Coordinators: César Calderón Sebastián Lorenzo OPEN GOVERNMENT: Open Government Algon editors mmx

Dedicated to Veronica and Sun Without his patience and guidance this work would not have been possible. 7 8 Index Introduction introductory Fable: A History of Bruges. Why this obsession with ci tizen participation? . The 0 key to understanding collaboration in the world Ope n Government. "Transparency? . A cultural change July 9, 1987 9 . Open Government, an approach from the State 0 6. A story with two late July. O pen Diplomacy - New Diplomacy 8. The opening to society: a necessity in Septembe r. The new leadership 0. OGov strategies for sustainable development. Open Gover nment to strengthen democracy July 8, 1999 . Free software to open government. Collaborative construction processes. Govern ance legislative nine open spaces . Data, information, works and open government to citizens. Tools for participat ory management of diversity in July 1979 Authors 0 Introduction César Calderón Sebastián Lorenzo 1 .- What is the Open Government? When we talk about open government, there is a lready a reasonable consensus on the emerging doctrine that in essence we are ta lking about an evolution of our democratic system of coexistence and values base d on the establishment of mechanisms for government transparency as well as perm anent spaces collaboration and participation of citizens beyond the exercise of suffrage every four years. We represent, we jump from our old model of represent ative democracy to a conversational model of democracy and open, using the possi bilities provided by ICT to the citizens to participate in decision-making proce sses of governments beyond the aforementioned exercise of right to vote or parti cipate in traditional social organizations. Open Government is one who engages i

n a constant conversation with citizens to hear what they say and ask, who makes decisions based on their needs and preferences, which facilitates collaboration of citizens and officials in the development of services providing and communic ating everything that decides and makes an open and transparent (i). Open Govern ment The idea is not new, in fact as old as democracy itself, underlies most of the constitutions and fundamental laws of modern Western states, and consequentl y, the states have adopted a broad legal offering spaces for consultation and pa rticipation of a wide range of social intermediaries, central to the law to give

social support and depth of democratic, or at least its appearance. But it is on ly now, with technological advancement has led to the so-called social web or We b 2.0 and the extension of the Internet as global network, when you can begin to be implemented on a massive scale and bearable costs for states. The violent ex plosion of the Internet as a global phenomenon in the social life of our world i s producing an undeniable paradigm shift in the way citizens relate, or want to interact-with governments, allowing governors and governed interact in perfectly flat horizontal and without any other intermediate agents in that conversation. There are many changes taking place before our eyes, including the very idea of civil society to the emergence of the Internet was essentially a collective con cept, heir to the social movements and gregarious class of political parties and unions. The way of handling social participation was through such civil society in which the individual's participation was diluted and mediated in a morass of interest group, class or historical. The individual was not important, and were organized groups that were subject to public policy. Consumer associations, nei ghbors, students, unions, NGOs ... these were the institutions that organized pu blic participation. Participation in the citizen, the individual, had little to say but try to stand to become co-opted into the decision-making groups. Through the Internet and the social web, is the citizen, the individual, who can take p ower, organize, knit social networks, build social efímerasnecesarias architectu res for a specific claim, and go after it without the will to stay and also the governments can fulfill their duty of transparency to the citizenry by establish ing open channels of information, collaboration,€participation and citizen servi ce. This technological change-and values-is a revolution and a challenge for our gov ernments. No longer enough to win an election, citizens begin to demand transpar ency in government action and involvement in matters affecting them, and is the responsibility of public authorities to open these windows of permanent communic ation. The citizen is no longer the individual patient, public policy and expand ed its role to be considered as a client of such policies on administrative mode rnization practices born in the 90s of last century, has already grown to the cu rrent sociedadred establish itself as an active protagonist character of the cha nge process. 2 .- Open Source and Open Government Open Government concept flat i s in permanent expansion and redefinition. And making sense in its current momen tum and a significant number of elements of the development of free software mov ement, open source software developed by the hacker community, as freely availab le to the community and in continuous development and evolution. If the open sou rce movement was born of rebellion and creative passion of these communities of hackers who thought-and still think, that ethical and economic sense to create s hare software code and deliver them to the community for their development and e njoyment Open Government in its maximum program argues that the public will also act as hackers, opening the code for the functioning of government and our stat es, and returning the control code of these springs to the community so that in this form are kept in constant evolution permanent addition to questioning the t ruths supposedly unquestionable. The analogy between the Open Source and Open Go vernment are also summarized reporting on the three principles of the two moveme

