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1 Sociology Sociology is the social science that focuses on society but especially to relati ons between people.

Always stay positive and do not already have his trial. He m ust know how to transform her look. Flexibility: Think for yourself and take a s tep back. Chapter 1: Know it first to know. Richard Hoggart, The culture of the poor a) focus on the influence of media on the working classes and their customs. It will even search on the working class in northern England, where he himself live d. It already has an idea about something. With rigorous methods will check it a nd what he thinks now. This is an ethnographic investigation which will focus on what people read. It will also compare the lives of people most knowledgeable w orkers. NB: There is already work done in the past on this subject, so there is an accumulation of work. It is also unexpected that sometimes are very useful. C ulture: Complex set comprising: the knowledge-symbolic systems, values, norms, l ifestyles and media materials purchased and shared in society. b) It will check certain prejudices. • In prejudices saying that the working class is unpredictab le and no matter how it spends its money. He replied that it is true but most of the time to gather the family and for the harmony of the group. • To spread the idea that binds to indulge in children and workers there said that it is true b ut 18 years young girls are married and pregnant, and boys are forced to work. T hey now have little time, about 2 years before beginning their labors. • In rela tion to diet, people think that the working class lack of taste, they mix everyt hing and anything. But the principle is to bring people together. It is also bel ieved that • the media influences and make changes in his life. Hoggart says it' s false, the working class adapts to the media but keep their core values. It pr oves that prejudice and not especially true. 2 Social class: In the most common meaning: the principle of differentiation of groups and individuals from the criterion of their position in the economic syst em. In a relational perspective: a class is defined in relation to other social classes. It therefore constitutes a historical experience that has several dimen sions (socio-economic, political, and cultural). Two objects in their study: Wha t happened to popular culture with the media? - What is the gaze of the bourgeoi sie and the working class? The bourgeois exaggerate the qualities and defects of the lower classes. Visions of the bourgeoisie: Before it was the good old days, there is a degradation. This is far from the truth (eg tolerance). The problem today is that this tolerance becomes indifference. The credit union focuses on p rivacy and the value of the domestic group, which is the taste of instant gratif ication. Because they do not know what the future is made. And this is a charact eristic value of the popular classes worldwide. Intimacy: the taste for immediat e pleasure, lived with relatives (high values). Standards is the principle of co nduct which is related to a particular value. The upper social classes are well on their future in the future. There is a transmission of popular culture (socia l-transmission) for each jib and each civilization, but in different ways. They all have the same characteristic they are at the lowest of the social ladder. An d that connects people to each other. If I understand the structure I can predic t things. Ethnocentrism: is seeing other cultures and judging from its own stand ards (culture). Morin: It takes a look at the integration of innovation in Brita in. He studied men in the Halls but he does not reach any conclusion. In fact th e integration is done through the magazines that women read. It is therefore the end of prejudice claiming that it is men who bring innovations. The masses can at least express their opinion on other classes, because there is a sort of cult ural monopoly. It is therefore always to challenge, despite his experience and h is way of seeing, must make a fight with his own heritage. It is advised to step back and not just in scientific experiments.

