MINISTRY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL EDUCATION Early Childhood Education Knowledge and practices of inclusion High ability / gifted

Brasilia 2004 IMPRINT General Coordination Prof. Francisca Furtado Roseneide Mount MEC / SEESP Prof. I de Borges dos Santos MEC / SEESP Development Prof. Dr. Denise de Souza Fleith Un iversidade de Brasília-UnB Technical Review Prof. Francisca Furtado Roseneide Mo unt MEC / SEESP Prof. Luzimar Camões Peixoto MEC / SEESP Proofing Prof. Ide Borg es Santos - MEC / SEESP Prof. Ms. Aura Cid Ferreira Lopes Flórido Britto MEC / S EESP consultants and institutions that issued opinion Prof. Dr. Eunice Mary L. S oriano Alencar Prof. Dr. Maria Cristina Carvalho Delouis Universidade Federal Fl uminense-UFF Prof. Pacheco de Lacerda Gaioso Christmas food unattended Consultan t Prof. Dr. C. Zenit Guenther Centre for Development and the Potential TalentoCE DET - Lavras / MG Prof. Vera Lucia Pereira Palmeira Member of the Brazilian Asso ciation for Gifted Sectional / Pedagogical DF Support Center Specialized Educati on Department of the State of Santa Catarina-CAPE Foundation Special Education o f the State of Santa Catarina State Department of Education of Minas Gerais / Di rectors of Special Education Ministry of Education and Teaching Quality Screenin g and Diagnostic Center of Special Education of the State of Amazonas, SEDUC Sec retariat Education of São Paulo State Secretariat of Education Department of Spe cial Education Para 2nd revised edition: 2003 Circulation: 10,000 copies Knowled ge and practices of inclusion: high abilities: gifted / general coordination Fra ncisca Furtado Roseneide Mount, Ide of Borges Santos reprint Brasília: MEC, SEES P 2004. , 26p. : (Early childhood education; 9) 1.Educação inclusive 2. Upbringi ng 3. High abilities 4. Giftedness I. Brazil. Ministry of Education. Department of Special Educa-tion. II. Title UDC 376: 373.2 Cover Letter Early childhood care and children requiring care. But for the human person can f ully realize their potential, there must also be from birth, an educational proc ess that helps to build their structures affective, cognitive and social. Early childhood education is more than caring for children. It is open to them the pat h to citizenship. If this understanding guides, today's public policies, to cons olidate it was a long way. Between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, at t he time of the Industrial Revolution, children and women participating in inhuma ne regimes in the factories. Workers and employees had to fight, then, for bette r working conditions, including the preservation of family life and for children to live their childhood. Among the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, some the ories suggest there are people and groups below or above, to defend the mental c apacity was linked to genetic inheritance. Education, therefore, would only conf irm the verdict of inequality. Today, studies show that human potential is not d efined in advance: the first three years of life the child more than 90% of thei r brain connections, through interaction with stimuli from the baby's environmen t. These new ideas and fight for a fairer world began to demand new policies, pu tting in place for all children including those with special educational needs a ffective contexts, relational and friendly education. That is the task of early childhood education, and demand: teaching project in the nursery and preschool; competent professionals, participation in family and community. Education system s must become to achieve an inclusive education that responds to student diversi ty without discrimination. To support this change, the Ministry of Education, th rough the Department of Special Education, developed a collection presented here in its second. Nd edition, revised comprises nine issues. Are specific issues a bout the educational services for children with special educational needs from b irth to six years old. The goal is to qualify the pedagogical practice with thes

e children in kindergartens and preschools, through an update of concepts, princ iples and strategies. The issues are: 1. Introduction 2. Accentuated Learning Di fficulties and Limitations in the Development Process 3. Accentuated Learning Di fficulties Autism 4. Accentuated Difficulties Learning Disabilities Multiple 5. Difficulties in Communication and Signaling Disability 6. Difficulties in Com munication and Signaling Deafblindness / Multiple Disabilities Sensory 7.€Diffic ulties in Communication and Signaling Deafness 8. Difficulties in Communication and Signaling Visual Impairment 9. High Skill / Giftedness We hope this material can be studied as a whole, and so shared in the initial training programs and / or continuing teacher education for children. And that the knowledge developed in the field of special education work for children with special educational nee ds have access to open and inclusive processes of social development, cognitive and affective. That is our commitment. Claudia Pereira Dutra Secretary for Special Education - MEC Summary INTRODUCTION ................................................. ................. ................................. ............................... 