nts, which are: Transparency, Collaboration and

Participation, as outlined by Barack Obama in the first show broadcast from the White House, the Open Government memorandum that led to the definitive populariz ation of these concepts and their entry into the agenda of many governments thro ughout the world. Open movement does not end at the Open Source and Open Governm ent, there are already developments importanes the same applied to the business (Open Business) or economy (Open Economy) that seek to apply these same paramete rs to each of the disciplines. 3 .- From the e-government to the Open Government to clarify right from the start point of our approach to this reality, and as i t can create confusion in terminology and culture, we must clearly differentiate the e-government (also called e- government or electronic government) of the Op en Government. When we speak of e-government we mean the application of ICT and its tools to the existing administrative procedures, ie we are not talking about changes in values or procedures, but of pure technology. No rethink the managem ent, technology-intensive processes only. The e-government does not transform so ciety-and not just short-makes life easier for citizens. On the contrary when it comes to Open Government we are talking mainly of values, we speak of administr ations and governments to rethink its procedures and its dogmas. Open Government is to place the results before the procedure, is to abandon the administrative tautologies, promoting deliberative democracy in all parts of government and adm inistered by abandoning the concept of citizen. Open Government is the applicati on of culture dospuntocerista public administration and government, an administr ation in which the processes are in constant phase

beta and where these can be improved by the constant interaction with citizens. In summary, the changes to be made by an administration to join the idea of open government are (II): • Cultural change: It is imperative to understand what the objective of the Administration and all who work there. The real purpose of gov ernment is to serve the citizens and the citizen must be at the heart of managem ent. Achieving this in the public means a cultural revolution in the way of doin g things and attitudes of employees of the public. • Change Processes: The proce sses in public administration are not designed to serve the citizens and therefo re should reingeniarse all processes to make it happen. If procedures are not co mfortable for the citizen or do not help at all, must be removed or changed.€• C hange in the organization: Public organizations are designed with hierarchical m odels that have nothing to do with efficiency. It is essential to reorganize the administration, staff and the definition of the jobs in order to act under a ne twork model, project-oriented and achieve results. • Change in the forms of rela tionship: The counter on the panel, the registered mail to the on-line communica tion, the obligation to the physical presence of related facilities, etc. 4 .- W e talk about governance, management speak, talk politics No one can escape him i n this book we talk about politics, good policy, policy in capital letters. Let' s talk about axes extending the participation of citizens beyond the theoretical boundaries marked by the current way of understanding democracy, constrained

participatory processes and spaced point in time with more or less arbitrary cad ences. We argue that when it comes to Open Government are not talking only about the idea of governance, there is no talk just revamping the public administrati on, we are talking to reinvent and reorganize our whole system offers new featur es at all points, formerly at the opening citizenship. There will be no material change in the form of government or the functioning of our government without t