Is the search for remains Hoggart now? To answer this question, do not rely solely on England but also on other f the world.€It must make a fact generalizable. Today, the working class ttle discomfited by the decrease of the production work. The context has but is still valid. The TV has now taken an important place in society, main media. Marshall Sahlins, Stone Age, age of abundance

parts o is a li changed as the

3 is interested in archaic societies (without grain crops ...) semi nomads who h ave few needs, working little and who have much leisure. For these companies, th ings have a use value and utility, there is no reference to profit. These afflue nt societies because no gaps, this is a function of resources. And was our egoce ntrism to colonize these peoples as they had for us underdeveloped. They imposed the economic model of profit, because our thinking is supposedly universal. One can not study all these civilizations anachronistic, because colonization has a lready occurred. Chapter 2: consider any way to live as normal and expected. Erving Goffman, Asylums Theme: consider any sensible way of life by delivering them in context. Ex: Bouc himans who do not work for have no reserves (dust). For the settlers it is not n ormal. We search everywhere a relationship, but there are behaviors that we can understand that in another sense. We must change the light Goffman to study inte ractions between people. Ex: look others relate to the disabled. The interaction s of everyday life reveal a larger organization. People need to save face each o ther for life in society can continue. And for that, there are ritual to reassur e us. These rituals are social stories, which later became automated. He must st udy the social behavior to understand society. The asylum: it is a study on auth oritarian societies that will make the interior. From the inside, not to be dism issed and not having a distorted look, all without being drowned by the institut ion. He will try to keep as a distance on the events. It will analyze the organi zation as a social bond. Ex: the reclusive among them, the staff ... It will als o analyze the conditions of life, and how to deal with a settlement. 1. The life of authoritarian institutions. They all have different functions but have the same characteristics: • The isola tion, promiscuity, the constant reference to an ideology devoted, care of everyt hing by the institution. Everything is concentrated in one place, constant monit oring, everything is provided by the regulation. The total institution is a plac e for working, living or recreational where a large number of individuals found in the same situation for many days, they feel recluse to live together. The mai n characteristic of such an institution raises similar structure and control eve rything that happens there. 4 The behavior is also defined in terms of the structure. All these commonalitie s to build out an analytical framework for studying the interactions of people. The concept of the total institution: it is an abstract construction that simpli fies reality and exposes the logic of substantive behavior. It's a design as the re is an absence of reality. Features totalitarian institution: Technical mortification practices that aim to humiliate, punish, convey an idea of suffering, to understand that they are rec luses recluse. It is isolated from the outside and is dispossessed of his role. Status: is the recognized position of someone in a social context. Role: A set o f rights and duties related to the statute. As soon as we returned in its instit utions, it loses its status and thus its role. Induction Ceremony: Counting -> h omogenization: depersonalization and humiliation physical, submit to staff, more privacy, prisoners are forced to confess what we all lead, presence of body sea rches ... Depersonalization: we all make a link between our actions and we do ha nd, this is to break this link. It no longer recognizes us. This alienation. Thr ee techniques of mortification and depersonalization. • Ricochet: to provoke the

anger of someone to reinforce the bad image of him. • indoctrination: what are all these acts subject to regulation. • Loss of autonomy: it is the inability to impose its own law. Rationalisation of customs, is justified by any higher prin ciple. There are system privileges: what is normal is exceptional. But inmates a dapt to it: he withdrew them.€He refuses to cooperate. They create their small i nstallation more or less viable in this environment. Translation: he submits and is cushy. There are a lot of egocentrism (victimization), and a feeling of loss of time, back in the world is difficult. 2. Life underground It is also played in the mind. The clandestine life is divided into two behavior s: - Play the game - Try to distance. The primary adjustment: it works and becom es a member. The secondary adaptation: it is a series of behaviors of two differ ent orders. Follow targets illegal and that it openly. 5 Or use illegal means for lawful purposes. This allows a certain autonomy. Go ffman thus see that the passions are normal people in their community. It create s social interaction that may be illegal, but which fit perfectly in what the in stitution. In this sense the asylum is a laboratory. In fact, patients take the distance to their role. It also plays a double game, a side he plays the game bu t never fully submitted. The more the institution is "free" the more we identify with our role. Film: One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest 1. Mechanism of mortification they searched his bag, his clothes. Observe that t he technical turn as he closes the door in his face. 2. Benefits: This refers to cigarettes. 