1 Investigation of the topic "Computer games for girls and women" Contents 1st Introduction / Motivation ............................................... .. ................................................ ..............................

1 second Gambling ................................................. ............ ...................................... ......................................... Two third Use computers ............................................... ....... ........................................... ........................... 4 3.1 Pr evious and current situation ............................................ ...... ............................................ ............... 4 3.2 Gender differ ences .............................................. ........................... ....................... Society and social behavior ............................ ............... 5 3.2.1 .................................................. ... 5 3.2.2 Gender-specific patterns of thought ..................................... ....... ............................................... Relationship to technolo gy ........................................... 5 3.2.3 ......................... ......................... .................... 6 3.2.4 Interest ................ ............................. .................................................. ......................... 6 3.2.5 Competition situation ....................... .................... .................................................. ........ ........... 7 3.2.6 identification with the character .......................... ................ .................................................. ......... .. ........................................... 7 3.2.7 Game Magazine .............. .................................... .............................. 7 3.2.8 pref erences in the content ........................................... ............. ..................................... ...................... 7:00 4th Selected g ames of the 1990s ............................................. ................ .................................. ....... 8 4.1 Jill of the Jungle (1992) ..... .................................... ........................................... ....... ............................ 8 4.2 Biing! (1995 )....................... ........................ .................................................. .... ................................... 9 4.3 Leisure Suit Larry 7 (1996 ).......... ............................... ................................................ .. ....................... 9 5th Game based on attractiveness of selected games .............................................. ................................. ......... 10 5.1 World of Warcraft (2004 )...................................... .... .................................................. ....................... 10 5.2 The Sims 2 (2004 ).......................................... ............ ...................................... ................................. SingSta r 11 5.3 (2004) ............................................ ................... ............................... ................................... 12 6th Appro aches to the game more attractive .............................................. . .................................................. .................. 13 7th C onclusion ................................................. .................... .............................. ................................................. . .... 14 8th Appendix: Related Links .......................................... .... .................................................. ................ 15 1 Graphics taken from: www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds3-2/girlgame.html 1st Introduction / Motivation "Since the first popular computer games in the 1980s to this day many people enj oying them." This quote is in spirit prevail on various websites on the history of computer games. But what does that mean in this context "people"? Does not th at men and women alike a ...

This script will examine how women and girls face on the computer games and game elements which appeal to them. In addition, gender differences are identified, listed statistics and treated Games concrete example. Those who worry that girls in using computers will be a distinct disadvantage if they did not deal with the world of computer games and computers, they do not achieve this - is behind this script. Despite the ubiquitous digital age, the computer is still often an alien world f or women, in contrast, for men a daily, Used happy medium. This should and must change in the future, as evidenced by programmers inside and Game Designer / may be done internally,€and not least by the change of the still relatively rigid v iews of our society. Rights of women and girls are to be integrated into future games, so they are re garded as gender friendly. It should be made to produce in the future games that are appealing to both sexes equally. This script will also help to provide food for thought and ideas for a game prod uction team, as it can inspire more women with its developments. The relationshi p between boys' comparatively higher interest in computer games and their compar atively larger representation in high-power computer jobs is not accidental. Com puter and video games provide an easy lead-in to computer literacy ... and so th ose children who are not playing them at young ages may end up disadvantaged in later years. Girls may not simply avoid computers but actually experience stress when using them, even in education settings. Cassell and Jenkins, "From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games", MIT Press, 1998, p. 11 Page 1 of 15 2nd Gambling A gender analysis of gambling behavior, the frequency, duration, location and an y game partners include appears reasonable and is in the following, made: Girls like to play with friends together, either jointly or sitting at a compute r and online. For boys, however this plays less a role. 2 The article "Women and Computer Games" from the time of 3:00 was found that in 1996 only about 20% of women were playing video and computer games. Today it is reported by Entertainme nt Software Association, 44% had four players enter online. A computer game usually represents the first contact that a man has with the PC, so computer games are regarded as the best way, at attracting girls and boys to the PC. It is scientifically not yet been proven, but can be assumed that early games on the computer promotes cognitive and motor skills and is a door for the technological future. In conclusion therefore be argued that with the increase of female computer gamers, the future technological development is more influenc ed by women. Some of the girls playing on the computer these days already habitually, as show n in the following statistics. However, they play differently than boys. Therefo re, it is a stated goal of making their preferences and preferences identified i n order to embed them in games. 5 Research studies have so far focused on different types of game or other on game content. It was found that girls are interested in other elements of the game t han boys, but only from the onset of puberty (in children have similar preferenc es to be determined). 6