hese are accompanied by a profound and radical changes of our entire democratic system, starting with the functioning of political parties, still the heirs of a tradition information control and full of closed structures and inflexible, wil l become open space, dynamic and permeable. We speak therefore of policy, to cha nge radically the old paradigm that moves does not appear in the photo that rewa rded the inertia in the games on digital photographs that capture and reward mov ement and action, change the adage that information is concealment power induced by the axiom-internet network that, in this new society we are building are wha t you share. But fear not, this book that you are holding is far from becoming a mere list of good intentions or from a sterile exercise of political philosophy , and that despite the youth of the discipline that we try, there are already ar ound the world, including Latin America and Spain, excellent examples through wh ich we can see how to implement these principles are actively and successfully. 5 .- The government of the future While many in the West happy and I think we de veloped a kind of happy Arcadia expansion of democracy around the globe, nothing else far from reality. In recent years we are experiencing a deterioration in the qua lity goal of many democracies infected messianic leaders and the irresistible ex pansion in many countries government formulas that combine more unsupportive eco nomic liberalism with political authoritarianism wildest and contempt for the ba sic civil liberties. And the problems do not only come from outside, many pipes of our systems begin to become clogged by the disaffection of citizens to a lack of transparency in which his voice is influenced by many social intermediaries and which do not feel represented, expressed in high rates of voter turnout and almost no social and political participation. Democracy as we know it in Western countries, faces a number of problems of all kinds, and must begin to evolve in their approaches to adapt to new global realities, moving towards greater level s of involvement citizenship, reinventing their values by adopting as their own social web and redesigning their methods of operation and representation using t he tools it owns. Urge the government to start thinking of the future, be able t o overcome all the problems, inefficiencies and contradictions described above a nd which serve to deepen our democracies reinvent values thus scaring them with these new authoritarianism. Therefore urges the government begin to imagine the future, the future of democracy and this book wants to be part of this reflectio n 6 .- What is this book? This book is a collaborative experiment born thanks to a number of talks in Madrid and Buenos Aires, a kind of permanent working airli ft 7 8 and ideas that work has culminated in the hands in which authors from both sides of the pond we will try to implement each one our own perspective, marked by ca reer paths, and different regional life, passed through the filter of our common language to the idea of open government and shared work to contribute to buildi ng a more democratic and cohesive society. This book is an attempt to bring toge ther in one place an enormous amount of knowledge and experiences scattered thro ughout the network in hundreds of blogs, wikis and websites, a wealth of knowled ge of difficult access to politicians, officials specialists, government and cit izens because of their enormous range. The aim of the book is, therefore, attemp t to provide a theoretical and practical approach to help understand the concept of Open Government, with reference to major global experiences to think about t he impact it can have a global phenomenon of this kind in our countries, interes ted mainly focusing the theme from the optical-governmental, civil and business and special emphasis on each of the three central elements that define the Open Government: • Transparency: We talk about radical transparency of government act ion (accountability) citizens have the right to know how their taxes are spent a nd there are sufficient technological capabilities to facilitate access to this

information in a simple and clear ( Also, the data produced by gov ernment are public, following the example of in the U.S., i n Britain and opening projects and reuse of public data of the Basque Country, d eepen on draft more innovative in these fields. • Participation: Governments can leverage the collective intelligence of the citizens and open their legislative agenda to the public. All laws, decrees, actions or decisions taken by other go vernments can be discussed, evaluated, criticized and completely das (even before processing) with the views of citizens. • Collaboration: Can we understand the government as a service technology platform to build reusable ap plications by other administrations and citizens? National governments, regional and local authorities can work together with private enterprise and citizens, I give innovative tools and new collaborative working methods and new markets, ge nerating new economic sector for a sustainable and replicable. But we do not sto p there, this is a book that in addition to addressing canonical issues describe d in the previous paragraph, begins with a story of witches, the history of the Belgian city of Bruges, which shows with crystal clarity the importance of the n etwork and communication nodes for governments. In addition, we wanted to comple ment them with different sectoral visions of the idea of Open Government by tack ling it from different perspectives, especially focusing on success stories to s how all of them, such as the Open Government idea from the state perspective, th e Government Open from perspective of the municipalities. the opening up of poli tical parties or the necessary redefinition of public diplomacy in the era of th e social web. And finally, point out that this is not a closed work but the begi nning of a debate, a conversation. After you read our contributions to the debat e really begins is when the interesting thing, because all authors are in the ne twork and happy to discuss and debate their ideas and contributions. 9 I: Javier Llinares: Ogov, the idea, para. II. Javier Llinares: Ogov, the idea, c oncluding paragraph. 0 Introductory Fable: A History of Bruges (First published in Network Administration: 008 / 0 / 8/una-historia-de-brujas) Alberto Ortiz de Zarate Bruges (in Flemish, Brugge) is the capital of the province of West Flanders, bel onging to Belgium. It is considered by UNESCO World Heritage Site. Two thousand years ago. Romans had settlements in the current location of the city. If this i s an epic tale, could now dwell on the battles fought in later centuries around the Germans, the Vikings or the first Christian kings, but we agree with David d e Ugarte: the inhabitants of the network society we interested in poetry, the sm all bourgeois happiness. We travel, then, one year history key. In that year, th e Flemish coast suffered an apocalyptic storm.€The damage was extensive and the same profile as the coast was modified by the drag of the streams looking for th e sea and the waves that plundered the land. The calm after the storm emerged, e xposing the devastation and ruin. But it is written that the great crises bring with them new opportunities. At least, that was on that occasion. The torrential floods dug a deep channel from the city to the sea. Wherever dragged before an impure stream, now flowing channel with a width, which they named Zwin. Surely, it will be the last in the alphabetical list of rivers in the world. Bruges had always shown a commercial vocation, that during the last hundred years had barel y been able to survive due to lack of good roads. The opening of the city brough t Zwin large ships and with them, all goods of the known world. The truth is tha