3. Secondary adaptation (behavior): the Indian who is not really de af and dumb. Gambling in the showers. 4. The distance to the role (role mental): You're not prisoners, you should be outside. In fact he overplayed the fool, he plays another character in fact it takes away. 5. The rhythm (group) drugs, mee tings, Bath. 6. The moral career (the process of transformation of the patient, professional): it replaces personal clothing for those in the asylum. There are also places in the group. The moral career: is the sustainable transformation th at the strong exchange. These changes are common with others. It's a change for oneself its perception of itself and also its status. => Change me. Three phases : Pre-hospitalization : Move of civilians recluse is very hard. There is a feel ing of bitterness, of being alone in the world, betrayed (row treason). Phase Hospital: Patient suits, it creates a new image of himself and has to adapt this new image while remote roles (Bourdieu) becomes the dominant player in its own dominion. (He said yes because it is normal because I'm crazy). Phase post-hos pital: a phase of anxiety, a vicious circle. It is very hard to get back to norm al life, to reintegrate. 6 Synthesis Central idea: building an object. An asylum is a care facility where they treat the mind. But for Goffman is a place of life (social life) with all matters pertaining thereto (regulation, rituals ...). To understand their r eactions must be studied social life in this total institution (mental dispositi on and social). The sociologist Login, the patient is not sick but a recluse. Th e abnormal behavior may be quite expected in their environment. Second lesson: interaction nihilism behavior changes Service people (interaction) (in the narrow sense of situations face to face) an d its interactions may be implicit (light). Structure of relations between the i nterior and exterior, and relations within the different people. There are symbo lic interactions. Intentional intentional logic and objective: helping to organi ze the meaning is lived (everything is intentional ... Play, say nothing, fix, h eal ...). Objective: the result is concrete. For example a long game to play als

o offers a view of getting a larger group welded. Here intentional logic gives r ise to an objective outcome was not the primary goal. It is a fact that follows from what has been implemented independently of the consciousness that we ate. F unctionalism: will look at the objective logic regardless of their intentions. F or example Hopps Indians are dancing in the rain, scientists are not rational be havior, this tribe is regarded as underdeveloped. R. Merton gives another reason is to meet the group during a stressful time because when there is no rain we a rgue. The logical objective is to bring unconscious group. The functionalist bel ieves that society and form a relatively cohesive and social group where each el ement itself is to convene the group to keep welded (ritual, an institution ...) For the cohesion and good reproduction of the group. Study objective consequenc es: the manifest function: it is the objective consequence that we see. The late nt function: it is the function that is underlying. (This is what interests the sociologist). 7 Merton is not a radical functionalist, for all radicals is functional (even th e crime is functional). Position: Objective: to connect companies. Dysfunction: this is what endangers society. Function latent dysfunctions manifest at two lev els of theory (how to ask questions) for the sociologist. 1. The paradigm: gener al theory that applies to several topics (how to proceed in explaining an elemen t of social life whatsoever). Composed of concept: latent function / dysfunction , career, world ... General assumption: application to a phenomenon (tested by e xperience). 2. Applied Theory: (Ex: Asylum) empirical. This is getting into a po sition that permits be surprised to improve his theory. All these theories apply to a certain phenomenon, but not at all (to what looks like, for example with t he link totalitarian). Chapter 3: Working out of established categories of thought. We all have assumptions but it is not good because it is far from scientific. Howard Becker, Outsiders H. Becker was born in 1928, he studied sociology at Chicago University where man y field studies are conducted. He knows the jazz scene and deviant. We talk abou t deviant because we do not know them well (Ex: he smoked marijuana). This famil iarity with the environment is not used for scientific research. At the time the drug is prohibited, and these deviants tend to smoke (motivation precedes the b ehavior). But Becker does the opposite. To get this good, you must first learn t o "good" smoke. We test before training and it starts with the family. It applie s analytic induction: he observes, questions and assumptions made. It then compa res these assumptions to other observations to refine them, and it contained thi s loop. So learning leads to the habit and pleasure (which may or may not). Inte ractions between people: the deviant (which respects the rule) is related to oth er deviants and if his training is zero, it will stop. The deviant is also influ enced by his entourage who condemns (moral career). 