2 3 University of Munich, Empirical Study of 1994, see snp.bpb.de/referate/dittler1. htm (access from 2007-05-05). Blog article in the period from 2006-03-06, see bl ogg.zeit.de / white / eintrag.php id = 88 (accessed 2007-06-02). 4 Entertainment Software Association, Sales Demographic and Usage Data 2005, Essential Facts ab out the Computer Game Industry, online document (page 10): www.theesa.com/files/ 2005EssentialFacts.pdf (accessed 2007-05-16) 5 Cf Silje Hole Hommedal "Girls and boys preferences in computer games": www.helsinki.fi / Kristiina-instituutti / conference / pdf / Hole.pdf (access from 2007-05-10) 6 See ibid. Page 2 of 15 to receive free movement in the game world, speed in real time, a migratory pers pective, adaptive experience level for the game character, to rewards and prizes , and object-based rules address at end of the game seven, and give them wide la titude about the apt in the game to make decisions. Girls aged 7-9 years prefer simulation games. They prefer a choice in computer g ames, so the game individually adapted and can be designed according to their wi ll. Games on computers have become established in the context of adolescent leisure activities. These days begin about 40% of children already in preschool, to play on the PC. Intensive is where the gambling behavior in the 10 - 14 years, decre ases with the degree of intensity usually after puberty. 8 7 8 "Playing" is used in this script as a synonym for the player and players, so bot h sexes. Dr. Helga Jungwirth "Gender aspects of computer gaming", 1995, http://s np.bpb.de/referate/jungw2.htm (access from 2007-05-02). Page 3 of 15 3rd Use computers 1.3 Past and present situation Statistics on computer games and their use of women and girls who were raised as early as the 1980s,€show the following characteristics: • • • • • girls sit apa rt with your computer less often than boys. Girls play much less often with comp uter and video games than boys. Girls show different manners on the computer. Gi rls than boys prefer other game content. Girl playing on the computer rather tha n with other against them. 9 Today in the 21st Century can no longer apply a point to be true, because the co mputer is now used by the female sex almost as often as the male. Comparisons re fer to the following statistics from the Eurostat 2004. The other four points li sted are discussed in this script. Figure 1 - Statistics from Eurostat, the use of computers and the Internet (2004 ) 9 University of Munich, Empirical Study of 1994, see snp.bpb.de/referate/dittler1. htm (accessed 2007-05-17) Page 4 of 15

The computer game market has grown enormously over the course of its development . It is anticipated that the computer will replace because of its distribution a nd interactivity, the passive television as the dominant leisure activity, parti cularly in view of the coming generations. 10 2.3 Gender differences The following is an attempt to possible causes of the detached association of wo men and girls to explore computer games: 11 3.2.1 Society and a social fact, to computer games of the female reference is af fected, the distribution of social roles (responsibilities and tasks) according to sex, is geared to those present. Each person has a gender identity and learns to act accordingly. The topics for engineering and traditionally the boy is awa rded to the girl dares not to be a professional company dealing with computers. Parents therefore encourage their male offspring more often than females. push 3.2.2 Gender patterns of thinking, if girls on a problem, analyze it first in full, give him a structure and then develop a solution. Only then will take p lace to implement the solution. Boys use the sequential principle of "trial and error," which means they try out a solution and see if the solution leads to suc cess. This strategy is currently in most PC games found on such. The above state ment is supported by games such as PacMan and Tetris in which the game action is limited to a playing field, and indeed the entire playing time. Combinatorial a nd logical thinking, however, are in action games found on such very rare. 10 11 Schindler, gender roles in computer and video games, http://snp.bpb.de/referate/ schind.htm (access from 2007-05-30). Approaches of the chapter comes in part fro m the final report on the project "Gender aspects of computer gaming", Federal M inistry for Education and Cultural Affairs, Linz, October 1995. Speech by Dr. He lga Jungwirth, available at http://snp.bpb.de/referate/jungw2.htm (accessed 2007 -05-30). Page 5 of 15 The following definition of a few selected statements that were made by boys and girls from the U.S. in a survey, in which it came, the term "computer": 12 Definitions of the girls - something to be associated with his friends - he will help you to communicate with others - access to information - it is a source fo r learning definitions of the boys - a machine with CPU and motherboard - a mach ine that the does what you program (high-tech calculator) - a machine that proce sses information and stores Furthermore, the interviewed girls and boys to specify what they use the PC: Girls use the PC for: - writing the homework - PowerPoint presentations - E-mail , instant messaging and chat - games like PacMan and Solitaire, but only if ther e is boredom - Shopping on the Internet PC to use for boys: - for fun to play ac tion and casual games - homework, in conjunction with the Internet - Entertainme nt around the Clock 3.2.3 The relationship to technology, knowing that a PC is not damaged by faulty operation of the software, but the action can be repeated to achieve the desire d success is in men because of the increased play instinct more pronounced. 3.2.4 Areas of interest in girls' interests are more dispersed than in boys. The y tend to versatility, boys to concentrate. Looking at the popularity of school subjects, it is clear that boys prefer math, engineering and science. Girls on t he other hand are interested in biology, art and languages. Exception is the sub ject of history, which obviously does not cause any preferences.€Girls are very