t Belgian soil was particularly rich in anything, at that time, but became an op timal location for the textile industry. The raw materials the proportion

prietary the English and Scottish nourished herds, where ships departed continuo usly to the port of Bruges. The Hanseatic League chose Bruges as your port of ch oice and an entire social class of entrepreneurs prospered. Fruit of the concern s of those citizens, began trading in wheat from Normandy and, soon after, the w ine of Gascony. Was necessary to expand the port to accommodate so many great sh ips that came to deliver and collect goods. But the final punch line came in 127 7. That year the first cargo ship docked in Genoa, followed by others. In the fi rst boat arrived in Venice. Bruges won the post of principal communication hub b etween Western Europe and the Mediterranean. And the Mediterranean was the gatew ay for Asian goods. With these excellent contacts, soon to bloom the banking sec tor. The Bourse, which opened in September, became the most sophisticated money market area in the fourteenth century. The capital found its most precious refug e Bruges. The Italian bankers came to join the native bankers. Bruges diversifie d their knowledge and industries, covering many sectors other than textiles. Res tless people from all backgrounds came to the city looking for a place to develo p their skills and ideas. In the fifteenth century, Philip the Good, Duke of Bur gundy, established his court there. This attracted many artists, bankers and man y of the most outstanding personalities of the time. She became famous art of Fl emish oil painters, led by Jan van Eyck. It was in Bruges which produced the fir st book printed in English. And, precisely, was in Bruges where English kings Ed ward IV and Richard III decided to spend his exile. The talent became common. Th e population grew to the approximately 000 people. To establish a point of compa rison, London had by then half the population. Prosperity, dynamism and culture of Bruges became legendary. At some point in th eir best years, in the fifteenth century, the queen of France traveled to Bruges . A round, gathered his courtiers and told them that she had considered the smar test woman in the world, until he saw in Bruges to four women like her. In recen t years, from until the late fifteenth century, Bruges did not escape the turmoi l of medieval Europe. The city changed hands several times and suffered consider able unrest, but neither could alter its prosperity. Neither good nor the bad go vernments had a decisive influence. But the last statement must be qualified. Ma ry of Burgundy died in August, which led to ten years of political uncertainty a nd military subjugation. At the same time, the Zwin began to be blinded by natur al causes. The rulers, too concerned dispute the city, neglected this fact and d id not do for remedy. In a few years, the Zwin was ceasing to be navigable for s hips of a certain depth and, finally, for most boats. This marked a rapid declin e and marked the end of the prosperous Bruges. The early sixteenth century looke d to a city where they had fled the court of Burgundy and international traders. Antwerp, which had an excellent harbor, took the place of Bruges. Attempts to r evive the city for decades after they were useless. In around 8 0, Bruges was th e poorest city in the country. At 89, Georges Rosenbach wrote the novel Bruges l a Morte, which is described as a dead city and mysterious. Today Bruges remains a medieval city untouched. A 0.000 people live in the old town, which is visited by many tourists attracted by its appearance and decor of time the attractivene ss of the furrow canals. Apparently, the time stopped around the year 00 and Bru ges and had no opportunity to evolve.

