemeteries or factories) cause d mortality was shot during the nineteenth century, especially among the poorer classes. Therefore, the bourgeoisie was necessary to build a new city outside th e limit, much more orderly and hygienic than the central city, and the demolitio n of the walls that overwhelmed the city's growth, produced in 1854. b) Differen t areas can be distinguished. The widening of Barcelona, designed by Ildefonso C erda, is the largest and most perfect planned development has been achieved in S pain, serving as a model for other Spanish cities such as Madrid, Palma de Mallo rca or San Sebastian. Made in the late nineteenth century, noted for its grid pl an, its broad chamfered blocks, wide streets to facilitate traffic and size,Âwe
ll above the historical city, and create a much healthier city than the last. Th e orthogonal plane is broken by the opening of two diagonal streets (Diagonal an d Meridiana) facilitating movements on either side. All the expansion is located primarily in the west or north of the city. CerdÃ¡ designed the expansion with a plot open, green spaces within the block, responding to the requirements of yo ur project hygienists. The building was not high. This gave a much lower populat ion density than the center of the city. However, speculation and high land pric es in the area have produced a densification, which has caused a type of apple h as closed and buildings developed vertically. Currently, the extensions usually contain the CBD of major cities, ie the business district that is home to the he adquarters of major corporations, banks and city administration. The Eixample is joined, in addition to its role in CBD and residential, tourist role as importa nt modernist monuments are located (the Sagrada Familia, Gaudi's Casa BatllÃ³ an d the Plaza de Toros Monumental.) 3. The periphery. a) Causes of growth of the urban periphery. Since 1950, Barcel ona has experienced tremendous growth because of the baby boom population and th e rural exodus. This growth has been paralleled by a growth of the city until ab out blurring boundaries, where the city and country are mixed, resulting in peri -urban and suburban areas that appear on the map outside the urban expansion, oc cupying an area much greater than that occupies the map. This trend has been exa cerbated today because of de-urbanization, where people seek to live the periphe ry depopulating the center. b) Differentiation of areas in the periphery. The ou tskirts of Barcelona begins where the huge expansion of pork, and its function i s largely residential. So at the end of the nineteenth century began the annexat ion of the municipalities that have a physical then the extension, as Horta, Gra cia Sarria, mainly west of the city. The engagement of the city between the sea and the coastal mountain range - Catalan has not allowed a further expansion wit hin the urban area of the city, but that has spread along the coastline to nearb y towns such as Badalona or Hospitalet de Llobregat. All these areas have a more irregular than the expansion, although in some areas has remained the grid plan (Gracia). As for the building, ranging from the VPO of the Franco regime, usual ly in an open frame, the predominance of private construction since the 80s, als o breathable, but more to provide services and green spaces. In recent years hav e emerged from single-family neighborhoods, which in Barcelona are located in mo untain areas west of the city. Besides the residential areas are located outside the widening major industrial areas. The zone, located south of town between th e port and round the coast, is a big industrial zone built around the port's act ivity, one of the largest in the Mediterranean, and is set well above the old to wn the city. Furthermore, in the periphery often appear with other land uses tha t need lots of space for its operation, such as large shopping malls or transpor t such as airports. The Barcelona (El Prat) is located south of the city. In gen eral, urban uses on the periphery tend to zoning, unlike the urban center, not f inding mixed uses. c) Current problems in these areas and possible solutions. Some of these periphe ral areas suffer from problems such as slums, degradation or deterioration of th e older working-class neighborhoods, constructed mostly with insufficient provis ion of services to accommodate the large mass of people who moved to Barcelona i n the 50s. This is being carried out action programs to eradicate these problems .