interested in their fellow human beings and everyday life. That probably explain s the success of the computer game "The Sims". One can empathize with their indi vidual people and sympathize with them (empathy, reflection). 12 Meridian Computer Technologies Journal, Alice A. Christie: "How Middle School Bo ys and Girls View Today's Computer Culture", www.ncsu.edu/meridian//win2005/comp uterculture/2.html (access from 2007-06-05). Page 6 of 15 3.2.5 Competition situations girls and women have a different attitude to compet ition. They are restricted in their motivation, if they have to prove competency and are driven to power. to defeat others, is not important for girls. You are not out to achieve a maximum score. For example, at "Tetris" against any opponen t, but the challenge is to properly arrange geometric shapes. 3.2.6 identification with the character in computer games is the game ends given the opportunity to identify with the character. Thus he / she empathize get int o the game and experience it emotionally. This is easily possible if features ar e the character in terms of self-perception of the player only. Extremely import ant are also the sex of the character and an appealing and interesting design of this. 3.2.7 Game Magazine The print media show and are also one reason why women are n ot yet fully involved in the world of computer games. Game magazines are primari ly consumed by the male gender, and read. This is probably because the authors a re mostly male, and this is reflected in the spelling. In the style of language is only the masculine ("the player" is used) and the reports of female game char acters are from the male-accented term. 3.2.8 preferences in the content in the investigation of so-called favorite game s has been found that there are clear differences between boys and girls with re gard to the content Game preferences show: girls prefer boys as opposed to the thinking and logic ga mes and skill games. They show a greater interest in multiplayer games and game elements to assess interpersonal seem higher. Page 7 of 15 4th Selected games of the 1990s The first games were sold in the early 1980s to the mass market, but those games were mostly made up of geometric shapes in which gender roles were not present. But this changed in the 1990s, when increased significantly due to technical de velopment to the quality of computer graphics and characters have been identifie d. In the following three games and its approaches will be studied to allow the rea der or the reader a better comparison with current games: 4.1 Jill of the Jungle (1992) Developer: Epic MegaGames Jill of the Jungle is one of the first games in which occurs a female character. The aim of the platformer game is to rescue a prince. It is, therefore, at the interchange of the classical action "Man rescues woman ." While playing the game end encounters various dangers and opponents, and they need not necessarily destroy it, but can also handle. The representation of the character is stereotypennah because she wears a bathing suit and footwear.

Figure 2 - Jill of the Jungle with a female character 13 13 Picture Source Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Jill_of_the_Jungle. screenshot.png (accessed 2007-05-25). Page 8 of 15 2.4 Biing! (1995) Manufacturer: In this business simulation software reline of a hospital there ar e women only as nurses and managers are all men. Biing! reduced the female sex o n the increase, whose sexual characteristics. The role models are superficial an d differentiated emotions are missing in the game. Figure 3 - The Game Biing! reline of software 14 4.3 Leisure Suit Larry 7 (1996) Manufacturer: Sierra Entertainment On the one hand at the games of the Larry ser ies sharpened the image of women and the very feminine women depicted are the ta rget of male desire, which reinforces the gender roles of the image on the other hand, women have always the character Larry in the grip of what appeals to turn female players . Besides the female is also the male stereotype of the perpetua l loser found on such. These stereotypes associated with humor make the game app ealing to both sexes. Figure 4 - Leisure Suit Larry 7 15 14 15 Images source GameTective: http://www.gametective.de/screenshots/details/11238.h tml (access from 2007-05-26). Picture Source Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org / wiki / Image: LeisureSuitLarry7.jpg (access from 2007-05-26). Page 9 of 15 5th Game based on attractiveness of selected games Game developers are predominantly male, so it is not surprising that images of w omen in computer games are created from masculine point of view. Since inference s are made in the character of a character from their actions and what you can l earn from her, it is extremely important as a character is created. For as soon as a character image has been established by the game ends reacts accordingly an d an expectation exists. The character and the situation in which it is located, must be presented. Any i nformation about the past, if it offers itself, or other information necessary t o understand the context of the history and develop a Erstprofil of the characte r should be fed to the player. Even the demonstration of relationships with othe r characters makes sense. They should attempt to design a relatively comprehensi ve picture and personality to give the best possible way. The above elements are used in the game development is often too short, should t hen be placed in relation to women-friendly computer games special attention. Be low the examples of "World of Warcraft" and "The Sims 2" for the parade are that