07 PART I THEO RETICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND POLICIES ........................................... ................................. 11 PART II HOW TO IDENTIFY A CHILD WITH HIGH S KILLS / giftedness IN PRESCHOOL AGE ................................. .......... ........................................ ........................ 15 PART III CU RRICULUM: AXES OF PEDAGOGICAL PROPOSAL ......................................... ...................... 19 3.1 Objectives and contents of early childhood educat ion .......................................... ......................... 19 3.2 Methodology and teaching strategies ............................................ ........................... 3.2.1 Supplementary Service ....................... ..................... 19 ......................................... 21 3.3 Expect ations for learning ............................................. .............. ........................... 22 3.4 Material pedagogical and technological resour ces ........................................... .................. Activities .. ............................................. 22 3.5 ........................... ....................... ......................... 22 3.6 Evaluation ............ ................................... ............................................ ...... .......................... 23 3.7 Bibliography .......................... .................... ................................................. 24 3.8 Su ggested Reading ............................................. .................. ................................ .......... 25 Introduction A democratic education must take into account the diversity, ie, should include individual differences and provide learning experiences as the skills, interests and capabilities of students. From this perspective, it is appropriate to make suggestions for deepening and enriching the curriculum for the education of stud ents with high ability / gifted students in preschool, to supply the teacher wit h guidance on how to recognize these students in the classroom as well how to im plement strategies that meet the needs of these children. To this end, we presen t a theoretical framework, the legal grounds and, especially, methodology and te aching strategies aimed at developing students with high abilities or giftedness . The purpose of this document is also demystify various ideas about the gifted student, but also raise awareness and instrument the teacher for the use of incl usive educational strategies that foster this student development opportunities and self-realization of their creative potential and higher. HIGH SKILLS / giftedness 7

Theoretical considerations and policies PART I A democratic education must take into account individual differences and therefo re provide learning opportunities as the skills, interests, learning styles and strengths of students. Accordingly, students with high ability / gifted students deserve access to educational practices that meet their needs, enabling a bette r development of their skills. According Renzulli (1986), the purpose of educati on of gifted individuals is to provide maximum opportunities for young self-real ization through the development and expression of one or more performance areas where the potential is higher than this (p. 5). There are various reasons to jus tify the need for special attention to the gifted. One is the potential for bein g more than one of the most precious natural resources, responsible for more sig nificant contributions to the development of a civilization. Regarding this aspe ct, Sternberg & Davidson (1986) point out, for example, that when he turns to hi story and seek the pillars of the great civilizations invariably contributions a rtistic, philosophical and scientific fruits of intelligence,€talent and creativ ity of some individuals or groups of individuals are appointed or uplifting. Wit h respect to early childhood education, it is known that the period leading up t o primary education is of utmost importance for the cognitive and psychosocial d evelopment. During this period, environmental influences play a key role in deve loping the potential of each child. Providing conditions that allow it to expres s their concerns and develop potential talents should be the starting point of a differentiated education. It is noted, however, that there are few educational opportunities offered to students with high ability / gifted to more fully devel op their abilities. One possible explanation for this scenario are the various m yths about the gifted, frequent in our society, which constitute obstacles to th e provision of favorable conditions for their education. Predominates, for examp le, the idea that this person has sufficient resources to develop their skills a lone, not requiring the intervention of the environment. However, it is necessar y to highlight and disseminate among educators that students with high ability / gifted children need a variety of enriching learning experiences that stimulate their potential. Another myth is that this child has necessarily a good school performance. But what has been observed is that gifted individuals may have an i ncome below its potential, revealing a discrepancy