1. Beginners 2. intermediate 3. and regular users can become a trainer. Models, new status and role. It is l earning that led him to become someone new. In these groups, they are influenced to believe that it is, and that it is society that is wrong (the limits are dif ferent for each company). Those are the standards, are moral entrepreneurs and m ay also change, they are so confident in themselves that they are imbued with th eir person. He believes they do that well. They appeal to specialists (doctors , ...), he wins when the law is changed (eg the law on marital rape). 8 Deviance, social construction: the results of anthropologists (moral> <Act). S omething may be allowed by law but condemned by morality. Labeling theory (label ing theory): Example: homosexual offenders ... Why the skin, it is hard to part (everything is evaluated, everything is observed). And the sociologist must remo ve these labels because it is not interested in morality. Example: - The lower s ocial backgrounds are predestined to crime. - In the highest social circles, whe re adolescent angst, the first acts are not important or they will continue or s top, but we do not put their labels. The self-fulfilling prophecy: it assumes th

e label that they put us. A label can have reinforcing effects. Thus deviance is the collective construction of the actor and the people who see them. Standards must be applied, otherwise we speak of deviance (double life). Social movements can create or modify standards. (Example: labor movement ...). Moral entreprene urs. Production of standard social movements. This is not because there is a sta ndard that respects. (No worries as there are no complaints). It is based on the relative strengths or time. So, we must qualify the labels because for example when you fly once, you're not really a thief. Deviance and collective or group o r under the eye of it is in when one is alone. (Everyone learns in contact with others). The media also can change the deviance.€The hierarchy of credibility: t hey believe most experts, people who are themselves living thing. We must theref ore go beyond the hierarchy of credibility. At the person is high, the more it i s credible ... We must go beyond that. Conclusion: Empowerment of types of thoug hts imposed: there are several scales in terms that are used (eg coffee addicts, very different than the drug). Certain groups are exempt from these labels. The questions that are asked and those we do not ask innate acquired must ask it in hand man, and wonder why this is possible and not another. (Example: gay and st raight). These standards are widespread in society. The strength of the company, led it normal to be straight. (Strength of evidence of the institution). These institutions are highly addictive (it's the only way and we need it). (Examples: passion, students ,...). The system of thought and are formed by patterns of th ought. The collection of information: it must be taken with hindsight, it is sub ject to interpretation. Problem management: example: a feeling of insecurity and the action taken: how to cope? Different aspects of insecurity limited but not specifically attacked, there is always uncertainty of existence and we 9 feels better if you can afford. Insecurity is the spectrum from which we see t he problems. It is used to solve problems, it has labeled the population. We put people in jail, not social service and it calls into question whether these com panies are the insecurity. So we must consider how these ways to influence our t houghts. Social construction of reality: one is convinced that things exist even if we did not see it. Reality: quality that belongs to the phenomena that we re cognize, with an existence independent of our will. Reality (immediate / daily) (eg: pen = reality of daily life). Our sovereign reality (daily), starting point of our discovery. Intersubjective reality: we can share the conviction that it exists and exists because the evidence presented by different subjects. All real ity is treated as social is intersubjectivity. All reality is seen is only a cer tain way (a French word for snow, more than 30 in Eskimo). An object may be soci ally constructed differently. The classification of channels (eg deviate complie s), all this must be qualified because it can vary. All this depends on the visi on of society. It is influenced. Difference objective / social difference. Natur alists differ. Socialization Rate successful there is a correspondence between o bjective reality (missed) that I am subjective and what society says I am (succe ssful). M. Granovetter: professional contacts are made with weak ties (acquaintances) no close friends. It is putting people together who do not know and thus improve t heir lives, and at the same time the production ... . Economic phenomena depend on relationships, social ties. Example: I like this garage because I know the se ller. The law of supply and demand also depends on interactions between people ( everyone sells => I sold). The behavior is one of the institutions (and not too fast laws ...). Ethnomethodology (Garfinkel M.). Do not leave large institutions . Every social group has methods to solve problems. (Examples: routine, method . ..). These methods are based on the reciprocity of perspectives. (This depends o n the motivation, desires). The fact act as if they had identical perspectives b ut in reality we do not have the same goal. This is essential because in many si tuations can not be understood without such tinkering (as it is to reach a decis ion). Ethnomethodology: the relationship is explained in part by external constr aints, but each situation depends on our interaction.