the inclusion of such issues can contribute substantially to the success of a g ame. 01/05 World of Warcraft (2004) Developer: Blizzard Entertainment, the massively multiplayer online role-playing game is a worldwide success, not only relates to what the sales figures, but al so the beidgeschlechtliche acceptance. Reasons why a majority of female players could be attracted, amongst others: • In World of Warcraft is the end of the game thousands of different characters (f rom sweet to ugly, from simple to highly complex), which are controlled by real players online. • The manufacturer of the servers of Blizzard made available to virtual, persisten t land can be discovered by each new. Page 10 of 15 • It can be created a fascinating world of adventure, act in which each end of the game at will and interact with others. • • The open spaces are very large dimensions, there is no defined end game. The pla yers can choose their priorities in the game itself: solving missions and tasks, development of the avatar, explore unknown territories, form groups with other game ends. Game designer Gano Haine (Product Developer at LimeLife) says [...] t he game [is so successful because it] offers a variety of content that players c an freely choose from: "Being able to customize, to play on your own terms, is h ugely important. "Persistence is attractive to women - there's something about h aving your stuff, arranging your stuff and having it be there when you come back - the whole collecting-slash-farming mechanic," said Hain. "I do not explore th e dungeons very much, but I'm good at building my profession and finding herbs. "16 Figure 5 - World of Warcraft 17 5.2 The Sims 2 (2004) Developer: Electronic Arts Sims stands for "simulated people" and sold millions worldwide. The game is a simulation where you manage the lives of his characters must, however, is not a mandatory play goal. The focus is on daily processes of the virtual characters (such as sleeping, eating, washing). 16 17 Chris Kohler "Women Gamers Duke It Out": www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/ 2006/03/70313 (accessed 2007-06-05). Pictures Sources: (left) Igniq Gaming News: www.igniq.com/images/world_of_warcraft_050905.jpg, (right) Quickjump Network: w ww.qj.net/uploads/articles_module/5171/ss2.jpg (access from the 2007-06 -05). Page 11 of 15 According to Star Game 18 The Sims 2, with its various expansion packs (Open for

Business, Pets, Family Stuff, Nightlife) several times in the top 10 include th e U.S. sales charts for the year 2006. In women this game is highly popular, ref lecting the individuality of the characters and the existing open spaces due. Figure 6 - The Sims 2 19 5.3 SingStar (2004) Manufacturer: Sony Computer Entertainment This made for the PlayStation 2 game i s a karaoke program, in which the end of the game sing through a microphone conn ected to the game console has a song. Lyrics can be shown to match the music. Th e goal is to make the singing of the real singer as accurately as possible. This game may take up to 8 people. This strong social component makes it particularl y interesting for girls and women, as reflected in the popularity and reputation . Figure 7 - Socio-active computer game: SingStar 20 18 19 20 Gamestar U.S. Charts: www.gamestar.de/news/vermischtes/charts/us_charts/1467649/ us_charts.html (accessed 2007-06-06) Picture source DieSims2: www.diesims2.de/im ages/spots/178-spot_de. gif (accessed 2007-06-06) Image source Wikimedia: upload .wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/SingStar.jpg/250px-SingStar.jpg (accessed 2007-06-06) Page 12 of 15 6th Approaches to the game more attractive In the following short and concise advice and guidance will be given, which may lead to increased attractiveness of the game: Varieties • • Most girls do not like fast action and no fighting. Girls like games that are co mplex but not complicated. You should be aesthetic, imaginative and also be funn y. • Tension and drama should arise during the game. They help to let the emotional g ames. • A tense atmosphere and a pinch of humor can be a good combination. Game Content • A story is developing, which includes no woman or helpless to rescue a princess. No cliches show. • • Try to offer different types of heroines. Girls want to be creative and solve pu