between potential and actual performance (Alencar & Fleith, 2001; Virgolim & Alencar 1999). Often, students w ith high ability / gifted children may become discouraged with the activities im plemented in the classroom with the curriculum or teaching methods used (especia lly the excessive repetition of content, rather monotonous and stimulating class es, and slower pace of the class ). It is believed also that giftedness is a rar e phenomenon and there are few children and young people in our schools that cou ld be considered gifted. What can be stressed is that if the conditions are real ly inadequate, hardly a person with a greater potential will be able to develop it. Thus, just as a good seed needs the right conditions of soil, light and mois ture to thrive, also a student with high ability / gifted children needs a suita ble environment stimulating and rich in experiences. It is observed also a tende ncy to believe that the gifted would be concentrated in only a portion of the po pulation, which would be among males, from middle socioeconomic level. In genera l, HIGH SKILLS / giftedness 11 both the woman as an individual from a poor showing means a skill or special tal ent not only tend to go unnoticed, but also to suffer a pressure to a lower perf ormance (Alencar & Fleith, 2001). Giftedness has also seen, erroneously, as geni us. These terms, however, are not synonymous. The genius that individual would b e recognized for having an original contribution and great value for society (eg , Einstein, Darwin, Picasso). In the context of educational policies, initially,

the basic guidelines of the Department of Special Education of the Ministry of Education and Sports (Brazil, 1995) considered gifted (or people with high skill s) students who had outstanding performance and / or high potential in any of th e following, singly or combined: intellectual ability, academic ability or speci fic (eg, mathematical ability), creative and productive thinking, leadership abi lity, talent for visual arts, performing arts and music and psychomotor ability. Currently, under Article 5, paragraph III of Resolution CNE / CEB No. 2, 2001, which established the National guidelines for special education in basic educati on (Brazil 2001d), learners with high ability / gifted are those with great ease learning, leading them to quickly master the concepts, procedures and attitudes . As a result, these students have conditions to deepen and enrich the school cu rriculum. Given the inclusive educational policies, students should be increasin gly satisfied in their interests, needs and potential, while the daring school r evise their conceptions and educational paradigms, dealing with the evidence tha t human development offers. A preschool child who presents a cognitive, socio-em otional and / or psychomotor differentiated and advanced age can not be ignored and / or disqualified in the school. In this sense,€is important to consider stu dents of high ability / gifted students, considering their real development, avo iding contemplating levels of development patterns, as presented in the scales o f development. It is, therefore, to define the school educational project its co mmitment to a quality education for all students, including that of high ability / gifted students, respecting and valuing this diversity, and defining their re sponsibility in creating new spaces inclusive. Furthermore, it is in early child hood education that points to the possibility of realization of new social inter actions through the school amalgamations, as advocated by the articles 23 and 24 of the new LDBEN and are seeking, ultimately, not the student is molded and ada pt to school, but that the school makes available to the student, as an inclusiv e space. Early childhood education begins the construction of a school curriculu m that can be completed in less time on the series in which the student is enrol led, educational stage in which the student is inserted or even for all his scho oling. Thus, it is crucial to offer additional challenges to students of high ab ility / gifted. For this it is important to define an educational project that i ncludes the mode of teaching special education at school, giving students of hig h ability / gifted motivational alternative and creative learning that can guara ntee your success in school. 12 HIGH SKILLS / giftedness How to identify children with high abilities or giftedness in preschoolers PART II Importantly, gifted children in preschool are a heterogeneous group in terms of interests, skill levels, emotional, social and physical (Cline & Schwartz, 1999) . In this sense, we may encounter a child's advanced intellectual standpoint, bu t emotionally immature. The teacher must be aware of this possible lack of synch rony between intellectual development and emotional or physical. For example, a gifted child may have early reading but have difficulty manipulating a pencil, b ecause his motor skills are not fully developed. Furthermore, the superior skill demonstrated by this child may be a result of intense stimulation by the signif icant people in your environment. Upon reaching school age, the development of t hat child may return to normal and it passes to produce a similar performance to the students of his age. So, not always a precocious child could be characteriz ed as gifted. It is therefore essential to monitor the performance of this child , logging interests and abilities demonstrated throughout the first years of sch ooling, offering many opportunities for stimulating and enriching their potentia l. Among the most common characteristics of gifted children in preschool eminent (Cline & Schwartz, 1999; Lewis & Louis, 1991): High degree of curiosity good me