Chapter 4: historicizing social structures. 10 It is also to overcome the established categories of thought. But to understa nd the current situation, it must be able to historicize. The story is in suppor t of sociology. Sociology tries, from historical events to generate general soci al phenomena. N. Elias (dynamics of the West / civilizing process). Born in Germany to a Jewish family, he is a contemporary author. His background is interesting. It takes between methods of medicine,€He then became interested in philosophy and is ultimately the study of sociology will complete his intelle ctual training. It is influenced by the sociologist Weber. Being Jewish, in 1933 , he left Germany. After a few trips, especially in Africa, it will move to the Netherlands where he died in the 90s. Analysis on the history of sport: it follo ws that the sport was more violent before but this was happening on the arena. I t also examines the emergence of the modern game and its rules. How to locate cu rrent events in historical perspective enlightening? He will discuss studies of global phenomena, we speak of macro-sociology. Application of Elias studies of E uropean construction. France has not always existed, it was a time when it consi sted of a series of lordships. Each lord had his troops and accumulated all the functions on its territory. These gentlemen are going to war, larger units, will appear more important, the result of fighting or alliances. These gentlemen wil l continue to try to increase their territory, giving rise to extremely powerful lords. Ultimately a lord will eventually win, he is the king of France. Elias: "here is the law of monopoly which has played." Law of monopoly: when small comp eting entities coexist, there is a high probability that the other through confl ict, larger entities are emerging. Gradually, the territory will be based on a d ouble monopoly. • Violence legitimate: Only the state can decide to prison, rais ing the army or create a font. This is the very principle of the modern state. I f this monopoly is not, there will be a state in danger or not working well. Thi s monopoly provides a guarantee of peace in the territory, if no markets / trade possible. This monopoly is associated with a second. • The monopoly: there are taxes, the central power of wealth from working citizens to apply the first such monopoly, and vice versa. Europe does not yet have the monopoly, because it is only alliances. Over the area becomes, the more control is difficult. Socializat ion of monopoly: the sovereign must share the workload, delegate (eg a system of privilege that Lord entrusts a territory of an ally). The king will have to app oint generals and judges. A new class will 11 shows a class of officials and administration to manage all that great. The c entral concept of analysis is the interdependence of Elias. Interdependence: spe cialization had believed. There is a need for specialists. It is becoming increa singly dependent on each other. It is a mutual dependence. But there also voltag es. Specialists may be conflicting, competing for a series of things. In each ge ographical or historical context, this will be different. We speak a different c onfiguration, specific cases of interdependence. Example: Louis XIV. There was a n interdependence between bourgeois possessing wealth and nobility with rights a nd powers. The citizens are eager to be ennobled, and nobility are interested in the wealth of the bourgeoisie. There had weddings but also conflicts. What abou t the absolute power of Louis XIV? This power is not so absolute that it rests o n an ability to play on tensions. When the bourgeoisie is too important, the kin g will strengthen the nobility and vice versa. The monarchy remains strong as it can maintain this balance. It can not exist in democracy, market (competition o r fighting peaceful) without pacifying the country. This type of competition ver y close, peaceful struggles for resources. There is no market and no democracy w ithout these two monopolies. Chapter 5: The symbols in social life. Mauss: an essay on the gift (20 ') Life of original population (indigenous India n and South Pacific islands). He is an anthropologist room because he never left

Europe. By cons he greatly influenced the sociology and formed the greatest. Sy mbols are signs through, or digests that evoke a deep and complex meaning. Even with color (eg red communist). This may be as a totem, an image, a fact, a gestu re ... . These symbols may be at the heart of relationships between people. (See the place of symbolism in the company). The exchanges have a place in all human societies. Symbol Non-profit trade (gift, but never one way (against Don)) givi ng) merchant (winTrade Dealer: maximizing material gain,€existence of a market and a contract. Pr ocedure where there is fixation of the rights and duties of each party. The nego tiation between the parties sets the rules of contract / market for the exchange to be profitable. He lives can end anytime. It is a freer exchange that forces. Non-profit trade: materialities become secondary. Maximizing social recognition . Relationship implicit (hidden process). 