Lessons of history to the Board 1. Be connected Brugge's prosperity were directl y related to their connection to the world through the channel. While the Zwin w as navigable, Bruges was more and more prosperous. When blinded its course, Brug

es died. In the XXI century, ICTs play the role they played in the Middle Ages t he fairway. Allow instant connection between more than one billion people around the world. In this tangle of relationships mediated hyper ICT call, following C astells, sociedadred. The Administration continues to society as their shadow, i n the words of Joan Prats. One wonders how far the remains, if away from your fe et, like the shadow at sunrise, or near, as at noon. In any case, the Administra tion of the twenty-first century live in a networked environment, is a network a dministration, an administration relationships, even if it is aware of this fact or if it is resistant to reality. 2. Bruges open to the world did not have any products with a relevant value. But he learned that the important thing is not t o have, but to link. Established alliances with those who had what she needed, i n England, Scotland, Normandy, Gascony, in Genoa, Venice and, through them, the riches of Asia. He served as an intermediary who contacted a needs and capabilit ies of others. The Administration of the XXI century is not sufficient in itself to satisfy the needs of the citizenry. On the one hand, faces a crisis of legit imacy that can only be solved in close contact with the public. In addition, the re is a complex network of stakeholders involved in the production of public goo ds.

If Internet and has expanded to previously unimaginable extremes connection capa bility, Web 0.0 is enabling the participation of many in the production of conte nt in its documentation and evaluation, in-house services. The first step to ope n the world is listening. Open your ears to continue the conversations that are constantly on the network. The palace of the Administration has never been a goo d forum to talk. We must leave it to see what is happening. The second step is t o show. Radical Transparency save the Administration, because the public will sh are responsibility with the Administration and allow services to be provided and improved by anyone with the initiative. 3. Web networks and care for them in Br uges beat the heart of medieval Western trade. From the Belfry tower in the Grot e Markt was possible to feel the pulse of everything important in medieval Europ ean society. Successive generations of entrepreneurs have devoted their best abi lities to create dense networks within and outside the city and take care: macra mental produce synergy. Significantly, the decline came for neglecting the chann el that kept them connected. Management is a curious business: do not specialize in anything. No topic is foreign, from agriculture to culture. Able to deal eff ectively with such a variety of issues requires intensive maintenance of collabo rative networks. Networks within each administration, between government, with b usiness, with the third sector. Governance arises from the inevitable conclusion that you can not govern alone. Lately the term PPP is used to refer to public-p rivate partnerships (public-private partnership). You have to add fourth P: publ ic-private-people partnership, ie public-private partnerships-rock. The officials need to weave their own networks to adequately perform their funct ion and to learn. Each technician is a small isolated point in the long line of talent in need of a community of practice to develop. 4. Become an attractive pl ace Bruges functioned as a magnet for talent. That feeds their prosperity, in a virtuous circle that meant more prosperity, greater attraction of talent and mor e talent, more prosperity. If we could choose a place to live in Europe in the f ifteenth century, many would choose Bruges. It is not clear that the Administrat ion is attractor of talent. On the one hand, seems to be the preferred destinati on for many people who consider it a safe workplace and comfortable. It is also true that the bureaucracy ends up scaring, or cancel, a lot of talent that could put at stake.€But the Administration is enormous and multifaceted. Next to the sinks of talent so well reflects Forges, units are dynamics that works well for the pleasure of working well. And these are the points that attract the talent t o himself. 5. The control is not relevant Bruges in the three and a half centuri es-long promotion, had multiple owners in a turbulent Middle Ages. At his best,

was just ruled. The real power was the web of relationships between manufacturer s, professionals, businessmen, bankers and boat captains who collaborated and co mpeted, making Halloween an increasingly prosperous city. In Public Administrati on, the power changes hands and in the Middle Ages. Any moderately veteran offic er has survived more directors who have fingers on one hand. Each, with his trad emark.

Without wishing to ignore the strength of a good leader, facilitator, or labor s hortages caused by a toxic boss, "the fact is that things go better when there i s no need to control. When they all share a vision and strive to make this possi ble, the organization operates and grows. Can we take this lesson of history? Th anks to Tim Harford, who put me on the track of the history of Bruges, and wikip edia, where I got most of the material. 7