mory Attention focused Persistence Independence and autonomy Interest by various learning areas and topics quickly Creativity and imagination Leadership Initiat ive advanced vocabulary for their chronological age Wealth of speech (fluency an d elaboration of ideas) Ability to consider viewpoints from other people to inte ract Facility with older children or adults Ability to deal with abstract ideas Ability to perceive differences between ideas and views of interest in books and other sources of knowledge High energy levels Preference for situations / objec ts new Sense of humor originality to solve problems HIGH SKILLS / giftedness 15 Curriculum: Axis of pedagogical PART III 3.1 Objectives and contents of early childhood education Objectives: To develop a positive image of themselves, acting in an ever more in dependent, confident in their abilities and awareness of its limitations. Progre ssively discover and know your own body, its potentialities and its limits, deve loping and valuing habits of care of their own health and wellbeing. Affective t ies and exchanges with adults and children, strengthening their self-esteem and gradually increasing their opportunities for communication and social interactio n. Establish and expand increasingly social relations, gradually learning to art iculate their interests and views with others, respecting diversity and developi ng attitudes of help and cooperation. Observe and explore the environment with a n attitude of curiosity, seeing themselves increasingly as an integral,€dependen t transforming agent and the environment, and become aware of the importance of attitudes that contribute to their conservation. Playing, expressing emotions, f eelings, thoughts, desires and needs. Using the different languages (bodily, mus ical, plastic, oral and written) adjusted to different intentions and situations of communication in order to understand and be understood, to express their ide as, feelings, needs and desires and move forward in its process of building mean ings, enriching increasing its expressive capacity. Meet some cultural events, f or example, popular art forms, showing attitudes of interest, respect and have o pportunities to participate in some of them. Content: a) training personal and s ocial identity, autonomy and cooperation. b) Knowledge of the world: movement, m usic, visual arts, nature and society, oral and written language, and mathematic s. The specific objectives of each content can be found in volumes 2 and 3 of th e National Curriculum for early childhood education (Brazil, 2001b, 2001c). 3.2 Methodology and teaching strategies Strategies to meet the student with high ability / gifted involve often differen tiate or modify the regular curriculum in order to tailor the process HIGH SKILLS / giftedness 19 learning needs and characteristics of the learner. Different strategies can be e mployed in regular classes for differentiation and modification of the regular c urriculum, contributing even to stimulate the potential of the whole class. The following are some examples of methodological and pedagogical strategies. They a pply both to kindergarten on the school. Learning should be student centered. Ta ke into consideration the interests and abilities of students. Implement enrichm ent activities in the classroom, for example, drama, production stories etc.. In vestigate the interests, styles aprendizagem1 and expression of their students o r watch them in order to identify their interests, strengths and talents. Review and modify the existing curriculum to identify and eliminate redundancies and e

nhance units that are challenging for students. Remove or reduce the curriculum to be developed content that students have mastered or can be purchased at a pac e consistent with their abilities. Use of this educational strategy eliminates r epetitive curriculum content, creates a challenging learning environment, reduce s feelings of apathy and disinterest of gifted students with respect to activiti es undertaken in the classroom, and enables these students use the time saved to focus on activities of interest. It is important that we make a careful evaluat ion of the student's level of knowledge about the content before implementing th is strategy. Develop activities with various end products, so that individual ne eds can be met. Allow students to report knowledge or previous experience. Use m ultiple teaching strategies (group activities, role play, games etc.) to ensure the involvement of students in the classroom. Invite people from the community a nd specialists to speak to students in order to arouse the interest of those on the content studied and promote skills development. Involve students in problemsolving activities that lead them to transfer the learning objectives