12 It is continuous, there is really no end, no negotiations and rules exist for each member. It does not change the customs, rules. That it is an exchange have more than free. Merchant Merchant Workers Patterns of production worker wages N onsalutations party for These non-market exchanges are here to maintain solidarity and a better life. Th ere is a prestige maximization, the goal is to maintain society. They have alway s been present but have evolved. We tend to overbid (same show). Equal value. In ever non-profit. Coexistence of merchant and non-commercial: it is very variabl e. The tribes living in north-eastern U.S., mainly rich companies (in the physic al sense but with different notions of needs). In winter, they gather to spend t he winter. They just have fun during the cold days, but their exchanges play a v ital role in their society. Every year there are a clan that has the holidays ev ery year and this is reorganized (singing, dance). Giving makes higher, receive makes less. We must give to receive and make otherwise it will not work. And it always makes more. Decrease political change of power each year (circulation of power), then change donations to the people. A large number of roles to assume. They live peace because they are interrelated. Potlatch: the exchange and party (Indian meetings). These Indians have disappeared because no adaptation even hel ped their potlatch. (Social Security). After the war, not the events again (USSR ) because of poverty. Set up Social Security and an obligation to participate. A third of household consumption comes from S. S. (Nonmarchand). Conclusion: tota l social fact: the imposition of collective life that falls on each individual. This way pre-exists and will exist after. The social structure to a permanent ex istence (of social determinism guide the actions of individuals) (art, religion, family ,...). all corners of society are involved in this structure. They will explain this by starting with a general structure. Holism: how to explain a soci al phenomenon General => especially by observing its structure. Max Daxardall: h e will make the link between the symbol and painting. The patrons are the mercha nts and the church, to complement the sermons. It will compare the art of preach ing at the time. People can then make the link, and 13 memory is supported, the painting creates an emotion (modesty), passed a mess age. He even studied dance treatises by table dancing. For merchants, there is t he detailed dimensions and price. The mathematics are very present. Exercises to load, depending on the size of the figures we can calculate the size of the bui lding. Paints and customs have therefore a strong bond. The prospect is particip ating in something divine. Because there is a before and background but also an exercise in geometry. The merchant or religious always wonder exactly what he wa nts. And it allows us to understand that before people understood from the paint ing. Movie: 12 Angry Men. This film is a jury sitting in the United States, composed exclusively of white men. It is important here to highlight the principles of ethnomethodology. For t

he legal decision is also taken according to these methods of solving problems. Garfinkel: "to understand social life, one must know the methods". Exercise: ide ntify the methods that actors put in place to work towards solving the problem. Social Mechanisms: • the place they take to sit. • They expect everyone to be th ere. • They try to get acquainted, talk about their lives. He began to ease but these behaviors can be ambiguous, that is to say, have two meanings. There are a series of informal behavior. • You have to start somewhere. They set up a preli minary vote by show of hands. There is thus a pressure group that voting guilty. • Each speaks in turn.€• There are subtle changes: for example, a man offers a solution, take another idea and it really does not understand. The first man to lead the group in solving the problem is pretending that it was good idea. • The re are interactions: gaze, balance of power on the intellectual or just nervousn ess. • The group must agree to speak a more or less them because it suits everyo ne. • Put in place a rule, if someone votes guilty continue deliberation. • When someone gets lost, there is always someone to return to the idea that interests them. • When the group is blocked, we move to something else for a while. (For example: a juror who goes to sink). What allows some to calm down or think. • Th e problem may be functional, then set up a mediator or radical change resolution . 14 human groups is still in place methods of solving problems (DIY, etc..). Some times these methods sometimes learned by experience. Community life is made of m any small details. Everyone is tips, which are as important as the formal arrang ements. Informal expressions, nonverbal, such as looks, attitudes have a great i nfluence. In the film, we find the notions of interaction, ethnocentrism, member ship of a social class, role distance, secondary adaptation related to the role and status (they learn to be sworn). Keep in mind that everything is studied in a very special case to highlight the mechanisms of collective life. CHAPTER 6: STUDY RELATIONS This chapter will cover research that demonstrate the principles of relations. "Distinction" Pierre Bourdieu: He was interested in the lifestyle of the population, the plan of music, theater , food consumed, shops frequented. He has done many interviews with selected ind ividuals. The taste, the layout, cultural practices are marked by respectful cla sses. I: There is a ruling class ruling class, with several categories. 