zzles, accordingly select the game elements. • Develop realistic female body shapes, but without stereotypes affect. Rather, in dividuality. Women and girls eighth-by-side on the clothes of the characters, it should be practical and aesthetic. • Communication is also related embed in first place, why make the game as far as possible online Add: Several players offer the possibility Miteinanderspielen, c hat or instant messaging. • Girls prefer cooperation, helpfulness, and fantasy, also consider these properti es for the game. Page 13 of 15 7th Conclusion With the steady growth of the computer games market creates more and more compan ies who want to develop for both sexes attractive games. This market also in ter ms of winning a larger group of buyers. To achieve this goal, one hand contribut e to analysis, as performed in this script, on the other hand, it is also desira ble that a rethinking of the game industry is taking place, that causes more pro grammers and game designers are trained and used in upcoming projects. This woul d in future production teams able to design their games better and to present bo th sexes a successful game. An example is received is in the history books was Roberta Williams, the King Qu est series (first book was published in 1984) was developed. She is one of the f ew women who has worked successfully as a game designer, a name. Figure 8 - Roberta Williams (co-founder of Sierra Entertainment) 21 It is hoped that other women follow suit. 2007-06-10 21 NNDB tracking the entire world: http://www.nndb.com/people/647/000057476/ (acces s from 2007-06-09). Page 14 of 15 8th Appendix: Related Links "All women gamers, please stand up" - BBC, Jane Wakefield http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/5407490.stm "Attracting Women to Game Development" - GDC 2005 Round Table Discussion (Sande Chen and Michelle Sorger) http://www.gamedev.net/columns/events/coverage/feature.asp?feature_id=41 "Because Women DO Play" - Woman Gamers, psychologist Dr. Kathryn Wright http://www.womengamers.com/doctork/

"Computer game marketing bias - ACM Student, Melissa Chaika http://www.acm.org/crossroads/xrds3-2/girlgame.html "CU women win first prize in student computer-game design contest" - Cornell Uni versity Chronicle Online, JR Clairborne http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/May06/Games4Girls.html "Debunking Stereotypes, Women Flock to Computer Games" - NC State University New s Services, Mick Kulikowski http://www.ncsu.edu/news/press_releases/02_08/198.htm "Games Women Play" - The CS Monitor Gloria Goodale http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0611/p13s01-stin.html "Girl Games on Computers, Where Shoot Em Up Simply Will not Do" - The New York T imes, Karen De Witt http://www.crpc.rice.edu/newsArchive/nyt.06-23-97.html "Girls and Computer Games" - University of Western Sydney, A. Thomas and V. Walk erdine http://www.women.it/cyberarchive/files/thomas.htm "More women play computer games" - Asia News Network, Hwang Si-young http://www.asianewsnet.net/stech.php?aid=8526 "Reality Bytes: Eight Myths About Video Games Debunked" - MIT Professor Henry Je nkins http://www.pbs.org/kcts/videogamerevolution/impact/myths.html "The Internet and computer games reinforce the gender gap" - Monitor On Psycholo gy, Lisa Rabasca http://www.apa.org/monitor/oct00/games.html Top: Society: People: Women: Recreation and Sports: Gamers - Open Directory Proj ect http://www.dmoz.org/Society/People/Women/Recreation_and_Sports/Gamers/ "Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations." ERIC Digest, Bernard Cesarone http://www.ericdigests.org/1999-2/video.htm "Why do not women play computer games?" - Spiked Online, James Woudhuysen http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/265/ "Why girls and games are a good mix" - BBC News, Anna Larke http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3248461.stm Women In Games International http://www.womeningamesinternational.org/ "Women outnumber men in online games, survey finds - CNET News, Candace Lombardi http://news.com.com/2100-1043_3-6123172.html "Women take a shine to video games" - BBC News, Alfred Hermida http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/3615278.stm Video Link: "Gender, Lies and Video Games: Women and Computer Sciences" Produced by: University of Washington Speaker: Professor Maria Klawe (Princeton Universi ty) http://www.researchchannel.org/prog/displayevent.aspx?rID=3928

Page 15 of 15