to situati ons in which creativity and other skills of higher thought (eg analysis, evaluat ion, synthesis) are employed. Encourage students to find answers to their own is sues through individual projects (eg, record activities and discoveries in album s, posters, films, recordings, drawings, collages) and exploration activities. I nvolve parents in the learning process of their children (tutoring, monitoring t he homework). Give the student opportunity for choice, taking into account their interests and Learning styles relate to how the student prefers to learn: listening to the tea cher, playing games, doing group activities, developing individual projects etc. 1 20 HIGH SKILLS / giftedness skills. Give the student opportunities to gain knowledge about their personal sk ills, interests and learning styles, offering varied learning experiences. List the goals of content to the experiences of students. Provide students with infor mation that is important, interesting, contextualised, meaningful and interconne cted,€taking into account the interests and abilities of children. Instruct the student to seek additional information about topics of interest, suggesting dive rse sources of information (books, people, magazines, internet etc). Encourage s tudents to evaluate their performance in an activity or task. Treasure products and creative ideas. Situated students in the groups with which it can best work. Provide an opportunity for students to develop activities with others of the sa me skill level. Give the student the opportunity to visit and observe various si tes (eg, parks, zoo, botanical gardens, theaters, shopping, art galleries, museu ms, shop for pets, fair, square etc). Avoid labeling the gifted student. Treat i ndividual differences as a natural fact. Remember that not always the gifted stu dent will have an excellent performance in all areas or activities. 3.2.1 Supplementary Services According to the National guidelines for special education in basic education (2 001d Brazil) should be offered specialized educational support services for stud ents with special educational needs. In the case of the gifted, it is suggested to further develop the service and / or enrich the school curriculum. This servi ce is conducted in resource rooms located in schools of regular school hours in contrast to the regular classroom. The resource room serves students from the sc hool itself and from nearby schools that lack such service. The additional servi ce to gifted students from kindergarten starts at around four years of age and a ims to provide opportunities for them to explore areas of interest, deepen alrea dy acquired knowledge and develop skills related to creativity, problem solving and logical reasoning . Additionally, this service contributes to the developmen t of social and emotional skills such as cooperation and self-concept, and provi

des students with opportunities for them to experience the process of learning m otivation. Importantly, not easy to perform with precision, a diagnosis of gifte d children in kindergarten, considering that they are in early stages of develop ment and can also be very encouraged by the family. In this sense, the care in r esource rooms enables the teacher to observe and monitor student performance and ensure that it can be characterized as a child with high ability / gifted. HIGH SKILLS / giftedness 21st 3.3 Expectations of learning Children with high skills in gifted preschoolers should experience various learn ing situations in order to develop their skills and talents. That means implemen ting activities that involve creative thinking (production of many original idea s and variety) and critic, and leading the child to make connections between ide as, solve problems and raise questions. It is also important to provide the chil d opportunities to explore more widely a topic of interest. Under an effective p erspective, it is expected that children with high ability / gifted develop thei r interpersonal skills and communication, autonomy, initiative, a positive selfconcept, and an understanding of others and their point of view. 3.4 Educational materials and technological resources Although we are aware of the limited resources in many schools, ideally a stimul ating environment should include diverse reading material printed or electronic (eg books, magazines, newspapers, encyclopedias, dictionaries, computer programs ), materials handling and operation ( toys, balls, blocks and educational games, sounds and objects with different shapes, magnifiers and magnifying glasses), e quipment (video, globe, stereo, and if possible, computer). Moreover, it is high ly desirable that the student had opportunity to meet and attend libraries, part icipate in activities (at school or other community sites), as his interest and skill area. In the artist, consumables like inks, pencils, brushes, pens, clay, clay, fabrics, and musical instruments (flute, for example) should also be made available to students. It is important to emphasize the need not only material r esources but also of various human resources (eg, librarians, highly qualified m usic teachers, physical education, art education, etc.). 