1. The d ominant faction, they can score the economic activity of their footprint, have a predilection for sports chic and expensive. They evoke the great exclusive venu es, to which everyone can not access. Luxury is here a distance to necessity. We must show that the distance to the need is great. It keeps its prestige. What i s a madness in them is a necessity and in others. Note that the new middle class is more modern than the old. 2. The professions, employers specialists, lawyers , architects of renown. They invest more in the economic capital but also in soc ial capital (relationships), their goal is to be recognized, to keep and maintai n relationships. 3. The fraction dominated, artists, university professors, they highlight the cultural capital. There are three types of capital to distinguish these categories. - Economic: All goods and economic resources such as professi onal income, the real estate and furniture. - Social: Set of social relationship s that an individual is able to mobilize. - Cultural: All intellectual and cultu ral resources acquired through upbringing and education, physical media such res ources, securities which officially dedicate the possession and ways of being as sociated with them. 15 These resources can be transformed from one to another. The fourth type of ca pital is symbolic capital. There is a prestige, a reputation that is associated with the possession of such capital. It is the social image and rituals related

to the four previous capital. Asceticism aristocratic these are activities that do not cost too much and that can take a distance (a feeling of taking a distanc e from the common). These are investments whose benefits come later. 4. The bour geoisie in decline. Parents are better than children, they are disillusioned peo ple (they have degrees but earn nothing). There is a total rejection of the comp any (the company does not want me, I do not want it). Others will reorient the f amily capital to small jobs or about non-academic (to be comfortable in society, pub ...). II: The petty bourgeoisie and the middle class. It is a class that ha s a cultural goodwill, a class that is not dominant but intermediate. She wants to invest in its children.€She has extensive knowledge of classical art. It diff ers from the vulgarity and love art for art. The declining middle class, wants a rise and has also a cultural goodwill. He is behaving according to social class . Habit: System acquired taste or provisions common to a set of agents that give s the same meaning to all of their practice. In addition, it is also a system of defining the world, based on categories roughly consistent and socially constru cted. The combination of these categories makes the world and socialized legible and meaningful to the agent, who found that consistency in the justification of its practices, which naturalized, fall in line with the obvious ("It's like tha t"). Habit Primary: The primary habitus is inculcated by the family and social c lass of origin. Secondary Habit: When added to the primary habitus, the habitus acquired through secondary school and professional activities in particular. The tastes and cultural practices are not dependent on each other, they form a syst em of alienation. For the upper classes, and others are behind them in advance. The location set of aesthetic criteria, is found in the upper middle class. Beha viors that are functional, applied to itself to exist in its class. The upper cl asses will try to show more at what others are rising, and this forever keep asi de. Uni => EMS fundamental differences is the distance to the need. Hexis (body) related to the habitus, the body hexis is a set of practical equipment, ways of standing, talking, walking ... These ways, naturalized in the logic of the habi tus, referring metaphorically to the categorical logic of the habitus and thereb y become the 16 sustainable ways of thinking and feeling. Hexis The body is the light in body habitus made. In other words, these provisions and equipment are not natural bu t socially constructed, make sense and keep their sense of social context and sy stem of representations that construct. The rational approach is due to this gap , the cultural practice is made to stand out. The groups share a large part of t heir habits, among others through assortative mating (due to choice of spouse in an environment similar to hers). In addition, our childhood, our own destiny we taught ("this is not for you"). It guides the direction of our own place, so it 's a division and mental conditioning. Social thought (Marx in the nineteenth century). He studied the capitalist society and concluded that it would lead itself to its loss. Four key concepts: 1. The mode of production. 2. The added value. 3. Alie nation. 4. Class. 1. This is an overview covering the productive forces (the man as a slave is the productive force in ancient times) and modes of production. S pecific combination of key elements of economic infrastructure (productive force s and production relations). The capitalist mode of production combines the mach inery, the worker's indirect relations with the tool and the wage.