3.5 Activities A comprehensive educational project for students of high ability in preschool ca n not but consider the activities that promote knowledge-learning, know-how and Sabers,€encouraging learning for life. Seeley (1998) suggests the development of activities involving the use of language, the representation of experiences and ideas, logical reasoning and creative thinking, understanding of time and space and an active learning by students with high ability / gifted. Examples of acti vities are: Description of objects, events and relationships with colleagues tal k about important experiences expression of feelings into words and create or co mplement Listen Listen to stories, create or recreate songs 22 HIGH SKILLS / giftedness Creations or imitations of sounds vocalize poems (by the sounds of bodies, objec ts or musical instruments) Dramatizations Recognition of objects by sound, smell and shape identification of differences and similarities between objects descri ption of objects in various ways Comparison of size, weight, texture length, etc . Note object from different perspectives representation of your body descriptio n of spatial relationships present in drawings and pictures. Alencar & Fleith (2 001) suggest other activities to be implemented with gifted students: Activities that lead students to produce many ideas Activities that allow students to play

with ideas, situations and objects (eg, games of make-believe account: house, s upermarket etc) Activities involving critical analysis of an event Activities th at encourage students to raise questions Activities that allow students to gener ate multiple hypotheses Activities that develop in students the ability to explo re consequences for events that could occur future activities involving the disc ussion of real-world problems Activities that encourage students to set and trou bleshoot research activities on topics of interest to the student activities tha t stimulate the imagination of the students activities that allow students to ex plore and know different areas of knowledge.

3.6 Rating Evaluation of the learning of students with special educational needs in prescho ol must be guided by two main purposes: the identification of special educationa l needs and decision-making regarding the care that these students should receiv e, as required by new legislation. Given the diversity of learning styles, style s of expression and abilities of gifted students, multiple forms of assessment o f learning should be considered in order not only responses to ensure educationa l quality, but also making decisions about the care that preschool child needs w ithin the school, in terms School support: aid the teacher and student can receive in the process of teachi ng and learning, both in classrooms and in resource rooms, provided by experts i n education of students with high abilities. Supplement 3 schools: addition made to the curriculum a step in the educational process that anticipates the conten t of common national core curriculum the next step. Supplement 4 schools: broade ning, deepening and enriching the national common core curriculum. 2 HIGH SKILLS / giftedness 23 support, 2 complemento3 or supplement school education and four promising develo pment potential of these students. Moreover, in situations of unsynchronized dev elopment in preschool (eg, intellectual development more advanced than emotional ), a careful and exhaustive work of school evaluation must be conducted in order to justify decisions taken as the acceleration studies students self-taught or have accelerated rates of learning in one or more areas of school learning. In a ddition to the traditional alternatives assessment, others may be used, for exam ple, self-evaluation report of activities and evaluation of products made by stu dents. The optimal strategy for evaluation is one in which student progress is e mphasized. This allows the student to develop a sense of academic achievement an d, consequently, lead him to feel intrinsically motivated in relation to their l earning process (Feldhusen, 1994). It is also important that the teacher encoura ges multiple forms of the final product. In other words, students may demonstrat e their proficiency through a written product (history, poetry, letters, etc.), oral (drama, music, storytelling, etc.), visual (drawing, collage, mural, etc.) and / or concrete (mobile , masks, toys, games etc.) in order to accommodate the varying styles expressão5 students. All information about the student (eg, work and extracurricular class, other student productions,€areas / activities of int erest) should be documented and kept in a portfolio, or in a folder for each stu dent, with his production, so that the skills, interests, learning styles and ex pression of the gifted student and teacher can be highlighted therefore, to know him better and structure the classroom in order to meet their educational needs (Purcell & Renzulli, 1998). Think the construction of inclusive education for s tudents of high ability / gifted students in preschool involves overcoming chall enges ranging from the organization of education, through school and family, ens uring quality of school conditions that favor the formation of Brazilian nationa ls will definitely contribute to building a truly democratic society.

3.7 Bibliography Alencar, E.M.L.S. & FLEITH, D.S. (2001). Giftedness: determinants, education and adjustment. São Paulo: EPU. _____ & Virgolim, A.M.R. (1999). Emotional and soci al difficulties of the gifted. In: F.P & Nephew A.C.B. Cunha (Orgs.) the discipl inary problems of the disturbances. N. conduct (pp. 89-114). Rio de Janeiro: Dun ya. BRAZIL. (1995). General guidelines for educational assistance to students wi th higher abilities or giftedness and talents. Brasilia: MEC / Department of Spe cial Education. Styles of expression relate to how the student prefers to express, in writing, o rally, through drama, etc.. 5 24 HIGH SKILLS / giftedness _____. (2001a). National Curriculum for early childhood education (vol. 1). Bras ilia: MEC / Primary Education Department. _____. (2001b). National Curriculum fo r early childhood education (vol. 2). Brasilia: MEC / Primary Education Departme nt. _____. (2001c). Referential national curriculum for early childhood educatio n (vol. 3). Brasilia: MEC / Primary Education Department. _____. (2001d). Nation al guidelines for special education in basic education. Brasilia: MEC / CNE / CE B. CLINE, S. & SCHWARTZ, D. (1999). Diverse Populations of gifted children. Uppe r Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. FELDHUSEN, J.F. (1994). Learning and cognition of t alented youth. In: J. Van Tassel-Baska (Org.) Comprehensive curriculum for gifte d learners (pp. 17-28). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. LEWIS, M. & LOUIS B. (1991). Young gifted children. In: N. Colangelo & G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (pp. 365-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. PURCELL, J.H. & Ren zulli, J.S. (1998). Total talent portfolio. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learn ing Press. Renzulli, J.S. (1986). The three-ring conception of giftedness: a dev elopmental model for creative productivity. In: R. J. Sternberg & J. E. Davis (E ds.) Conceptions of giftedness (pp. 53-92). New York: Cambridge University Press . _____ & REIS, S.M. (1997). The schoolwide enrichment model (2nd ed.). Mansfiel d Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Seeley, K. (1998). Giftedness in early ch ildhood. In J. Van Tassel-Baska (Org.) Excellence in educating gifted and talent ed learners (pp. 67-81). Denver, CO: Love. STERNBERG, R.J. & DAVIDSON, J. (Orgs. ) (1986). Conceptions of giftedness. New York: Cambridge University Press. 3.8 Suggested Reading Alencar, E.M.L.S. (1991). How to develop creative potential. Petrópolis: Vozes. HIGH SKILLS / giftedness 25 _____. (1994). Prospects and challenges of education of the gifted. In: E.M.L.S. Alencar (Org) Trends and challenges of special education (pp. 104-124). Brasíli a: SEESP. _____. (2001). Creativity and gifted education. Petrópolis: Vozes. ___ __ & FLEITH, D.S. (2001). Giftedness: Determinants, education and adjustment. Sã o Paulo: EPU. FREEMAN, J. & GUENTHER, Z.C. (2000). Educating the most able. São Paulo: EPU. GARDNER, H. (1995). Multiple intelligences. The theory in practice. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas. GUENTHER, Z.C. (2000). Develop skills and talents. A concept of inclusion. Petrópolis: Vozes. Virgolim, A.M.R., FLEITH, D.S. & NEVE S-PEREIRA, M.S. (2001). Toc toc ... bling bling. Dealing with emotions, playing with the thought through creativity (3rd ed.). Campinas: Papirus. WINNER, E. (19 98). Gifted children. Myths and realities. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas Sul 26

HIGH SKILLS / giftedness